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1) 1 1 



OF 



COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY, 

AT HARVARD COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE, MASS. 
jFouirtreto ft# prfbate subscription, fn 1861. 



No. %£/ 




TRANSACTIONS 

AND 

PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

§0pl Runty 0f fktnria. 

JANUARY TO DECEMBER, 1867. 

VOL. VIII. 

Edited under the Authority of the Council of the Society, 

BY 

The Honorary Secretary, THOS. H. RAWLINGS, Esq. 



THE AUTHORS OF THE SEVERAL PAPERS ARE SOLELY RESPONSIBLE FOR THE SOUNDNESS OF THE 
OPINIONS GIVEN AND FOR THE ACCURACY OF THE STATEMENTS MADE THEREIN. 



MELBOURNE : 
STILLWELL & KNIGHT, PKINTERS, 78, COLLINS STKEET EAST. 
$** Issued January, 1868. 



AGENTS TO THE SOCIETY. 

Williams and Norgate, 14, Henrietta Street, Covent Garden, London. 

To •whom communications for transmission to the Royal Society of "Victoria 

from all parts of Europe should be sent. 



PREFACE 



ERRATA. 

Page 253, note, dele, " Concerning the Treatment of those who differ from us 

in Opinion. By A.K.H.B." 
Page 254, note, dele, " Concerning the Treatment of those who differ from us 

in Opinion. By A.K.H.B." 
Page 255, line 11, for "with" read "in." 
Page 255, line 3 from bottom, for " effects," read "effect." 
Page 257, note, for " Longmans " read "Frazer's Magazine, March 1867.** 
Page 258, note, for "Longmans" read " Frazer's Magazine, March 1867." 
Page 258, note, for " 39," read "319." 

Page 259, note, for " Longmans " read ' < Frazer's Magazine, March 1867." 
Page 259, note, for " 39," read " 319." 

Page 260, note, for "Longmans" read "Frazer's Magazine, March 1867." 
Page 263, line 10 from bottom for "account" read "amount." 
Page 265, line 3, for "involuntary" read "necessitated." 
Page 265, line 5, dele "necessary." 



Many of the Papers in this volume are of a most 
important character, and all are valuable contributions to 
scientific literature. 

A Catalogue, carefully compiled by the Hon. Librarian, 
Dr. J. E. Neild, is appended to the Proceedings, together 
with a Report from the Curator (Mr. Harrison) on the 
present state of the Museum of the Society. 



ii Preface. 

A list of learned bodies with which the Royal Society of 
Victoria is in correspondence, and to whom the Transactions 
are forwarded, also appended, shows the immense circulation 
given to the Papers read before the Society, and affords some 
guarantee of the benefit Victoria must ultimately derive 
from the mass of information on all subjects appertaining 
to her Natural History being disseminated throughout the 
world. 

T. H. R. 

Royal Society of Victoria, 

Melbourne, December, 1867. 



CONTENTS of VOL. VIII. 



PAGES 

Office-Bearers, 1867 iii 

President's Address v— xix 



TRANSACTIONS, 1867. 

Art. I. Notes of a Geological Trip over the Coal Basin of 

New South Wales, by Mr. Thomas Harrison ... 1—11 
II. On the Theory of the Formation of Gold Nuggets in 

Drift, by Mr. C. Wilkinson 11—15 

III. On the Extraction of Gold, by Mr. H. A. Thompson 15—26 

IV. On a Patent Ear-trumpet and Stethoscope, invented 

by David Wilkinson, Esq 27-30 

V. Notes on Australian Coleoptera, by Count F. De 

Castelnau ... 31—38 

VI. Characteristic of an undescribed Senecio, from South 

Africa, by Ferd. Mueller, M.D., F.R.S 38—40 

VII. On the Decomposition of Pyrites, by Mr. Shiress, of 

Ballarat ... 41 

VIII. On Three New Victorian Birds, by Professor M'Coy 41 

IX. On the Discovery of Enaliosauria and other Creta- 
ceous Fossils in Australia, by Professor M'Coy ... 41—42 
X. A Contribution to Meteorology,' by Mr. G. W. 

Grover 43 

XI. On the Glacial Period in Australia, by the Rev. J. E. 

Tenison Woods, F.L.S , F.G.S., &c 43—47 

XII. The Manufacture of Paper from Native Plants, by 
J. Cosmo Newbery, B. Sc, Analyst of the Geo- 
logical Survey of Victoria 47—52 

XIII. On Colonial Wines, by the Rev. John J. Bleasdale, 

D.D., F.L.S., F.G.S 53-72 

XIV. On the Condition of the Blood after Death from 

Snake-bite, as a probable clue to the further study 
of Zymotic Diseases, and of Cholera especially, by 
George B, Halford, M.D 73—94 

XV. Notes on Australian Coleoptera, by Count F. De 

Castelnau 95—225 

XVI. Rubellite— Red Tourmaline— found at Tarrangower, 

Victoria, 1867, by the Rev. J. J. Bleasdale, D.D. 225—227 



viii Contents. 



PAGES 



Art. XVJI. On the Formation of Mineral Veins and the Deposit 
of Metallic Ores and Metals in them, by Mr. H. A. 

Thompson 228—249 

XVIII. The Ethics of Opinion and Action, by H. K. Rusden 249—266 
XIX. On the Species of Wombats, by Professor M'Coy ... 266—270 
XX. Further Observations on the Condition of the Blood 
after Death from Snake-bite, by George B. 
Halpord, M.D., Professor of Anatomy, Physiology, 
and Pathology in the University of Melbourne ... 271—273 
XXI. Notes on the Rev. J. E. Tenison Woods' paper " On 
the Glacial Epoch of Australia," by Julius Haast, 

Ph. D., F.R.S 273-278 

XXII. The Mineral Waters of Victoria, by J. Cosmo New- 
bery, B. Sc, Analyst to the Geological Survey of 
Victoria 278-283 

XXIII. On a Discovery for determining Danger of Collision 

in Vessels Crossing one another's Track, by Capt. 
C.J.Perry 284-288 

XXIV. On Purification of Water, by J. G. W. Dahlke, 

M.S.A.L., &c 289—294 

XXV. On a New Self-Registering Electrometer; or, Elec- 

trograph, by R. L. J. Ellery, Esq., President ... 294—300 
XXVI. Experiments on Mr. Julius Dahlke's Filter, by Mr. 

J. Cosmo Newbery 300—301 



Proceedings, 1867 305—330 

Catalogue of the Books 331-341 

Mr. Harrison's Report of the Museum 341—342 

List of Members 343—346 

List of Institutions exchanging Communications 347—349 




TRANSACTIONS 

AND 

PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

PAST I.-YOL. VIII. 

Edited under the Authority of the Council of the Society , 

BY 

The Honorary Secretary, THOS. H. RAWLINGS, Esq. 



THE AUTHORS OF THE SEVERAL, PAPERS ARE SOLELY RESPONSIBLE FOR THE SOUNDNESS OF THE 
OPINIONS GIVEN AND OF THE ACCURACY OF THE STATEMENTS MADE THEREIN. 



MELBOURNE : 

STILLWELL & KNIGHT, PEINTEES, 78, COLLINS STKEET EAST. 

Issued, May 1867. 



AGENTS TO THE SOCIETY. 

Williams and Norgate, 14, Henrietta Street, Covent Garden, London. 

To whom communications for transmission to the Royal Society of Victoria from all 

parts of Europe should be sent. 



$0gal Stfrieig of fflittaxm. 



Office Bearers, 1867. 



jjatemt 

HIS EXCELLENCY SIR J. H. T. MANNERS SUTTON, K.C.B. 

^xzsxbmt 

R, L. J. ELLERY, Esq. 

ffixw-^xmhmis. 

A. K, SMITH, Esq. | C. W. LIGAR, Esq. 

fJ0tt.' ^xzmuxzx, 

ROBERT WILLAN, Esq. 



fSmt. £ta*tatg. 

THOS. H. RAWLINGS, Esq. 



Jon. Ifttarian. 

DR. J. E. NIELD. 



jgm teios of djoflljctiiott. 

THOS. HARRISON, Esq. 



C. D'O. H. APLIN, ESQ. 
Dr. BARKER. 
WM. GILLBEE, Esq. 
PROFESSOR HALFORD. 
G. S. LANG, Esq. 
PROFESSOR M,COY. 



€amtxl 



S. W. McGOWAN, Esq. 
H. K. RUSDEN, Esq. 
T. E. RAWLINSON, Esq. 
H. A. THOMPSON, Esq. 
E. VON GUERARD, Esq. 
J. B. WERE, Esq. 



TRANSACTIONS 



§UrpI ^0r«tg of f kkxh 



Anniversary Address of the President, 
Mr. R. L. J. Ellery, F.RA.S., Government Astronomer. 

[Delivered to the Members of the Royal Society, at the Anniversary 
Meeting, held on the 4th March, 1867.] 

Your Excellency, and Gentlemen of the Royal 
. Society, 
We meet to-night to inaugurate a new session of the 
Royal Society of Victoria, the twelfth of its existence ; and 
as you have done me the great honour to re-elect me as your 
President, it now becomes my duty, according to custom, 
to address you on the past year's history and progress of our 
Society, and to briefly review the labours and progress of 
our public scientific institutions. 

During the session 1866, the Society held twelve ordinary 
meetings, at which were read fourteen original papers and 
communications. The first paper was a brief one by myself, 
" On Atmospheric Ozone," combined with some tables, the re- 
sults of observations in various parts of the colony. A paper 
was also read by Mr. Ligar, giving an account of the ex- 
traction of alcohol, sugar, and resin from the grass-tree. 



vi President's Address 

(or Xctnthorrhcea), in illustration of which samples of resin, 
spirit, and picric acid were exhibited. 

Mr. Bon wick's paper, entitled " The Volcanic Rocks 
of Rome and Victoria compared/' is the next one on the list. 
This was a most interesting communication, giving the 
results of Mr. Bon wick's observations during his late visit to 
Italy. Dr. Bleasdale next gave a short description of a new 
gem, now for the first time found in Victoria — the green 
sapphire, or Oriental emerald, discovered I believe in Gipps 
Land. A very valuable paper by Professor Halford comes 
next, it is " On the Absorption of Colouring Matter by the 
Blood," in which he gave the results of a long and careful 
series of experiments on this subject. 

At our next meeting an elaborate contribution to 
mathematical science, communicated by Chief Justice Cockle, 
of Queensland, was read by Sir Redmond Barry, " On Different 
Equations and Co-resolvents." I also contributed a short 
paper on " The Rainfall in Victoria." A paper by Mr. Thos. 
Harrison, on " A Geological Trip to the Coalfields of New 
South Wales," occupied our next sitting. Mr. C. Wilkinson's 
paper, " On the Theory of the Formation of Nuggets in the 
Drift," was received with considerable interest, and led to an 
animated discussion ; in illustration of this paper, which 
detailed some experiments made with relation to the 
behaviour of weak solution of chloride of gold in the presence 
of organic matter, Mr. Wilkinson exhibited specimens of quartz 
with pyrites, upon which gold from the solution had been 
deposited simply by the presence of organic matter. I may 
mention with relation to this paper, that further investi- 
gations of Mr. Wilkinson's theory are being made at the 
chemical laboratory of the Geological Survey, by Mr. Cosmo 
Newberry, who informs me that there are two points con- 
nected with it which appear to be settled : — 1st. That no 
metallic nucleus is necessary for the formation or growth of a 



for the year 1867. vii 

nugget, which may explain why the interior and exterior 
do not differ upon assay ; the second being, that gold in 
pyrites exists as metallic gold, not as sulphide. At the same 
meeting, Mr. H. A. Thompson read a valuable paper " On the 
Extraction of Gold from Pyrites." This communication 
was most deservedly received with great interest by your 
members, for the question of the economic separation of 
gold from the metallic sulphides, with which it is so largely 
associated in many of our reefs, is one of immense im- 
portance. It is, indeed, well known that very large 
quantities of gold are now lost to us, simply because of the 
difficulty, or almost impossibility, of separating it from 
pyrites by any economic method. A means whereby the 
pyrites could be made to yield anything near its assay value 
would, as Mr. Thompson has stated, soon raise our annual 
gold returns by a million sterling. Mr. Thompson, in this 
paper, describes the method which he has devised towards 
this important end as consisting in a first mechanical separa- 
tion of the pyrites from the quartz or other matrix by his 
peculiar form of percussion-table ; after which the pyrites 
is to be treated by a more refined method than could be 
adopted with economy without the first separation. 

The two last meetings of the session were occupied with 
" A new form of Ear-trumpet" by Mr. C. Wilkinson, which, by 
means of a double tube, the outer one insulating the inner 
one from the touch of the hand, is regarded as possessing a 
greater conductive power for the sound ; papers on " New 
Australian Coleoptera," communicated by that distinguished 
naturalist, Count Castelnau ; on " An undescribed species of 
Senecio, from South Africa," by Dr. Mueller ; and a com- 
munication from Mr. Shiress, of Sandhurst, " On a New 
Method of Decomposing Pyrites." 

It will be seen that the session has been one of con- 
siderable activity. Most of the papers, J feel assured, will 



viii President's Address 

form valuable contributions to the several branches of science 
to which they pertain. It is a matter for congratulation, 
moreover, that your members evince a most lively and 
increasing interest in all questions having reference to the 
development of the rescources and industries of our 
colony, and I need scarcely remind them that they can 
hardly take a nobler work in hand, or work in which there 
is yet so wide a space for progress and improvement. I 
may also congratulate the society on the prompt manner in 
which the Council's decision to print the Transactions at 
short intervals has been carried out. The 7th volume, 
already in the hands of members, brings us up to June, 1866, 
and Part I. of Volume VIII. is now in the press ; and I may 
add that it is fully intended that the papers and abstracts 
shall in future be published every three months. Copies of 
the last volume (Volume VII.) have been forwarded to the 
numerous scientific and literary bodies in Europe and 
America with which our Society is in communication, as 
well as to various institutions in this and the neighbouring 
colonies ; according to an old custom of this society copies 
have also been sent to Her Majesty the Queen and the 
Emperor of the French. 

You will be interested to learn that there are ninety-one 
learned societies in Europe and America with which we 
regularly interchange publications ; and it is not without 
some little pride that I hear from our honorary secretary 
of constant and eager requests from foreign societies, not 
already in communication with us, for copies of our Trans- 
actions. The contributions received from these foreign 
learned bodies are rapidly increasing our library with a most 
valuable, and for this part of the world unique, collection of 
books, a catalogue of which is now in course of preparation 
by your hon. librarian, Dr. Neild 

Our Natural History collections, too long buried in dark 



for the year 1867. ix 

boxes and drawers, where they were fast becoming de- 
stroyed, are at last restored to view, and by the zeal of 
the curator, Mr. Thos. Harrison, have been methodically 
arranged. 

The progress of this society is obviously closely associ- 
ated with that of our various national scientific establish- 
ments, and although I have no doubt that many who 
are now present have watched their labours with the live- 
liest interest, I have yet ventured to act on the opinion that 
a brief retrospect of the more prominent results of the last 
year's work will be acceptable in this place. 

In the last year's history of the botanical department, so 
ably directed by our distinguished member, Dr. Mueller, 
there are several interesting points which claim our notice. 
The president of the Linngean Society is now publishing a 
magnificent botanical work, in which Dr. Mueller is co- 
operative editor ; the third volume of this work has now 
been issued. Dr. Mueller's own work, the Fragmented 
Phytographioe Australis, has now attained its fifth volume, 
and promises, when the Fragmenta shall be combined, to 
become a complete compendium of the Australian flora. We 
are informed by Dr. Mueller that accurate measurements of 
some of the great Australian Eucalypti have been made. One 
grand specimen in Western Australia, known as Mueller's 
Eucalyptus colossa, is ascertained to be 400 feet high ; 
while one of Labillardier's Eucalyptus a^mygdalina, in the 
Dandenong Ranges, measured 480 feet, which is as high as 
the great pyramid of Gizah. Victorian trees of this 
character are as yet the only ones which have been found to 
rival the Californian Wellingtonia gigantea. In my last 
address your attention was drawn to the introduction 
into this colony of the cinchona. There are now thousands 
of individuals of two of the most valuable kinds, viz., the 
G Succirubra and G Gondaminea, thriving in the Botanical 



x President's Address 

gardens, which, with plants of the coffee, tea, and cork oaks, 
the Government botanist is anxious should be fairly tried 
in our fern-tree gullies. The great value and importance of 
acclimatising such plants as these in the colony can scarcely 
be over-estimated, and I am sure you will all join me in 
a hearty wish that the requisite support will be afforded to 
this undertaking, and that the effort will be rewarded with 
complete success. 

The phyto-chemical laboratory, not long since established 
in the Botanical department, has set vigorously to work 
in the vast field of research before it. An examination into 
materials likely to be available for paper-making has been 
commenced, and the Government botanist informs us 
that over thirty different varieties of fibre suitable for this 
purpose have already been found ; included in this list 
is the well-known stringy-bark, from which a fair writing 
paper has been made. Investigations into the amount and 
quality of wood spirit and vinegar in many of our common 
. trees, the conversion of some of the products into dyes 
and mordaunts, the determination of the amounts of potash 
and tannin in many plants and trees, and an examination 
into the resins and picric acid products of the different 
species of Xcmtkorrhcea or grass-tree are prominent among the 
subjects that have occupied this branch of the Botanical 
department during the last year. 

Turning from botany to palseontology, we are informed 
of important discoveries in the rocks of this colony, the 
most interesting of which is doubtless that of a species of 
Squalodon (or Phocodon of Agassiz), closely related to the 
famous Phocodon Scillse of the Malta beds, and still more 
nearly related to the Phocodon (Squalodon) gratiloupi (Meyer) 
of the French miocene tertiary beds, near Bordeaux. Professor 
M'Coy names the Victorian species, which occurs in the 
tertiary sands of Cape Otway, after the young geologist 



for the year 1867. xi 

who found it, Phocodon (Squalodon) Wilkinsonii (M'Coy). 
This most singular occurrence of a highly characteristic 
European miocene tertiary genus of mammal strongly con- 
firms Professor M'Coy's previous classification of the similar 
beds of our coast or lower miocene. In these beds he also 
recognizes the teeth of extinct species of fish, identical with 
lower miocene and upper eocene formations in Europe and 
North America, such as Charcarodon megalodon, Charcaro- 
don angustidens, Oxyrhina Desori, &c. A great number of 
new species of extinct Yoluta, Cyproea, &c, have been cha- 
racterised by the same writer from these beds during the 
year, and great interest is expressed in the European 
journals at his discovery of two species of Trigonia in the 
tertiary formation at Schnapper Point, Spring Creek, and 
near Geelong. The abundance of species of this genus in 
the mesozoic formations in various parts of the world, its 
occurrence in the recent seas of Australia, but not occurring 
in the intermediate tertiary formation has long been a 
curious geological puzzle, now solved by the discovery of 
the Trigonia acuticostata (M'Coy), and Trig, semiundulata 
in our miocene tertiary deposits. Both the species are of 
additional interest on account of being distinct from the 
recent forms. 

Beyond the bounds of our colony, however, at the head of 
the Flinders, in the same rocks which Professor M'Coy 
proved last year to mark the cretaceous period in Australia, 
a still more important discovery has recently been made by 
this gentleman, of bones of the Enaliosaurian genera, so 
peculiarly mesozoic as to confirm in a marked manner his 
previous determinatians (contrary to the received notion of 
all geologists) of the occurrence of formations of this age in 
Australia. These are a large new species of Ichthyosaurus, 
Ichthyos. Australis (M'Coy), and two large new species of 
Plesiosaurus, P. macrospondylus (M'Coy) and P. Sutherlandi 



xii President's Address 

(M'Coy), the latter named after the donor of the specimen 
to the National Museum. With these a new Ancylocorus, A. 
Flindersii (M'Coy), of the size and shape of the A. gigas of 
the Isle of Wight greensand, and a new Belemnite, B. diptycha 
(M'Coy), closely related to some belemnites of the English, 
French, and German lower chalk, are found, confirming the 
original suggestions published in our Transactions of the 
lower cretaceous age of these beds. 

Another important palseontological addition to the geolo- 
gical formations previously known in the colony is Pro- 
fessor M 'Coy's determination of the Devonian or old red sand- 
stone age of the Buchan limestones, in which among other 
Devonian fossils Spirifera Isevi costa and Placodermatous fish 
occur. 

As a subject allied to the branch of science I have just 
alluded to, I will call to your remembrance a somewhat 
animated controversy, both inside and outside these walls, 
which took place about two years ago, concerning some 
myological and other typical distinctions between man 
and the apes. Professor Halford's paper on the subject is 
printed in your Transactions. A great writer on this and 
kindred subjects, Professor Gratiolet, of Paris, who died early 
in 1 865, has given his opinion against Professor Huxley's 
views, and therefore, in confirmation of some of Professor 
Halford's conclusions. He says : — " The anatomical exami- 
nation of the chimpanzee reveals the most profound and 
really typical differences between man and the most ele- 
vated apes." He further states : — ' The facts upon which I 
insist permit me to affirm, with a conviction founded on a 
personal and attentive study of all at present known, that 
anatomy gives no grounds for the idea, so violently defended 
now-a-days, of a close relationship between man and ape. 
One may invoke in vain some ancient skulls, evident 
monstrosities, found by chance, such as that of Neanderthal, 



for the year 1867. xiii 

and here and there similiar forms may now be found — - 
they belong to idiots. One of these was discovered a few 
years ago by Dr. Binder, who, at the request of M. Mace'' 
presented it to me. It is now in the collection belonging to 
the museum. It will henceforth be counted among the ele- 
ments of the great discussion on the nature of man which 
now agitates philosophers and troubles consciences ; out of 
which discussion, some day, the divine majesty of man 
shall arise consecrated by combat, and ever henceforth be 
inviolable and triumphant." 

Our observatory has been occupied with its accustomed 
work in astronomy, terrestrial magnetism, meteorology, and 
collateral branches of physical science. The most im- 
portant amongst the subjects that have engaged its attention 
during the past year is the Melbourne share of the survey 
of the southern heavens. The objects of this undertaking 
I fully explained to you in my last address, when I also 
mentioned that our observatory had been selected as one of 
three British observatories to which this most important 
work should be entrusted. Our portion of this survey was 
commenced about twelve months ago, and has progressed 
steadily ever since. At the end of the year the positions 
and magnitudes of over ] 0,000 stars had been catalogued. 

The second volume of Astronomical Observations has 
been published ; it contains the results of the astronomical 
work of the observatory from the time of its removal from 
Williamstown in June, 1863, until the end of 1865. A 
complete set of magnetographs has been constructed in 
London and verified at Kew for this observatory ; they are 
expected to arrive daily. These instruments are of a form 
now accepted as the standard one, at least in all British ob- 
servatories ; they will be self-registering by means of 
photography, so that the time, direction, and amount of 
variation of the force of terrestrial magnetism will be con- 



xiv President's Address 

tinuously depicted on paper, thus securing a record that is 
incomparably more complete than is attainable by the 
ordinary way of observing. 

The Great Southern Telescope, which is now approaching 
completion may be expected in the course of a few months. 
The last accounts received were that the great specula had 
been successfully cast, and the tube and heavy mechanism 
were in a forward state. There can be little doubt that this 
telescope will be one of the best, if not the best, reflector in 
the world. 

The geological survey has steadily advanced with its 
work, and several more of these beautiful and complete 
geological maps have been issued during the year. 

In the geodetic survey, the principal point of interest is 
the extension of the primary triangulation into the out- 
lying districts in the north-east. Mount Feathertop, Mount 
Gibbo, the Buffalo and Bogong ranges being the last con- 
nected ; while in the east of Gippsland, Mount Baldhead and 
Mount Taylor mark the progress in that direction. 

There have been some important additions to our geo- 
graphical knowledge of Australia since inaugurating our 
last session ; prominent among which I may mention Delis- 
ser's examination of a large tract of country in the Great 
Australian Bight, were he has found extensive areas of ex- 
cellent land for pastoral purposes ; Warburton's exploratory 
survey from Neale's River ; and Hunt's reconnaisance of 
the country east of the settled districts of Western Aus- 
tralia. M'Intyre, too, who unfortunately fell a victim to 
fever while leading the Ladies' Leichardt Search Expedition, 
has added largely to our knowledge of the country east of 
M'Kinlay's track. 

After the loss of two of its leaders in succession, the Ladies' 
Expedition is again in the field, under the leadership of Mr. 
Barnett of Sandhurst. It is now directing its search and 



for the year 1867. v 

exploration to the south-west, the rumour of the existence of 
white people among the Carpentaria tribes having been 
found to be without foundation. 

As regards the progress of arts and manufactures in this 
and the other Australian colonies, I think I scarcely need 
speak. The Intercolonial Exhibition has fully informed us 
of the rapid strides the Australians have made during the last 
few years, especially in the mechanical arts and manu- 
factures. 

To pass in review the many interesting and im- 
portant results of the progress of science and art in the 
Western world, would, I fear, occupy far more time than I 
have now left to keep my address within the orthodox 
limits. I must, therefore, pass over with simple mention 
that grand achievement, the successful laying of the 
Atlantic cable ; the new method of obtaining dynamic 
electricity in almost unlimited quantity, by Mr. Wild's 
invention ; the researches of Dr. Frankland into the che- 
mistry of food and assimilation ; Dr. Richardson's mode of 
producing insensibility to pain by refrigeration with ether 
spray ; and the various contributions to our knowledge of 
solar physics, astronomy, spectrum analysis, geology, che- 
mistry, and other branches of science. 

I would, however, with your permission, dwell for a few 
minutes on the subject of that splendid phenomenon, 
the meteor-shower of November last. It will be in the 
memory of some of the members that, at a meeting in 
October, I informed those present that a most unusual 
fall of meteors was looked for on the night of the 13th 
or 14th of November, but that it was anticipated to 
occur principally on the western portion of the earth's 
surface ; yet we might, if the sky were clear, witness an 
unusual number in these regions. Unfortunately, the even- 
ings and nights of both the 13th and 14th were cloudy, but 



xvi President's Address 

had they been clear it is doubtful if we should have 
seen anything very unusual, as I have since learned that 
this part of the globe must have passed the portion of 
space occupied by the node of these bodies before 
their arrival there. It was, therefore, reserved for the 
western world to witness the stupendous spectacle presented 
on this occasion. 

The origin of meteors, or falling stars, has for a long 
period been a subject of conjecture and speculation, and 
I have no doubt many of you are acquainted with the 
various theories that have been entertained on this point at 
one time and another. The recurrence of unusual numbers 
of meteors, or meteoric storms, as they are called, at certain 
nearly equal periods, however, has been the means of 
directing the attention of many great investigators to 
the subject. It was formerly thought — and this not so very 
many years ago — that the interplanetary spaces were occu- 
pied only by that mysterious medium called ether • the 
discovery, one b} T one, of the planetoids, now numbering 
ninety, between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, however, led 
to the conjecture years ago that these spaces may yet 
be tenanted by masses of matter too minute to reflect 
sufficient light to be visible by the most penetrating tele- 
scopes yet made. Subsequently, the belief that meteors 
were minute masses of planetary matter became pretty 
general among astronomers. The occurrence of a meteoric 
shower in 1833, which is the last that occurred before 
the November one, induced Oldsted, who compared the 
account of a similar phenomenon seen by Humboldt and 
Bonplan in 1799, to adopt the theory— which this last 
shower so fully confirms — that these meteoric storms are 
due to the passages of the earth through a mass of these 
atoms of matter, which appear to be congregated into a ring, 
that intersects the earth's orbit. We can scarcely now 



for the year 1867. xvii 

watch the sky on a clear night without witnessing several of 
these shooting stars, and it is estimated that each portion of 
space the size of the earth and in the neighbourhood of its 
orbit contains, at least, 13,000 of these bodies, and that 
could all, large and small, that enter our atmosphere in 
every twenty-four hours be counted they would not be 
less than, 400,000,000. It nevertheless seems now to be 
satisfactorily established, that the bulk of these bodies 
is congregated in rings, like rings of dust, as it were, 
each little particle of which it is composed revolving about 
the sun like a miniature planet. The existence of two such 
rings is now considered to be satisfactorily proved, one 
intersecting the plane of the earth's orbit in August, with an 
inclination of 79 deg., the other in November, with an angle 
of J 7 deg. It further appears that portions of these rings or 
meteor orbits are denser than others ; and that there 
are immensely more numerous particles crowded together in 
particular parts. These rings are now known as the August 
and November rings, from their nodes being respectively in 
those parts of the ecliptic occupied by the earth in those 
months. The motion of the constituent particles of these 
rings is in a contrary direction to that of the earth, so 
that we always meet them. 

It is to the investigations of Professor Newton, of 
America, that we owe most of what is known of the 
November ring, and he concludes the probable time of 
revolution of these rings around the sun to be 354 6 days, 
our period being 365*25 days. From this it follows that 
the earth will come into contact with the centre group (or 
any other particular part of the ring) once in every 133 
years. He also states that we shall come very near to the 
centre of the dense group every thirty-three years. The 
shower commenced about eleven at night on the 13th — that 
is, meteors were seen in great numbers ; but from midnight 

A 



xviii Presidents Address 

till after two o'olock on the morning of the 14th the heavens 
were alive with a rain of fire. I before mentioned that these 
rings revolve in an opposite direction to the earth, con- 
sequently, she met the meteors in 'full tilt.' The earth 
moving at the rate of 1,000 miles a minute, meets them coming 
towards her at the same rate at first, but long before they come 
into view attaining a speed of 1,200 miles a minute. They 
all appeared to come from one point in the sky, a point in 
the constellation Leo, and as some writers state, " at times 
appeared to belt the sky like meridians on a terrestrial 
globe." 

The occasion of the November shower must, therefore, be 
attributed to the earth's meeting the dense portion of the 
November ring exactly as it was rising through the plane of 
the ecliptic, and from what I have already mentioned, it ap- 
pears that a similar phenomenon will not occur again to any 
part of the earth's surface till 1899. Mr. Alexander 
Herschell, one of the highest authorities on this subject, 
gives, as the result of his observations and deductions of the 
meteor-fall of August, the weights and spectrum analyses of 
many of these bodies. Some, he says, do not exceed two 
grains, and not one in twenty exceeds a pound in weight, 
It seems almost impossible that a particle only weighing 
two grains should, at a distance of from fifty-four to 
seventy-four miles, which is ascertained to be the distances at 
which these bodies first become visible to us, be capable of 
producing the brilliant effects presented ; but it must be 
borne in mind the immense velocity they have, and that 
this velocity becomes converted into heat when checked by 
resistance. A single grain of matter moving thirty miles 
per second represents a dynamical energy of 55*675 foot 
pounds ; this energy becomes converted into heat imme- 
diately the meteoric particle enters our atmosphere, of suffi- 
cient intensity to produce the luminous appearance with 



for the year 1867. xix 

which they are accompanied, e^ven should they enter it 
intensely cold. 

The examination of the light of these meteors, by means 
of the spectroscope, indicates the presence of sodium in 
their constitution to a large extent, while some appear to be 
entirely gaseous. 

In conclusion, I must for one moment return to the affairs 
of your Society. The present session already promises well, 
and I trust that your next president will be able to revert 
to it with even more gratification than I have now reviewed 
your past one. I would urge all members who are engaged 
in scientific research, in observing, collecting, or occupied 
with manufactures or mechanical arts, to communicate to 
this Society as often as they can the results or description of 
their labours ; for I believe I am justified in saying that the 
Transactions of the Royal Society, so widely distributed as 
they are, will form one of the most valuable and reliable 
means of making known to the world the intellectual and 
material progress of the colony of Victoria. 



Art. I. — Notes of a Geological Trip over the Goal Basin of 
New South Wales. By Mr. Thomas Harrison. 

[Read 9th July, 1866.] 

I need not tell those who have visited the spot that the 
harbour of Port Jackson is one of the loveliest sheets of sea 
water in this quarter of the globe. It • is not, however, so 
generally known that there are many other inlets along the 
New South Wales coast line the features of which, although 
falling somewhat short in point of beauty, nevertheless bear 
a strong family likeness to those witnessed in the immediate 
vicinity of the sister metropolis. Each of these is distin- 
guished by bold beetling cliffs, jutting promontories, is often 
almost landlocked ; and has one or two nearly barren but 
fairy-like islands reposing on its bosom. Such are Broken 
Bay, Shoal Haven, and Pitt Water. They are all, in fact, 
due to the same cause, that is, the wearing, by waves and 
other forces of the sandstone of the district into miniature 
gulfs and inlets, and are therefore found at intervals along 
the entire line of coast bounding this particular geological 
formation. This formation extends from Sydney inland to 
some little distance westward of Mount Victoria on the 
Bathurst-road. Longitudinally the same is marked upon the 
map affixed to Count Strezelecki's Physical Description of 
New South Wales, as stretching from the north near New- 
castle to the south near Jarvis Bay ; but detached portions 
of the same rocks would appear to be found at points very 
much nearer to Cape Howe, since the Pigeon House is de- 
scribed by Mr. Clarke as being an undenuded outlier, resting 
as I suppose upon granite. As the widest part of the forma- 
tion is about its centre the configuration of the whole 
resembles an irregular oval, of which the conjugate and 
transverse diameters run respectively from Maitland to the 
Kangaroo River and from Broken Bay to Hartley. 

The line of route taken during the trip I am about to 
describe was to the last-named locality, lying about eighty 



2 Goal Basin of New South Wales. 

miles from Sydney, and afterwards along the coast to New- 
castle, and from thence to Maitland and Stony Creek by 
railway. 

The first forty miles of the former journey is made by 
train on the Great Western line as far as Penrith, and thence 
by coach over the Blue Mountains. What I may term the 
civilized part of the road to Hartley, that is, the distance 
lying between the terminus of the railway at Sydney and 
the one at Penrith, does not arrest the attention by any very 
striking features. The country round never rises above 
nor seems to fall much beneath mere mediocrity. It is 
slightly undulating, seems moderately green and fertile, with 
neither any very wide extent of woods, of open country, of 
cultivated spots, or of barren regions. Its general appear- 
ance is of a mixed description. It is everything — that is 
everything Australian — by turns, and nothing long. Here 
a bit like the Plains of the Werribee, a mile or two remind- 
ing one of the wooded region on the line to Ballarat, a valley 
— only on a more minute scale — such as those of the Barra- 
bools, with a farm or two, a station or two, and any quantity 
of public-houses thrown in wherever there appears a valid 
excuse for building one ; and save that there are some orange 
groves and churches of a nondescript style of architecture at 
Parramatta, there is literally nothing else worthy of notice 
for over two score miles. 

Of course the rocks are of the carboniferous age, and 
belong so far to the Wianamatta Beds. According to Mr. 
Clarke these beds consist of brownish, greenish, or grey and 
yellowish nodular or ferruginous shales ; light or dark 
colored grits or sandstones, very calcareous, and charged with 
ironstone nodules. They are the uppermost beds of the 
series, and appear to contain some few, but very thin, seams 
of coal. Their outline, as seen on the map, is of an oval 
form, and their extent is about that of the county of Cum- 
berland, nearly the whole of which is occupied by them. 

From Penrith the remainder of the journey is made by 
coach. The first few miles is over what are termed the 
Emu Plains, a flat extent of country, but whether the result 
of deposits of alluvial or of a regular planing down of the 
surface by aqueous agency, was not easily discernible during 
our passage over it in the twilight. These plains are ter- 
minated by the River Nepean, a tolerably broad stream, and, 
crossing this, one is speedily at the foot of the celebrated 
Lapstone Hill, geologically in the area of the Hawkesbury 



Goal Basin of New South Wales. 3 

Rocks, and literally in the region of wayside public-houses, 
innumerable teams of weary horses, barrenness, bad roads, 
and bushrangers. I am not going to describe the forty miles 
of turnpike — for such it was — thus gone over, although, 
from the quantity of sand everywhere, the description might 
prove not altogether impertinent to such a paper ; and 
although the time of traversing the same occupied ten hours, 
or as I believed at the period rather more than double that 
number of geological epochs of your explorer's life. And all 
this time was one incessant series of jolts and tumbles, 
varied sometimes by the coach standing as I fancied on its 
head and at others turning a somerset. I think I left much 
as Philip Vanderdecken may probably feel when he has 
vainly essayed doubling the Cape until he sees the South 
Pacific gradually dry into another Sahara, that all the while 
causesdhim to pitch and toss for ever over waves of sand, 
for the road everywhere was sand and nothing eke, and 
over ridges of this like waves, and down into valley-like 
hollows, we surged and tumbled through the hours, or 
through the epoch, until gladdened by the sight of the 
Valley of Hartley at break of day. 

This valley, as is the case with all other valleys of the 
district, is of a most interesting character. There is a tolerably 
level portion at the bottom, mostly thickly timbered, then a 
steep slope covered by gigantic trees, above which the upper 
portion of the valley's side is seen to rise in an almost per- 
pendicular wall of rock, which often runs on in an almost 
unbroken line for many miles. Along the top of this wall- 
like conformation there is almost a continuous level super- 
ficies ; but this although of tolerably even surface is of ex- 
ceedingly irregular outline. There are tongues of land that 
run out into the valleys like promontories, and narrow necks 
that seem as it were isthmuses. Anon and you see a de- 
tached hill with its level top also looking like an island, or 
the valley opens into a wide-spread gulf with branching arms 
of the most fantastic shape. Raise Sydney Harbour and the 
Parramatta River into dry land and you will have one of the 
valleys described, or sink the valley so that it may be flooded 
with sea water, and straightway you will have an exagge- 
rated representation of one and all of the romantic inlets of 
the eastern coast. 

The shore line from Sydney to Newcastle is, for the most 
part, wild and rugged, and is fringed with one or two 
romantic-looking rocky islands, lving a mile or two out to 

B 2 



4 Coal Basin of Neiv South Wales. 

sea. The cliffs near Newcastle are precipitous, and the 
" Nobbies " standing at the mouth of the Hunter has an 
especially escarped appearance, but nothing, not an absolute 
bowling-green, can be natter than the country bordering 
the same river as far as Maitland. The whole is one wide- 
spread plain of fertile alluvial, out of which rise a few 
rounded hillocks of carboniferous rocks left undenuded. A 
more striking contrast to the country near Hartley can 
scarcely be conceived. The two districts severally display 
examples of one and the same geological formation, acted 
upon by different natural forces. The results witnessed are, 
as I think, precisely what the student of geology may expect 
to find under the circumstances of the case. 



THE STRATA. 

The rocks spread over the whole of the districts described 
have a strong family likeness not only to each other but to 
similar deposits in Tasmania and in Victoria. With our- 
selves the lower beds of the series do not appear to have 
been reached, but in Tasmania, in consequence of great 
volcanic disturbances, the entire group can be examined from 
top to bottom. We have, for instance, near Hobart Town, 
in a descending order, sandstone with coal seams and shales, 
claystone and limestone full of fossils. In New South 
Wales, near Sydney, and in the centre of the deposit nothing 
but sandstones are visible ; but at Newcastle the edge of the 
basin towards the north, and at Wollongong the like 
edge towards the south, the equivalent of the Tasmanian 
limestone is met with, similar in position, at the bottom of 
the series, containing fossils in every respect like those in 
the Hobart Town beds, only that it appears to be much less 
calcareous. Coal, however, appears to lie at a greater depth 
in the New South Wales than in the Tasmanian basin, since 
in the latter no seams of coal or even of coal shale are dug 
below where the claystone — 400 feet in thickness — com- 
mences, whilst at Newcastle coal is profitably worked only 
a few feet over, if not actually below, portions of the lime- 
stone itself. 

At Hartley only a very few shafts and borings have been 
attempted ; the series has not, therefore, been examined to 
its entire depth in this locality. Only a few miles further 
west, however, granite is found to crop out, and to form the 
base of hills, the tops of which are of the generally prevalent 



Goal Basin of New South Wales. 5 

sandstone. The fossiliferous limestone or its equivalent is at 
this spot shown to be absent, not even the silurian strata 
intervening between the sandstone and the crystalline rocks. 
This fact, taken with the circumstance that limestone forms 
the base of the series in Tasmania, at Newcastle, and at 
Wollongong, goes in some measure to point out the con- 
ditions under which the entire formation came to be 
deposited, viz., that after the laying down of the limestone 
there existed, hereabouts, a gradually sinking sea bottom, 
since the circumstance that no limestone is found reposing 
upon the granite shows that at the time of the limestone's for- 
mation the granite must have existed in the form of islands, 
afterwards so far submerged as to allow of a subsequent 
thick layer of sandstone being thrown down upon them. 

I had neither time nor opportunity to explore personally 
these deposits, but what fossils obtained from them were 
shown me in private collections, were found to resemble in 
the most striking manner similar organic remains which I 
had met with near Hobart Town, and consisted for the most 
part of Fenestella Producta, Terebratulidoe, Conularm, and 
Orthoceratites. I may mention that at Eaymond-terrace and 
also at Illawarra Terebratula hastata is mentioned by 
Stezelecki as a common fossil, one which Mr. Geikie, in his 
" Story of a Boulder," speaks of as occurring at depths of 
not more than 50 fathoms ; here then, if the latter assertion 
is correct, is something like reliable data by which the 
maximum depth of the sea hereabouts during the limestone 
era, may be approximately arrived at. 

A paper professing to treat of the geological features of 
the Hartley, Newcastle, and Wollongong districts would be 
manifestly incomplete, if no allusion were made to the 
large deposits of bituminous shale met with in each of these 
localities. That of Hartley is, at present, for the most part 
obtained from one of the valleys of the Blue Mountains, pre- 
viously alluded to, termed Petrolia Vale. The deposit occu- 
pies the very bottom of the slope of the two sides of the 
valley, and probably once extended, if it does not now 
extend, completely across the intervening flat, made up of 
alluvial accumulations. On the western slope it is seen to 
crop out at the surface, and is procured by driving a tunnel 
into the hill side, but on the opposite side of the valley it is 
only reached by means of a shaft some thirty feet in depth. 
The seam here hit upon is of exceeding richness, yielding 
over 1 60 gallons of crude oil to the ton. In its purest state 



6 Goal Basin of New South Wales. 

the mineral has a texture somewhat like very closely 
grained wood, and breaks with a conchoidal fracture, but the 
seams do not appear to be of equal richness throughout any 
very great area. The small specimens which were obtained 
from a boring near Mount Victoria show considerable 
diversity in the same seam, and that within a very short dis- 
tance. The richest of these does not even approach in worth 
that of the main seam, but as they fell into my hands imme- 
diately after having been brought up by the borer, and as 
they illustrate the variations met with I elected to 
exhibit them. The seams, although compact from top to 
bottom, are divided by perpendicular fissures into huge 
blocks, which divisions would seem to indicate that after 
deposition considerable shrinkage has taken place. Both 
above and below the seam are found layers of fireclay, and 
also strata of shale, much more impure than is the 
main seam, but containing large quantities of bituminous 
matter and highly inflammable. What is regarded as the 
equivalent deposits of the Hartley shales at Stony Creek, 
near Maitland, have almost the appearance of cannel coal, 
yielding a dense black oil of nearly the consistence of gas 
tar. The shales at American Creek, near Wollongong, are 
often nearly as soft as leather, can be cut into flakes with a 
knife, and the liquid yielded by distillation resembles a 
purely vegetable oil. 

In writing of the New South Wales' coal measures, in his 
" Southern Gold-fields," the Kev. W. B. Clarke says : 
" Conglomerates of the carboniferous beds have been found 
by me occasionally auriferous — that is, pebbles in the rock 
have contained visible gold. Such I have mentioned as 
occurring on the north shore of Sydney Harbour, where I 
have collected some dozen specimens. But I consider these 
to have no commercial value, and, therefore, to have no 
bearing except in a geological point of view ; they merely 
tend to show that the opinions of certain distinguished 
geologists in Europe, respecting the age of the gold, are not 
always applicable/' This statement is of especial interest to 
ourselves at present, since the Victorian Government geolo- 
gist has lately propounded a theory, that all quartz drifts 
found in the miocene are non-auriferous, and that the Vic- 
torian quartz reefs were not formed, or being formed were not 
impregnated with auriferous particles, until the pliocene 
period. Mr. Selwyn is, I think, too great a lover of facts not 
to duly appreciatethisone, coming from so reliable an authority 



Coal Basin of New South Wales. 7 

as Mr. Clarke. The circumstance of auriferous drifts not being 
found in miocene beds is a species of negative evidence that 
must undoubtedly yield before a solitary specimen positively 
instancing the direct converse. The actual existence of gold 
at the very earliest times would appear to be clearly 
proven. Whether its formation was gradual, extending 
over a long period, and developed in different areas at 
different dates, is another question. A few isolated reefs 
may have been thrown up previous to the mesozoic ages, 
and the great majority of them may have had no existence 
until just previous to the advent of man himself. There is 
one circumstance in some way seeming to bear upon Mr. 
Selwyn's theory, which ought not to be passed over. At 
Keilor, Flemington, near Ivanhoe, and in many other por- 
tions of the colony, quantities of an immensely hard tertiary 
rock are met with. The formation is evidently the result of 
some large out-pouring of water, highly charged with sili- 
cious matter. Now grant, as many suppose, that quartz 
reefs are of aqueous origin, and the result would be that the 
springs forming them would escape from their respective 
fissures, still strongly charged with silica, which would be 
speedily deposited as a matter of course. Can it be that 
the beds referred to are traceable to such a source ; if so, 
then the quartz is clearly of tertiary origin, since the silicious 
deposits of which I speak contain leaves and plants, which I 
believe are pronounced by the Government botanist, Dr. 
Mueller, to be of not earlier than the miocene period ? 

A careful study, however, of the carboniferous rocks of 
New South Wales will, I think, suggest a reason other than 
that of the modern origin of gold, why our miocene rocks 
are not auriferous. They, the carboniferous beds, have 
everywhere been subjected to immense denuding forces. 
They once extended over an area much greater than that 
which they at present occupy. The rocks of Western Port, 
of Cape Otway, of North Gipps Land, Arapiles, and Mans- 
field, are probably their equivalents, and very possibly their 
outliers. Victoria, in fact, as I am informed, is pretty 
thickly studded over with isolated patches, which seem to 
show that such rocks once covered by a thick layer the 
major part of the entire colony. The rough section before 
you shows Mr. Selwyn's views relative to this matter, and 
by this it will be seen that a vast dome of sandstone, since 
swept away, extended from North Gipps Land to the Gram- 
pians. Now, whilst this dome remained still intact no 



8 Goal Basin of New South Wales. 

denudation of silurian rocks, or of their contained quartz 
veins, could possibly take place ; and the miocene rocks 
generally bear strong evidence of being derived rather from 
the mesozoic — that is, the carboniferous shales and sand- 
stones, than from the older rocks. The pliocene beds, on the 
other hand, contain the refuse of silurian rocks in great 
abundance. Hence the non-auriferous character of the 
former, and the rich gold deposits found exclusively in the 
latter. You cannot very well divest a man of his shirt 
"whilst he is still wrapped up in his overcoat. The older 
rocks of Victoria probably enjoyed an immunity from 
denudation in the miocene period from a somewhat similar 
reason ; they were at that time covered to a thickness of 
many hundred feet by the lower mesozoic and the upper 
palaeozoic deposits. I put forward this bit of theorizing 
with the utmost diffidence — a diffidence which would be 
still greater only that I find my own views upon the subject 
are identical with those of more than one geologist, whose 
acquaintance with Victorian strata is by no means con- 
temptible. 

But then again it must be conceded that there are some 
few places, as on the beach near St. Kilda, where patches of 
what seem to be miocene repose immediately upon silurian 
strata — a fact somewhat militating the theory just laid 
down of the older rocks being covered by carboniferous beds 
during the earlier tertiary period. 

I trust that this attempt to illustrate a fact in Victorian 
geology, by the phenomena observed in an adjacent colony, 
will not be deemed an unpardonable digression. I trust 
also that I have stated the case with all fairness, for I assure 
you that, equally with Mr. Selwyn and your Society, I am 
only desirous of eliciting the truth. 

DENUDATION. 

I come, in the last place, to what is perhaps the most 
interesting feature of the sandstone formation of New South 
Wales — viz., the very remarkable manner in which the 
strata have been worn into deep valleys and gorges, pre- 
senting phenomena unparalleled in any other portion of the 
world. 

The denudation that has taken place near Newcastle, 
where the surface has been literally planed down by aqueous 
agency, presents but few difficulties. The phenomena wit- 



Coal Basin of New South Wales. 9 

nessed are just such as might result from powerful ocean 
currents passing over masses of rather friable sandstone. 
Similarly we are not startled to see, worn as they are, the 
valleys of the Barrabools, nor is it beyond the bounds of 
probability to conceive the vast sandstone dome removed 
from the centre of Victoria by long-continued oceanic action. 
The destruction, too, of the cliffs near Syduey is only what might 
be reasonably expected from the enormous billows which 
almost constantly break upon the shore in that locality. The 
geologist, however, is not a little surprised to find cliffs 
similar to those of Port Jackson eighty miles inland. 
Speaking of one of these in the vicinity of the Weather- 
board, Mr. Darwin says : " The country here is elevated 
2,800 feet above the sea. About a mile and a half from this 
place there is a view exceedingly well worth visiting. Fol- 
lowing down a little valley, and its tiny rill of water, an 
immense gulf unexpectedly opens through the trees which 
border the pathway, at a depth of perhaps 1,500 feet. 
Walking on a few yards, one stands on the brink of a vast 
precipice, and below one sees a grand bay or gulf — for I 
know not what other name to give it — thickly covered with 
forest. The point of view is situated as if at the head of a 
bay, the line of cliff diverging on each side, and showing 
headland after headland, as on a bold sea-coast." And, 
again : '• Great arm-like bays, expanding at their upper 
ends, often branch from the main valleys and penetrate the 
sandstone platform ; on the other hand, the platform often 
sends promontories into the valleys, and even leaves in them 
great, almost, insulated, masses." 

In attempting an explanation of the phenomenon, Mr. 
Darwin further says : " The first impression, on seeing the 
correspondence of the horizontal strata on each side of these 
valleys and great amphitheatrical depressions, is that they have 
been hollowed out, like other valleys, by the action of 
water ; but when one reflects on the enormous amount of 
stone, which on this view must have been removed through 
mere gorges in chasms, (for the valleys many miles in 
breadth at their heads often contract to not more than 2,000 
yards at their mouths,) one is led to ask whether the spaces 
may not have subsided. But considering the form of the 
irregularly branching valleys, and of the narrow promontories 
projecting into them from the platforms, we are compelled 
to abandon this notion. To attribute these valleys to the 
present alluvial action would be preposterous ; nor does the 



10 Coal Basin of New South Wales. 

drainage from the summit level always fall, as I remarked 
near the Weather board into the head of these valleys, but 
into one side of these bay-like recesses." Mr. Darwin's own 
idea is, that what we see are the remains of enormous banks 
of sand, such as are now being formed in the West Indies 
and in the Red Sea, where it is said that the sea heaps 
masses of sand around rocks and islands, and in the most 
irregular forms. It is with great reluctance that I differ 
from a geologist so experienced as the author of the " Origin of 
Species ; " but I do not think such an explanation as that 
given will satisfy one person out of a hundred who has seen 
the valleys in question. 

If I must venture on a hypothesis I should certainly 
refer what is witnessed to fluvial if not to atmospheric 
action. The valleys, only on a grander scale, resemble the 
gullies which one sees cut into pliocene drift on the coast, 
more than anything else I am acquainted with. There is, 
or there was, previous to its being lately planted with fern 
trees, a gully in the Government House Reserve that 
looked like one of the Blue Mountain valleys seen through 
the wrong end of a telescope. This we know was the result 
of rain water, and it is only a question of time that would 
refer the larger valley to the came cause. 

But take an instance much more striking and conclusive, 
Near Keilor we have a valley nearly one hundred feet in 
depth cut through, not friable sandstone like that of New 
South Wales, but indurate basalt, hard silicious rock, and 
compact silurian strata. All this has been done within a 
very limited period ; for the basalt in question is, if I mistake 
not, pliocine. All has been done, too, by a tiny stream, the 
Deep Creek, for there are many circumstances which go to 
show that in the excavation of this particular valley waves 
and currents of the sea could have played no part. Take an 
instance, if possible, more striking still, the denudation of 
the basalt on the top of Mount Useful. This, too, is of 
recent origin, and yet was ever destruction of a rock and 
removal of the eroded material more complete and perfect ? 

Now the Blue Mountains bear evidence of being of 
immense antiquity, not only as a deposit, but as subse- 
quently upheaved dry land. If I might hazard an opinion 
I should certainly speak of them as being, with the excep- 
tion of our granitic chains, as the oldest land in Australia. 
The central portions of Victoria must have remained under 
water to a much later date, or how could the equivalent 



The Formation of Gold Nuggets. 11 

strata have been denuded from above the silurian rocks. In 
the Blue Mountains, too, so far as I could gather, no evi- 
dence of tertiary deposits are anywhere apparent. Here is 
another proof of immense antiquity. It gives us time 
wherein to do our work, but, furthermore, it presupposes the 
existence of a force whereby the work would be carried on. 
If the district remained dry ground during the tertiary age 
it could only have done so as one or more of a group of 
islands. Under such circumstances the rainfall must have 
been vastly greater than at present. Torrents might have 
roared down these now dry hill slopes and even rivers have 
flowed along these now arid valleys. 

As to time for working out such grand results by such 
trifling agencies, of geologic time we know comparatively 
nothing. We have long since abandoned the old interpreta- 
tion of Genesis, limiting the world's age to 6,000 years. 
Having done so, I am at a loss to know what reasonable 
argument can be adduced for refusing the geologist any ex- 
tension of time whatever, short of an eternity, during which 
the grand results he contemplates may have been brought 
about. 



Art. II. — On the Theory of the Formation of Gold Nuggets 
in Drift. By Mr. C. Wilkinson. 

(Read 11th September, 1866.) 

Mr. President and Gentlemen of the Boyal Society, — It 
has hitherto been a moot question, and one which has 
elicited no small degree of discussion, respecting the occur- 
rence of larger nuggets of gold in the drifts than have yet 
been discovered in any quartz reef ; and that alluvial gold 
is generally of a higher standard than that obtained from 
the reefs. 

Many theories have been introduced to account for these 
phenomena : among them is one which does not appear to 
have received that amount of attention it evidently merits. 
I allude to that advanced by Mr. Selwyn, the Government 
geologist, suggesting the probability of gold existing in 
solution in the mineral water permeating the silurian rocks 
and the gold drifts ; and that this water, in its passage 
through the drifts, became by some unknown means decom- 



12 The Formation oj Gold Nuggets. 

posed, influencing the precipitation of the gold, which 
concreted, so to speak, around the most congenial nuclei 
presented to it, such as the particles or pieces of reef gold 
existing in the drifts or any other metallic substances for 
which it had an affinity. 

Mr. Daintree, formerly of our Geological Survey, had on 
one occasion prepared for photographic uses a solution of 
chloride of gold, leaving in it a small piece of metallic gold 
undissolved. Accidently some extraneouus substance, sup- 
posed to be a piece of cork, had fallen into the solution, 
decomposing it, and causing the gold to precipitate, which 
deposited in the metallic state, as in the electro-plating 
process, around the small piece of undissolved gold, increasing 
it in size to two or three times its original dimensions. 

Considering this accidental experiment of Mr. Daintree as 
in some measure bearing out Mr. Selwyn's hypothesis, 
I was induced to make a few simple experiments, the 
results of which I have now the pleasure of laying before 
you. ^ 

Using the most convenient salt of gold, the terchloride, 
and employing wood as the decomposing agent, in order to 
imitate as closely as possible the organic matter supposed to 
decompose the solution circulating through the drifts, I first 
immersed a piece of cubic iron pyrites taken from the coal 
formation at Cape Otway, far distant from any of our gold 
rocks, and therefore less likely to contain gold than other 
pyrites. This specimen (No. 1) was kept in a dilute solution 
for about three weeks, and is completely covered with a 
bright film of metallic gold. I afterwards filed off the gold 
from one side of a cube crystal to show the pyrites itself 
and the thickness of the surrounding coating, which you 
will observe is thicker than ordinary note paper. If the 
conditions continued favourable for a very lengthened 
period, this specimen would doubtless have formed the 
nucleus of a large nugget. Crystals of gold have been 
found to contain nuclei of brown iron ore and undecomposed 
iron pyrites. 

No. 2 specimen contains iron pyrites, and was immersed 
in a solution of about 4 grs. of the chloride of gold to one 
ounce of water ; in a short time, however, it was found that 
in such a strong solution the pyrites began to decompose ; 
but after diluting to about 2 grs. to an ounce of water this 
decomposition apparently ceased, and metallic gold deposited 
wherever a particle of the sulphide existed, alike m crevices 



The Formation of Gold Nuggets. 13 

as on the surface of the quartz, and also in a remarkable 
mammillary form. This was in the solution for a week. 

No. 3 contains iron pyrites and galena, on both of 
which the gold has deposited, so that you cannot now 
distinguish one sulphide from the other. It remained in a 
solution of one gr. of chloride to the ounce of water for eight 
days. 

Nos. 4 and 5 are similar specimens to the last mentioned, 
the same strength of solution being used ; but they were 
only dipped half way into it, so that the immersed part 
coated with gold may be compared with the other half on 
which the pyrites remains unaltered. 

I may here remark that a weak solution produces more 
perfect results than a strong one ; with the latter the sul- 
phides are partly decomposed, and the gold is covered with 
a dark brown powdery film, as you will observe in some of 
the above specimens. This film does not prevent the growth 
of the gold in the solution, and it may easily be rubbed off. 

Nos. 6 to 13. — Iron, copper, and arsenical pyrites, anti- 
mony, galena, molybdenite, zinc-blend, and wolfram were 
treated in the above manner with similar results. 

Brown iron ore and quartz covered with peroxide of iron 
were also tried in the same way, but the gold was deposited 
only as a fine metallic powder. 

In the above experiments a small chip of wood was em- 
ployed as the decomposing agent. In one instance I used a 
bit of leather. All through the wood and leather gold was 
disseminated in fine particles, and when cut through the 
characteristic metallic lustre is brightly reflected. 

The first six of these sulphides were also operated upon 
simply in the solution without organic matter, but they re- 
mained unaltered. 

Iron pyrites was tried with metallic copper, zinc and iron 
as decomposing agents ; but metallic gold was deposited onlv 
as a fine powder, which settled at the bottom of the 
vessel. 

From these experiments it would appear that organic 
matter is the necessary chemical agent to decompose a solu- 
tion of the chloride of gold in order to precipitate the gold 
as a coherent coating around a nucleus presented to it ; and 
that so far as we have yet tried, iron, copper, and arsenical 
pyrites, galena, antimony, molybdenite, blend, wolfram, and 
metallic gold, constitute especially favourable nuclei to de- 
monstrate this chemical reaction. 



14 The Formation of Gold Nuggets. 

Organic substances, such as fragments of wood, roots of 
trees, &c, exist abundantly in the gold drifts. It remains 
therefore a point of great importance to decide whether gold 
is actually in solution in the meteoric water circulating 
through our rocks and 'drifts. I am not aware of direct ex- 
periments having been made to solve this question, but that 
gold will most probably be found, is indicated by an 
analysis made by Mr. Daintree. I quote his own words : — 
" In testing a solid mass of iron pyrites gold was found 
throughout. This mass retained the structure of a tree stem, 
and was a replacement of the organic structure by pyrites, 
and had been taken from the Ballarat drift. The same ex- 
periment on another tree stem, taken from the same drift, 
has been repeated by Mr. Newbery, the Geological Survey 
Analyst, with a like res alt. 

I referred to the mammillary form the gold assumes in 
No. 2 specimen, which appears to be analagous to that pre- 
sented by the surface of nuggets. Analogy, however, though 
generally a truthful guide, if relied upon too implicitly in 
outward semblances, may lead to erroneous conclusions. 
Nevertheless the striking similarity in the surface of the 
artificial production to that of the natural gold is a point 
worth noticing. For if the form of the latter is the result of 
abrasion of its surface by the material carried along by the 
streams that once swept down the courses of our old " leads," 
then our analogy will not hold good. Yet when we have no 
evidence of the existence of such large nuggets in the reefs, 
and this theory introduces a means of producing results like 
those in nature, we are justified, in the absence of such evi- 
dence, to attribute these results to analogous causes. Other- 
wise to what origin shall we ascribe the presence of gold in 
pyrites that has been formed in wood imbedded in the 
auriferous drifts, and the fact that sometimes gold encloses 
a nucleus of brown iron ore, &c, unless it was deposited from 
solution ? 

That gold may be greatly purified by dissolving and re- 
precipitating it is strong evidence in favour of the theory 
attributing to a similar cause the greater purity or higher 
standard generally of alluvial than reef gold. 

It would be premature for me to speculate further on the 
hypothesis of the growth of gold — the formation of nuggets 
in the drift, on which the above recorded few simple experi- 
ments may perhaps throw some light — until the result of 
more comprehensive and systematic experiments which are 



The Extraction of Gold. 15 

now being conducted by Mr. Newbery are known. In con- 
clusion, I beg to acknowledge my indebtedness for some 
points in the foregoing to a Report on the Minerals of Vic- 
toria, just completed, by Mr. G. F. Ulrich, of the Geological 
Survey. 



Art. III. — On the Extraction of Gold. By Mr. H. A. 

Thompson. 

(Read 11th September, 1866.) 

The paper I have the honour to lay before the Royal 
Society has been compiled from my notes of experiments 
extending over the last six or seven years, and entered upon 
with a view of diminishing the heavy loss of gold now 
sustained in reducing quartz. The greater portion of these 
experiments were carried out at the works of the Port 
Phillip Company at Clunes by the officers of the company, 
or in conjunction with them, and are the more important as 
on that large establishment there is every facility for con- 
ducting the trials upon a working scale, while an assay office 
attached to the works allows of every step being tested 
with the accuracy which alone can make the results obtained 
reliable. It has long been known that a greater loss occurs 
in the treating of gold ores than is the case with any other 
metal ; and although this subject has attracted the notice of 
scientific and practical men for many years, the advance 
hitherto made has hardly been commensurate with the atten- 
tion bestowed upon it. 

In the old gold mining works of Europe and South 
America the loss runs from twenty-five per cent, of the total 
contents of the quartz upwards, notwithstanding the accu- 
mulated experience of several generations of miners ; and in 
California Professor Silliman reports that his examination of 
tailings from the different works in the Grass Valley, showed 
a loss of eighty dollars (say four ounces) of gold per ton, and 
he adds, " on the authority of one of the most cautious and 
experienced metallurgists of California, that the saving in a 
large number of cases was barely thirty per cent, of the 
gross contents of the ore, as determined by his own careful 
assays both of the ore and the waste." 

In this colony assays of tailings from many different gold- 
fields have led me to the conclusion, that the average loss 
sustained in crushing is not less than thirty-five per cent, of 



16 The Extraction of Gold. 

the total gold contents of the quartz, or at the lowest calcu- 
lation £1,000,000 per annum. I doubt if any works are 
sustaining less than twenty-five per cent, loss, and several 
instances have come under my notice where there was a 
large per centage of sulphides in the quartz, and the loss of 
gold was in consequence from fifty to seventy per cent, of 
the total contents. The discovery of any method that would 
retain a fair proportion of the gold now lost, would add 
materially to the prosperity of the mining interest, but the 
direct saving is not all the benefit that would be obtained 
from it. Numerous quartz veins, now considered too poor 
to remunerate the miner for working them, would yield a 
fair profit if the gold in the sulphides were made available, as 
well as the free gold in the quartz, and the advantage 
derived from this source would be nearly as great as that 
accruing from the direct saving. 

It has been commonly asserted that this colony was far 
behind other mining countries in the adaptation of improved 
methods for extracting the gold ; but, judging from the 
most reliable returns we can obtain, this certainly is not the 
case, and either as regards the character of our machinery, 
or the attention given to improved methods of treating the 
ore, we have no reason to be ashamed of the position we 
hold. It should not be matter for surprise that it has taken 
us fifteen years to solve the problem which has baffled other 
gold miners for four times that period, with all the resources 
of an old country, cheap labour, and cheap material at their 
command. 

For convenience the gold found in mineral veins may be 
divided into two classes : first, the free gold, meaning that 
deposited in the quartz, slate, or other matrix in a form 
rendering it capable of liberation by the ordinary process of 
crushing ; and, second, the pyritous gold, meaniDg that 
deposited with and enveloped by the sulphides of iron, 
copper, antimony, and lead, but principally in this colony 
with iron. 

The greater part of the free gold is deposited in particles 
large enough to be liberated and retained by the ordinary 
reducing process, but in nearly all gold-bearing quartz a 
certain amount of fine gold exists, which cannot be retained 
by the usual mode of treatment, and in some few exceptional 
cases the proportion of this fine gold is so considerable as to 
form one-third of th e gold lost. This fine gold, when seen in the 
quartz with the aid of the microscope, presents the appearance of 



The Extraction of Gold. 17 

minute patches of gilding, and must be detached in thin flat 
pieces readily floated away in running water. A part may 
be pyritous gold liberated in the breaking up of the iron 
ores. In practical working some of this fine gold must 
always be lost, even where the greatest care is used, but a 
large proportion of that now carried away would be retained 
with the sulphides by any efficient mode concentrating the 
latter. 

The pyritous gold is so closely incorporated with the iron 
and other ores, that it cannot be separated by the means 
found to be most economical for extracting the free gold. 
It has been a moot question whether this pyritous gold 
exists in combination with the sulphides or in a metallic 
state. Experiments made at Chines, using hypo-sulphite of 
soda as the dissolving agent, showed a trace of other than 
metallic gold in rich pyrites, but none in auriferous antimony 
ore. In the first case the quantity was evidently so small 
as to be of no practical importance, nearly all the gold being 
mechanically deposited with the sulphides. In a sample 
washed from the blanket strakes, in which the grains of 
pyrites average about one one-thousandth of an inch in 
diameter, gold can be seen on the broken faces in still 
minuter particles, and 1 believe the great bulk of the pyrit- 
ous gold is in this finely-divided state. Sulphides have 
been found in this colony containing two hundred ounces 
to the ton, and in New South Wales over two thousand 
ounces of gold per ton ; but these were no doubt picked 
specimens, and would not represent the average yield of the 
sulphides in the vein. I have, however, more than half-a- 
ton of pyrites ready for treatment at the Good Hope 
mine holding nearly one hundred ounces of gold per ton; 
and wherever quartz veins contain a paying amount of free 
gold, and carry from two to five per cent, of pyrites, the 
latter in every case yet tried has proved to be rich in gold. 
I have met with no instance where the yield of the pyrites 
was not in proportion to the per centage of it in the quartz, 
and the amount of free gold that could be obtained from the 
ore. From ten to forty ounces of gold per ton may be taken 
as the average yield of the sulphides in paying quartz mines, 
although both higher and lower yields are occasionally met 
with. 

But it is not the sulphides existing in the quartz veins 
only that are auriferous. Many of the blue slate beds, at a 
distance of several fathoms from the mineral veins, contain 

c 



18 The Extraction of Gold. 

pyrites in scattered crystals studdiDg the rock. These 
crystals have been collected, and on assay gave from five to 
fifteen dwts. of gold per ton. This fact may throw some 
light on the cause of quartz veins being frequently pro- 
ductive above and poor below the water line ; a circum- 
stance usually ascribed to the pyrites in the vein being 
undecomposed below the water. This is hardly sufficient 
to account for the sudden failure of the gold in depth 
in many cases, and it is possible that the existence of 
large quantities of undecomposed pyrites in the adjoin- 
ing slate beds may have an impoverishing effect, by hold- 
ing the gold and preventing its aggregation in the quartz 
veins. 

Hitherto I have only referred to the sulphides formed in 
the quartz or slate ; but in the old auriferous drifts of Bal- 
larat the trunks of ancient trees are found imbedded in the 
gravel or drift, and on this old timber sulphides have fre- 
quently formed. A beautiful specimen of crystallized white 
iron pyrites deposited on a piece of wood taken from a drift 
immediately below the trap rock, gave by assay forty ounces 
of gold per ton. In another case where the old trunks were 
burst open, and only the sulphides formed in the heart of 
the tree retained, they were found to yield over thirty dwts. 
of gold per ton. Again, some of the fine dust obtained in 
washing off the gold at the Royal Saxon claim, Ballarat, 
yielded by assay over fifteen ozs. of gold per ton. When placed 
under the microscope this dust was found to be composed of 
minute crystals of pyrites, aggregated into round pellets, 
from one three-hundredth to one one-hundredth of an inch 
in diameter, the surface of each pellet being roughened by 
the projecting angles of the crystals, and un water worn, in- 
dicating that the formation was subsequent to the deposit of 
the drift. These results show that the deposition of gold 
along with pyrites has been in operation at a comparatively 
recent date and is probably still going on. 

To enter into all the details of the researches made would 
extend this paper to too great a length, and it will be suf- 
ficient to state that careful trials, including assays of total 
contents, different modes of amalgamation to ascertain the 
amount of free gold, and microscopic examinations, indicated 
that the bulk of the gold lost was enveloped in the pyrites, 
with rare exceptions, not more than one-fourth of the loss 
being free gold, and this was usually small flaky pieces 
floated off with the water. The proportion of this free gold 



The Extraction of Gold. 19 

left in the tailings will depend on whether it has been 
deposited in the quartz in fine or coarse particles, and 
also on the more or less perfect character of the means 
used for retaining it. A small per centage also is left 
in the waste consisting of gold still attached to particles of 
quartz. 

The plan first adopted by our miners was to roast the 
quartz in stacks in the open air, or in kilns, to oxidise the 
sulphides, and so liberate the gold, while the quartz was 
rendered more friable and easy to crush. After several years' 
trial this system was given up, as it was found to be rather 
injurious than otherwise. At a low heat the pyrites in the 
interior of the quartz was little changed, while the free gold 
was coated with a film of some material, probably sulphur, 
which impeded the action of the mercury on it. When the 
roasting was carried on with a higher degree of heat, the 
oxide of iron formed on the exposed faces of the quartz acted 
as a flux, and a glazed surface of slag wa formed, in which 
numerous minute globules of gold could be discerned under 
the microscope, similar to those found in the waste tailings 
when crushing roasted quartz. In the interior of the quartz 
only a portion of the sulphur was given off, while black veins 
were formed by the me] ted mono-sulphide of iron ; and other 
experiments led to the conclusion that a portion of the melted 
gold was diffused through these black veins in a form which 
rendered it more difficult to separate than when in its natural 
state. A careful experiment made on quartz roasted in a 
cupola furnace with a superabundance of heated air, showed 
that the loss of gold sustained in crushing was ten per cent, 
more than it would have been if the same quartz had been 
crushed raw. Even if the pyritous gold could have been 
liberated previous to crushing the quartz, it is in such a 
minute state of division that much of it would have been 
lost in the treatment found to be the most economical for 
extracting the free gold. 

These experiments indicated that the attempt to liberate 
the pyritous gold by roasting the quartz before it was 
crushed only increased the loss, and that attention should be 
directed to the separation of this pyritous gold from the 
sand after the latter had passed the different processes used 
for retaining the free gold. The plan it was first proposed 
to carry out was to operate on the waste tailings in bulk, 
and as this is the principle on which the attempt at improve- 
ments are based in California and other mining countries, it 

c 2 



20 The Extraction of Gold. 

may be advisable to state the reasons which induced a differ- 
ent line of experiment. 

The first attempt to secure this gold was by means of 
fine grinding and amalgamating with the following results. 
By re-crushing the tailings with mercury in a Chilian mill 
about twenty-live per cent, of the gold was obtained with 
very careful working. In the arastra, with grooves ' in the 
bottom of the basin for mercury, the return was increased to 
thirty-three per cent, of the assayed contents. Several other 
plans based on the same principle of regrinding the sand in 
mercury gave similar results ; and even with careful hand 
amalgamation, when the material operated on was clean 
pyrites, we could not make much improvement on the above 
return. Dr. Percy, of the English School of Mines, to whom 
this matter had been referred, states that from pyrites con- 
taining twenty-five and three-quarter ozs. of gold per ton, 
he only obtained eight and three-quarter ozs. when ground 
with mercury, but by roasting the pyrites before operating 
he obtained nearly twenty-five ozs. per ton. A sample of rich 
pyritous quartz tried by me a few months ago was ground 
to a fine powder and then rubbed up with mercury and hot 
water to extract all the free gold. The sulphides were then 
separated by hand washing, roasted, and amalgamated, when 
they yielded at the rate of one hundred and forty ozs. of gold 
per ton. In the two last-mentioned cases the process was 
conducted with a care and perfection such as could not be 
carried out on a large scale, and they are only quoted as a 
sample of numerous trials all tending to the same result, and 
indicating that decomposition of the pyrites was a necessary 
preliminary to any plan for extracting a fair proportion of 
the gold. But even were it otherwise, the action of the 
sulphur and arsenic on the mercury would prevent the sul- 
phides from being treated in their raw state. 

The advantage gained by decomposing the sulphides has 
long been known and acted on in working the pyritous gold 
veins of North and South America, where the sulphides were 
piled in heaps, and subjected to natural decomposition in the 
open air for twelve months, and then re-treated to extract 
the gold that had been liberated, this process being repeated 
several times until the gold was exhausted. But it must be 
evident that a plan requiring the lapse of several years be- 
fore the gold in the waste can be rendered available, is not 
suited to the conditions under which gold mining is carried 
on in this colony, at the same time the expense and loss of 



The Extraction of Gold. 21 

gold attending the different re-treatments would be greater 
than that incurred in effecting decomposition by means of 
roasting. 

On the other hand, the cost of roasting in bulk, in addition 
to that of grinding, so increased the outlay that it was only 
in a few cases of exceptional richness where the waste could 
have been so operated on profitably, and therefore little ad- 
vantage would have been gained by following up this system. 
But as more than seventy-five per cent, of the gold lost was 
in the sulphides, and the greater part of the remaining gold 
in a form likely to be retained with them, another course 
was open, viz., to separate the sulphides from the compara- 
tively worthless sand, thus reducing the bulk of the material 
to be acted on and the consequent expense of extracting the 
gold. This is the system we have been endeavouring to 
bring to perfection for many years, and it appears to be the 
only course at present known by means of which we can 
hope to reduce the loss of gold within reasonable bounds. 
As regards the larger grains of pyrites, this concentration is 
partially effected on the blanket strakes, and it is the sul~ 
phides obtained from them, together with a portion sepa- 
rated from the waste tailings, which have been operated on 
at the Clunes works for several years past at a cost of about 
£1 per ounce of gold extracted, leaving £3 per ounce for 
profit 

The common reverberatory furnace was first tried for 
roasting, but it was found to require such a large expendi- 
ture of labour and time in turning over the sand, so as«to 
allow of every portion being exposed to the action of the 
heated air for a sufficient length of time to insure perfect 
oxidation of the sulphides as to render it a very costly pro- 
cess. To remedy this defect a new oxidating furnace was 
designed by Mr. Latta, which has been in use at the Clunes 
works for three years. It is a reverberatory furnace, with an 
inclined bed from thirty to fifty feet long, and from five to 
six feet wide. The bed is set at an angle that will 
allow the undisturbed sand to remain at rest on it, but still 
make it easy to rake down through doorways at the side. 
The sand to be roasted is fed in at the upper end of the bed, 
and is gradually raked down, its place being supplied by 
fresh charges, until it reaches the lower end of the bed com- 
pletely desulphurised, and is then discharged through a 
narrow opening between the bed and the firebridge. This 
furnace may be supplied with heated air by tubes over the 



22 The Extraction of Gold. 

fire, hollow fire-bars, communicating with a hollow bridge, 
and, if necessary with a coil of air-pipes in the ash-pit ; the 
object being to supply a large amount of oxygen in the 
heated air to combine with the sulphur and arsenic, forming 
sulphurous and arsenious acids, which pass off in a gaseous 
state, thus converting the sulphides into oxides having no 
deteriorating action on the mercury, and capable of ready 
disintegration to allow of the liberation of the gold. The 
sand is spread over the bed of the furnace in a thin layer, 
and requires about two hours' exposure to be roasted per- 
fectly at a dull red heat. Soon as it comes out of the furnace 
the heated sand is quenched with water, and when cool it is 
ground and amalgamated in a damp state in Chilian mills, a 
very good system, first introduced into this colony by Mr. 
Hinck. About 2 cwt. of roasted sand is placed in the mill 
for a charge with half its weight of mercury. This is ground 
for half-an-hour, the mercury breaking up and becoming dis- 
tributed through the sand in small globules. When it is 
supposed the mercury has had time to absorb the gold, water 
is admitted, and the globules collect together again. The 
sand is then flushed out and another charge placed in the 
mill. Some of the broken mercury escapes with the sand, 
and provision must be made for its separation from the waste 
before the latter finally passes away. 

The following return gives the results obtained at the 
Clunes works for the first six months of the current year in 
operating on the pyritous sand saved from the waste in the 
way described before : — 

Quantity of concentrated sand treated - ' - 183 tons 

Amount of gold obtained - 539 ozs. 17 dwts. 

Cost of concentrating and reducing ... £560 
Profit on the six months' work .... £1,422 5s. 8d. 
Proportion of the total gold contents obtained - 87 per cent. 
Loss of mercury per ton of sand treated - - 2-8 lbs. 

The loss of mercury was heaviest at the beginning of the 
year ; in the last parcel treated it was reduced to 1 6 lbs. per 
ton. Changes are now in contemplation intended to decrease 
this loss still more, and at the same time increase the per 
centage of gold obtained. But even in its present state this 
is a good practical system of treating the sulphides, giving 
fair returns both as regards the profit and the proportion of 
gold extracted ; and it should be noted that this is not a 
mere laboratory experiment, but the results obtained in 
actual working on a large scale, under conditions where 
each step of the process is accurately tested. 



The Extraction of Gold. 23 

The next question requiring attention was the best method 
of separating the sulphides from the waste tailings, and this 
has been found a difficult problem to solve. There is so 
little difference between the respective specific gravities of 
the quartz and iron pyrites, that the separation of one from 
the other in any known dressing machine, even with par- 
ticles of nearly the same size, would be imperfect. But this 
difficulty is vastly increased through the pyrites being more 
friable than the quartz, and therefore broken under the 
stamps into much smaller particles. This difference in size 
counterbalances the difference in the specific gravities where 
water concentration only is used, thus nullifying the prin- 
ciple on which all the systems of ore dressing in general use 
are based. An attempt was made to classify the sand, but 
it was found that more than half the gold in the waste 
tailings was enclosed in particles of pyrites or sand in such 
a minute state of division that they could be passed through 
fine wire gauze having three thousand six hundred meshes 
to the square inch ; and as it was evidently impracticable 
to pass one hundred tons of sand per day through sieves 
of this kind, the idea of direct classification was given up. 
A trial was made of the classifying boxes introduced by 
Mr. Ulrich, where the coarser sand and larger particles of 
pyrites pass out with the water flowing from a lower escape, 
and the lighter from an upper one. By this method the 
sand can be divided into several different qualities, but the 
classification is not according to size only, and is therefore 
imperfect. As mentioned before, the coarser particles of 
pyrites were retained on the blanket strakes, but the finer 
pieces floated away, and no dressing machine hitherto 
tried would retain more than a small proportion of these 
fine sulphides. The best result was obtained from the 
round concave buddle, with the improvements patented 
by Mr. Munday ; and this machine is now being worked 
to advantage at Clunes and other places, but it falls far 
short of the requirements of the case, and the endeavour 
to discover a better system has, in consequence, not been 
relaxed. 

After proving most of the known dressing machines, and 
many modifications of old plans, which it was hoped might 
overcome the difficulties in the way, without success, a trial 
was made of the percussion table, a dressing machine much 
used in Germany and South America. This is a table from 
ten to fourteen feet long and from four to six feet wide, slung 



24 The Extraction of Gold. 

by means of four chains leading back, and with its head 
resting against a block of timber. It is pushed forward by 
means of a lever, and when released swings back against 
the block with a smart blow, making from twenty to fifty 
blows per minute. The sand and water is run onto the head 
of the table and flows down it, carrying off the lighter ma- 
terial, the heavier being retained on the table and gradually 
brought up to the head by the force of the percussion blows. 
In dressing ordinary ores, a table of the size mentioned will 
put through from one to one and a half tons in twelve hours, 
and the material retained on it is still mixed with such a 
proportion of the poor waste as to require a second and some- 
times a third dressing. These known defects evidently ren- 
dered the percussion table inapplicable to the concentration 
of the sulphides in this colony, where material and labour 
are so costly, however useful it may be under more favourable 
conditions in this respect. 

The object in trying the table was therefore to see if its 
defects could not be remedied, or the percussion principle ap- 
plied to more advantage. Careful observation of the working 
of a small percussion table soon led to the conclusion that 
the cause of its imperfect action was the hard bank formed 
upon it by the sand, which prevented the blow from pro- 
ducing its full effect on the heavier particles ; and it was 
evident that the action would be much improved if the sand 
on the table could be kept loose, in a semi-fluid state,, so as 
to allow the blow to produce a maximum effect. When 
finely ground ore is suspended in disturbed water, a blow 
given to the side of the vessel containing the mixture will 
momentarily check the current and tend to throw down 
the materials in suspension in the order of their specific 
gravity, the heavier particles falling first ; and even where 
gold or any of the sulphides are in such a fine state of 
division as to float on the surface of the water, a similar 
blow will at once cause them to sink, and at the same time 
draw them towards the point where the blow is applied. 
This is the action of the percussion-table, and when the 
sand on the table is kept loose the sulphides, however finely 
crushed, are thrown down by the sudden check given to the 
current of water by the percussion blow, drawn below the 
surface of the sand on the table where they are protected 
from the action of the water, and gradually accumulated 
towards the head, the point where the blow is given. To 
apply this principle with success several details require to 



The Extraction of Gold. 25 

be attended to. If the sand js allowed to form a hard bank 
on the bed of the table the sulphides cannot settle into it ; 
on the other hand, if the sand is kept too loose, the motion 
of the table forms a wave which tends to throw the sulphides 
to the surface, and again exposes them to the risk of being 
carried off by the current of water. Numerous experiments 
were made to ascertain the form of stirrer best calculated to 
meet these requirements. That finally adopted is not unlike 
the prong of a sluice-fork, and is made of quarter-inch nail 
rod iron ; each stirrer being eighteen inches in length, with 
the end slightly curved. They are set about one and a half 
inch apart in rows, each row being fixed into an axle work- 
ing on gudgeons nine inches above the bottom of the table, 
on which the curved ends of the stirrers always rest, the 
axles allowing each row of stirrers to rise or fall with the 
table. The bed of the table is covered with light boiler 
plate to reduce the wear, as grooves, which impede the action 
of the stirrers, are soon formed in a wooden bottom. The 
sand and water are passed over a distributing board, . which 
delivers them in an even sheet on to the sloping head, clear 
of the sand on the table. The suspending chains have regu- 
lating screws on each for the purpose of adjusting the levels. 
The upper chains are fixed, but the lower ones pass over 
and are attached to a roller, by means of which the inclina- 
tion of the table can be altered at pleasure without disturb- 
ing the cross levels. When put to work the table is set 
with a slight inclination towards the head, and is gradually 
lowered whenever the sand at the head collects to over two 
and a half inches in depth. After working for a longer or 
shorter time, according as the sand operated on may be poor 
in sulphides, or the contrary, the table will become loaded 
with them. The tailings should then be diverted to a spare 
machine, and clean water only allowed to run over the table. 
In a few minutes the bulk of the pyrites will have accumu- 
lated at the head, when the table must be stopped, the 
pyrites shovelled out, and the work resumed as before. 
Hitherto this machine has only been worked at the Good 
Hope mine ; the table used there being a small one, two feet 
nine inches wide, with a bed seven feet long. Through this 
was passed the waste tailings. from four head of stamps (i.e. 
from thirty-five to forty tons per week), and these were 
carefully sampled at short intervals before going on to the 
table and after leaving it, the samples being all filtered 
through close woven calico. The assay of these samples 



26 The Extraction of Gold 

made at the works of the Port Phillip Company gave the 
following results . — 

Contents of waste tailinga before going 

on to the table ----- 17 dwts. 22 gr. of gold per ton. 
After leaving the table - - - 3 „ 4 „ ,, „ 

Amount retained on the table - - 14 ,, 18 „ „ „ 
Proportion of total gold contents saved, 82*3 per cent. 

In the gold-bearing material saved on the table was found 
fine free gold, and gold still attached to particles of sand, but 
it principally consisted of decomposed pyrites converted by 
exposure in the vein above the water level into oxide of 
iron. It is probable that each of these particles of oxide 
contains a nucleous ofundecomposed sulphide, yet the partial 
oxidation is sufficient to so reduce the specific gravity as to 
materially increase the difficulty of separating it from the 
quartz sand, and the saving of such a large proportion of 
this gold-bearing ore is equivalent to a saving of from ninety 
to ninety-live per cent, of the undecomposed sulphides. 
Three of these tables are now in course of erection at the 
Good Hope mine, and one at the Clunes, where its effective 
working on different kinds of material will be carefully 
observed, and the results laid before the Society at a future 
meeting. 

Another important matter is the separation of the sul- 
phides mixed with as small a proportion of waste sand as 
possible, but hitherto this close concentration could not be 
effected without such an increase of loss as more than 
balanced the gain through having to treat a smaller quantity 
of pyritous sand. With the improved percussion table a 
much higher degree of concentration can be effected without 
risk than by any other means previously discovered, and 
there will be a corresponding decrease in. the cost per ounce 
of gold extracted. No doubt time and experience will lead 
to improvements in the working and construction of this 
table, but it now surmounts the difficulty which has so long 
stopped the way ; it is simple, inexpensive, and easily 
erected, and when worked in conjunction with the system 
now in use at Clunes for extracting the gold, will retain 
from seventy to seventy-five per cent, of the gold at present 
lost in the waste tailings, at a cost not likely to exceed ten 
shillings per ounce obtained. 



Patent Ear-trumpet 27 



Art. IV. — On a Patent Ear-trumpet and Stethoscope, 
invented by David Wilkinson, Esq. 

[Read by Mr. C. Wilkinson, 8th October, 1866.] 

Mr. President and Gentlemen, — I have much pleasure in 
laying before you a new ear-trumpet and stethoscope, or 
rather I should say, some improvements on the ordinary 
instruments of this kind, invented by my father, Mr. David 
Wilkinson. He communicated his ideas to this society some 
three years ago, but as there were no instruments ac- 
companying his communication it does not seem to have 
been considered. Lately some of these instruments have 
been made and partially tested. 

In order, therefore, to make known that which may prove 
beneficial to many members of the community at large, 
whose welfare it is the chief object and desire of the Koyal 
Society to promote, I could not do so in a more satisfactory 
manner than by submitting the following brief description 
to your consideration. That the present construction of in- 
struments for conveying sound to the ear is but imperfectly 
adapted to the purpose, is evinced by the very partial relief 
they afford to those whose great affliction necessitates the 
use of them. 

I will here premise that it is not my intention to enter 
into the acoustic principles on which depend the proper 
construction of ear-trumpets ; nor to describe the anatomy 
of the ear ; for it would be extreme presumption for one like 
myself, I must confess, so little acquainted with these 
scientific subjects, to attempt to do so before the profes- 
sional members and others whom I have now the privilege 
of addressing. I will, however, allude to a few of the more 
simple points connected with these subjects, to which it will 
be necessary for me to refer in describing these instruments. 
Our perception of sound ordinarily results from the pulses 
or vibrations in the air conveyed by the various processes of 
the ear to the auditory nerves, whence the impressions pro- 
duced are communicated to the brain where their effects are 
realized. 

The principal parts of the ear are the outer-ear, the drum 
of the ear, and the sensorium, or inner-ear. The outer-ear 
seems formed as it were like an ear- trumpet, to catch the 
vibrations in the air and conduct them to a tube, through 



28 Patent Ear-trumpet 

which they pass into the head. In a short distance this 
tube has its passage stopped by a thin membrane — the 
drum of the ear — stretched tightly across it. Behind this 
lies a cavity, the " barrel of the ear " or tympanum, through 
which runs a chain of four small bones connecting the drum 
of the ear with the sensorium. These bones are supposed to 
continue the vibration produced upon the drum by the 
vibratory action of the air, towards the sensorium, whence 
the brain receives its impressions. 

Thus, from the disorder of any one of these organs, we 
may readily conceive how various may be the causes from 
which deafness may arise. If the inner ear or sensorium 
remains perfect, the loss of hearing produced by the destruc- 
tion of the drum, or the derangement of any of the other 
parts of the ear, can be in many cases remedied by the use 
of instruments which will convey a greater degree of sound 
than that which the ear alone receives. 

On the other hand, I have been given to understand that, 
if deafness arises from the disorder of the sensorium, no 
introduction of increase of sound will assist the hearing ; for 
according as the auditory nerve is capable of receiving the 
vibrations imparted to it, in the same measure will be its 
power of communicating to the brain the impressions those 
vibrations produce. It would therefore appear evident that 
the advantage deaf persons will derive from the use of 
ear-trumpets will depend in a great measure, if not entirely, 
on the nature of their deafness. 

There are two kinds of ear- trumpets commonly used ; one 
consisting of a long indiarubber tube fitted with an ear- 
piece at one end, and at the other a bell-shaped piece into 
which it is necessary to speak when addressing the deaf 
person. This, therefore, cannot be made use of on all occa- 
sions ; the mode of using it also renders it very inconvenient. 
The other trumpet is simply a small funnel-shaped instru- 
ment, curved at the "narrower end, which is inserted in the 
ear. The only apparent object of this instrument is to 
reflect that amount of sound received at the large end to the 
smaller, where it is collected as it were into one point, and 
in this condensed state is rendered more audible than could 
have been effected by the ear alone. It is to an improve- 
ment on this latter trumpet that I would now direct your 
attention. It consists simply of two tubes ; one inside, the 
other but only connected at the smaller end. The object of 
this double arrangement is to prevent the hand or any other 



Patent Far4runpet 29 

soft substance from touching the inner metallic tube, other- 
wise its vibratory action would in a measure be checked. 
For instance, if you strike a glass tumbler or a bell, the 
ringing sound almost immediately ceases on bringing the 
hand in contact with the vibrating body. The construction 
of this trumpet, however, allows the vibrations produced 
upon the inner tube by the pulses of the air to pass freely 
into the ear. Thus you will observe that in addition to the 
vibrations reflected into the ear through the medium of the 
air, we have those produced and transmitted by the sonorous 
inner metallic tube, and the sound is thereby strengthened. 
Sound is conducted by some sonorous metals about ten times 
quicker than through the air ; but as the conducting power 
of the latter is at the rate of about eleven hundred (1,100) 
feet in a second, the difference in an instrument of this size 
would be imperceptible. It may not be necessary for the 
outer tube to be constructed of metal, probably any material 
strong enough to keep the remainder of the tubes apart, 
when joined at the smaller end, would be suitable. 

I believe this ear-trumpet will not assist all cases of deaf- 
ness ; for, as I have previously remarked, how variable may 
be the nature of deafness; so I have no doubt the adaptation 
of this or any other ear-trumpet will vary accordingly. 

In two cases of deafness this was tried without the 
persons deriving any greater benefit from it than from those 
ordinarily in use. On the other hand, others have tried it 
and assured me of its efficiency, of which I have had satis- 
factory evidence in the increased facility with which I could 
converse with them when using it. 

The stethoscope, though differently constructed, is on the 
same principle as the ear- trumpet. By its means the peculiar 
sounds emitted by the vibratory action of certain parts of 
the body are readily conducted to the ear. The sound 
transmitted is also strengthened by resonance, which the 
tube, passing up the centre of the stethoscope, produces. In 
this tube is introduced a metallic wire connected only at 
both ends of the instrument ; it is tightly drawn, and by 
its tension is rendered extremely sensitive to the slightest 
vibration. The sound received at the one end is imme- 
diately communicated to the wire, by which it is more 
rapidly conveyed to the ear than by the wood or the air in 
the tube, with this addition, the sound is greatly increased. 
Wood is an excellent conductor of sound ; the difference, 
therefore, in the conducting power of these media must be 



30 Notes on Australian Goleoptera. 

less perceptible than in the ear-trumpet just described, if 
indeed in this latter it is even possible to perceive any 
difference. 

One of the first medical men in this city has tried this 
stethoscope, and remarked the great increase of sound it con- 
veyed ; he also considered it would be most valuable for 
those members of the medical profession whose hearing was 
rather defective in detecting stethoscopic sounds. 

I have not had any experience in stethoscopy, so must 
therefore submit this instrument to medical men to judge of 
its efficiency. 



Art. V. — Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 
By Count F. De Castelnau. 

(Read by Dr. Mueller, 12th November, 1866.) 

No. 1. Gicindelidw. 

One of the most remarkable facts connected with the 
distribution of animals in Australia, is certainly the absence 
of the cicindelido3 in all the southern part of that Con- 
tinent ; that family of insects being otherwise spread over 
all the regions of the globe capable of bearing animal life. 
This fact is just as interesting as is the absence of ophidian 
reptiles in New Zealand and New Caledonia. 

Little, or nearly nothing, is yet known of the entomolo- 
gical fauna of the northern and north western territories ; 
but the eastern coast, which has been studied with some 
care, presents a certain number of cicindelidw, among which 
we find with surprise the Megacephala, a form believed till 
lately to be peculiar to the warmest parts of Africa, which 
bare, we must remember, a considerable resemblance with 
the central regions of Australia, to which it is confined on 
this continent. 

An allied genus, Tetracha, had also been long ago signalised 
by Hope from specimens brought from Port Essington. 
Since then other species have been found by Messrs. Masters 
and Thouzet, at Port Denison and Rockhampton, and also 
by Mr. Waterhouse, in the central parts of Australia, during 
his expedition across the continent, under Mr. Stuart. 

Distipsidera is common in most parts of Queensland, the 
species being very nearly allied to those which inhabit in 
great numbers New Caledonia and the neighbouring islands. 



Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 81 

Cicindela proper is also numerously represented on the 
eastern coast. Upsilon being very common in most parts of 
New South Wales ; but all at once going south, this family 
of insects disappears, and never to my knowledge has a single 
specimen been found in Victoria, Tasmania, South Aus- 
tralia, nor in the southern parts of Western Australia. 

The mild and even warm temperature of most of these 
regions affords no possible explanation to this singular 
phenomena,, which has nothing to do with the isothermal 
lines, as the insects I mention are very common all over 
New Zealand, even in its most southern parts. 

The genus Megacephala, represented till this day by one 
single species, described lately by Mr. MacLeay, junr., in 
the " Transactions of the Entomological Society of Sydney," 
under the specific name of Cilindrica, was first brought by 
Major Mitchell from Peak Downs, in the western part of 
Queensland. Since, Mr. Howitt met with it on Cooper's 
Creek, during his expedition to relieve Burke and Wills. 
Of the three specimens he brought back, and which are in 
the possession of his uncle, Dr. G. Howitt, a most learned 
entomologist, who has a better knowledge of Australian 
insects than any other living man, one is remarkable by 
its fine blue colour. 

Lately, Mr. Hubert, who was sent by Dr. Howitt and my- 
self in the interior, found also one specimen of this beautiful 
beetle on the Paroo River ; it forms part of my own collec- 
tion. 

I have here to describe a second Australian species of 
Megacephala, also found by Mr. Howitt on Cooper's Creek ; 
two specimens were taken, one is in Dr. Howitt's collection 
and the other in mine, through the generosity of the latter 
gentleman, to whom I dedicate it. 

Megacephala Howittii : length 7', breadth 3' ; of a rather 
dark metallic green, with the buccal parts, the base of 
antennas, legs and last two segments of the abdomen of a 
light yellowish brown ; the head is broad and transverse, 
with two impressions between the eyes ; thorax almost 
square, with a longitudinal sulcate in the middle and a 
transverse one in front and backwards ; the elytra are short, 
of an oval form, covered with deep punctures on their 
anterior part, and extending to a little more than the third 
of their length ; they are absolete on the remaining portion 
of the surface. The inferior parts of the body are green, 
with the middle of the abdomen black ; this last colour 



32 Notes on Australian Coleopteta. 

extends over the whole of the latter segments, with the 
exception of the two last, which are of a brown, becoming 
yellow on the ultimate. The antennae are obscure after the 
fifth article. Mr. Howitt stated that he had taken this 
Megacephala under dry cow dung. 

Of Tetracha, the only species I have to mention is the one 
found by Mr. Waterhouse in the centre of the Continent 
(at 700 miles N.W. of Adelaide), and is, I believe, hitherto 
undescribed, although that gentlemen has sent a consider- 
able number to England. I propose to give it the name of 
its discoverer. 

Tetracha Waterhousii: length 10', breadth 4'; of alight 
green metallic colour, with the buccal parts, the antennae, 
legs and ultimate segments of the abdomen of a yellowish 
brown ; head broad with two sulcated impressions between 
the eyes ; thorax a little broader in front than towards its 
posterior part, with a sulcated and longitudinal line in the 
middle, and a transverse one at each end ; elytra of a green 
colour, becoming bright and gilt near the suture ; their 
posterior part is covered by a large apical yellow spot, 
terminating forward by an arched line ; the surface of the 
green part of the elytra is very rugose, and presents a 
longitudinal line of deep punctures following the suture at a 
short distance. 

It is with much pleasure I dedicate this handsome insect 
to F. G. Waterhouse, Esq., of Adelaide, whose labours have 
thrown so much light on the zoology of Southern Australia. 

This species carries up to five the number of the Aus- 
tralian species of Tetracha, which are the following : — 

1. T Australasia?. — Hope, " Trans. Ent. Soc. of London." 
Vol. IY. 

2. T. Humeralis. — MacLeay, junr., " Trans. Ent. Soc. of 
Sydney," Part I. From Port Denison and Rockhampton. 

3. T. Scapularis. — MacLeay, junr., id. From Port Deni- 
son. 

4. T Crucigera. — MacLeay, junr., id. From Port Deni- 
son and Rockhampton. 

Mr. MacLeay, junr., says that these three sorts are pro- 
bably nocturnal. I quite agree with him, having always 
found that such is the case with all the brown coloured 
species of the genus (on which Baron Chaudoir had formed 
his genus Phoeoxanthus), of which I have taken numerous 
specimens of almost all the sorts known, during the 
night, on the banks of the Amazonas, Tocantins, Arra- 



Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 33 

guaya, and other rivers of the interior parts of South 
America ; but I doubt very much T. Waterhousii having 
the same habits ; the brilliant green and metallic sorts 
being diurnal, and fond of running and flying about 
under the rays of a tropical sun. I have lately seen, in a 
collection made on the western coast, specimens of a 
Tetracha, which seem identical with Humeralis. 

Distipsidera is only represented in my collection of Aus- 
tralian insects by five species, of which four are known. 
Undulata, from the Clarence River, Brisbane and Rock- 
hampton. Cursitans, MacLeay, junr., equally from the Cla- 
rence and from Brisbane. Volitans, MacLeay, from Port 
Denison, and Grutii: Pascoe, from Lizard Island, on the 
north east coast of Carpentaria. The fifth species appears to 
be undescribed, and I will mention it under the name given 
to it in Mr. Deyrolles's collection. 

Distipsidera Strangei: length 6 J', breadth 2' ; resembles 
very much Gursitans, but a little more slender ; head and 
thorax of a darker tinge ; the humeral white spot covering 
almost all the breadth of the elytra by its sinuations ; the 
apical spot more transverse ; the legs of a light brown ; the 
anterior thighs without any obscure spot ; those of the other 
two pairs, having a feeble black line on their inferior side ; 
labrum of an obscure yellow ; antennae brown, with their 
articles from three to six black. 

I do not know from what part of the Australian continent 
this insect was obtained. 

Of Gicindela, 1 possess several sorts that I believe 
undescribed, without being able to certify the fact ; Baron 
Chaudoir's catalogue of Gicindelidce not having yet reached 
this colony. Such are the following : — ■' 

Gicindela Masteri: length 5', breadth If; brown, or dark 
green ; labrum white ; mandibulse of the last colour, with 
their extremity of a dark green ; antennse of the same 
colour; thorax short; elytra with 1st, a white triangular spot 
near the middle of the margin; 2nd, a short line below, follow- 
ing the margin and often joining the first ; and 3rd, a lunula 
at the apex ; near the suture, and towards the two posterior 
thirds of the length is a spot also white, which sometimes 
unites with the triangular one. Inferior parts of the body 
of a dark blue, and covered with a white pubescence ; 
legs copper colour, with the base of the thighs green ; tarsi 
of the last colour. This little species is not rare on the 
Eastern Creek, in New South Wales. 

D 



34 Notes on Australian Coleoptem. 

Cicindela Wilcoxii : length 5', breadth 2' ; nearly allied to 
the European sort Circumdata ; of a copper colour, covered 
with a white pubescence ; labrum of a yellowish white ; 
external part of mandibulse black ; elytra with a broad 
white margin, which forms, 1st, a lunula on the humeral 
angle ; 2nd, a ramified branch before the middle of the 
length of the elytra, directing itself toward the anterior part, 
then bending downward, and forming a long lunula near the 
suture ; 3rd, a long spot, which is directed towards the 
former. The lower parts of the body are of a dark green, 
with the sides of the thorax pubescent ; legs copper coloured. 
This Cicindela was sent to me from the Clarence River by 
Mr. Wilcox. 

Cicindela Circumcincta : length 5J', breadth 2'. — This 
Cicindela has the cylindrical form of Odontocheila, and is 
of a dark copper colour ; the labrum is narrow, sulcated, of 
a dirty white, and is terminated by three teeth, of which 
the strongest is situated in the middle ; mandibuke of a 
black colour ; mentum with a very strong tooth ; eyes large 
and prominent ; thorax almost square in the female, narrow 
and cylindrical in the male ; elytra with a narrow, marginal, 
whitish spot near the middle of the length, which extends 
downwards, as a narrow line along the margin, and some- 
times unites with a narrow arched line which covers the 
apex. Inferior parts of the body green, with a white pu- 
bescence ; legs copper coloured, with the tibiae sometimes 
purple. 

I received my first specimens of this species from Mr. 
Thouzet, of Rockhainpton, to which I owe so many insects 
of the north east part of Australia. Since then numerous 
others have been sent to me from Brisbane, the Clarence 
River, and Eastern Creek. It appears to be very common 
in Queensland ; and it is also found in New Caledonia. This 
singular insect is very remarkable on account of the differ- 
ence of form the thorax presents in the two sexes. I have 
described this insect under the name it bears in Mr. 
Deyrolles's collection, and under which he lias sent it to his 
correspondents. 

The only other sorts of Cicindela of the Australian conti- 
nent I possess in my collection, is the common Upsilon, and 
the Nigrita, MacLeay, jnnr., from Port Denison. 

I have now to say a few words on the Cicindeliclce of New 
Zealand. Numerous specimens have been received by me 
from Dunedin of the Laticincta White, Turberculata Fab., and 



Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 35 

Parryi White. Some specimens of the two last have been 
sent to me by Mr. Edwards, from Auckland, but those 
of Tuberculata are darker, and have the elytra more 
densely punctured than those of the Southern Island. 

The Parryi of the northern part is also different from 
the specimens of Dunedin ; they are smaller, their colour is 
more green ; the spots of the elytra are more confused, 
and on each elytra there are two dark notches bordering the 
middle ramified line. The entire insect appears also more 
deeply punctured. 

I am not certain if this insect ought to be considered as 
belonging to a different species, or as forming a local variety, 
but I incline towards the last opinion. 

From Dunedin, I also received several specimens of a new 
sort. 

Cicindela Bunedensis: length 4/, breadth 1 J'.— -This small 
sort is of a light brown ; the labrum and base of the 
mandibulse are white ; the elytra are covered with punctures 
of a green copper colour ; a sinuated line of large punctures 
follows the suture ; a rather broad marginal white band 
extends along the exterior margin, and sends forth a short 
lunula behind the axillary angle, an oblique band that almost 
reaches the suture and an apical lunula. The inferior parts 
of the body and legs are of a bright copper colour, and the 
abdomen is black. This insect is allied to Parryi, but is 
much smaller, more narrow, and has a general green appear- 
ance ; it is also easily distinguished by the sinuous and 
arched form of the elytral line of big punctures, which is 
straight in Parryi. 

Among other interesting specimens sent to me by W. L. 
Travers, Esq., of Christen urch, are the larvae of the Tuber- 
culata and Parryi. The first has a general elongated form, 
the head not being much broader than the body ; the whole 
animal is formed of thirteen segments, including the head, 
which is pretty large and rather excavated in its middle ; 
the parts of the mouth are well formed ; on each side of the 
head are two eyes, of which the posterior are the largest ; 
the antennse are very short and formed of four articles, of 
which the last is very small ; the mandibulse are strong and 
curved, with an acute tooth near their base ; the prothorax 
is broad, transversal, semicircular, with its anterior margin 
protruding in its middle, in form of a point ; the sides are 
rounded and marginated ; the posterior margin semicir- 
cular. The surface of this thorax is unequal, and presents a 

2 D 



36 Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 

longitudinal carina on the middle. The abdominal seg- 
ments are soft ; the eighth is gibbous, and surmounted by- 
two crooked appendices ; the legs are rather short. This 
larva is entirely yellow, with the head and prothorax of 
a dark green ; the mandibular of an obscure brown. It is 
easy to see how very much this larva resembles those of the 
two European sorts that have been described. 

The second larva I have to mention belongs, as I already 
stated, to G. Parryi ; it is of a very different form from the 
other, the head and prothorax being of a most extraordinary 
size ; at least four times as broad as the body, and nearly as 
long. The first is broad, transversal, with two eyes nearly 
equal on each side ; the labrum is rounded in front ; the 
mandibular shorter than in the preceding sort ; the antenna? 
of the same form ; the prothorax is semicircular, with its 
anterior angles prolongated ; the anterior margin is also 
advanced in its middle ; the two other thoracic segments 
and those belonging to the abdomen are narrow, soft, and 
hirsute; theeighth is slightly gibbous, but without appendices; 
the legs are robust and proportionately pretty long. The 
insect is of a dark yellow ; the head of a metallic green, as 
is also the prothorax ; but the last is covered with a short 
white and snowy pubescence. 

In a following paper I will describe a large number of 
new sorts of Australian insects, belonging to the family of 
GarabidcB. I feel it my duty to express here my thanks to 
all those who during my three years' residence in this 
colony, have so liberally granted me their co-operation in 
the formation of my very considerable collection of Aus- 
tralian beetles, and in particular to our great botanist, Dr. 
Mueller, who most liberally has put me in correspondence 
with the greatest part of those who devote themselves to 
the study of the zoology of the Southern Hemisphere. 



Since the above was written, my knowledge of Australian 
Cicindelidoe has received the following additions : — 

Two new sorts of tetracha have been sent me by the 
Rev. Mr. Bostock, of Western Australia. They both came 
from Nickol Bay. 

Tetracha Bostoclcii : length, 6', breadth, 2' * of a fine 
metallic green ; elytra black, with a yellow margin which 
projects, towards a third of its length, a strong and oblique 
ramification extendina* towards the suture. The surface of 



Notes on Australian CoUoptera. 37 

the elytra is smooth on the two posterior third parts, the 
anterior being covered with very strong and deep punctures ; 
parts of the mouth, antennae, last segment of the abdomen, 
and legs of a dark yellow, the four first articles of the 
antennae spotted with black ; end of the mandibulse of the 
last colour. This insect very much resembles Humeralis, 
but is easily distinguished by its smaller size, the thorax, of 
which the anterior angles are much more rounded, the 
granulation of the elytra, &a 

Tetracha Hopei : length, 9', breadth, 3 J' ; of a fine 
metallic green ; thorax broader in front than at its posterior 
part, sinuous laterally, with the anterior angles rather pro- 
tuberant ; itpresents a transversal margin in front and another 
towards its posterior part, and a longitudinal sulcate in the 
middle ; the elytra have a yellow margin that does not 
extend to the humeral angle, and which gradually increases 
in breadth in its posterior part ; the whole surface is densely 
puncturated, but more particularly towards the base ; a line 
of deep punctures extends near the suture, but forms a 
curve towards the extremity ; below, the body is green, 
with the middle of the abdomen black, and its extremity 
brown ; parts of the mouth, antennae, and legs of a yellow 
brown ; extremity of the mandibulae black ; antennae, very 
long. This species is dedicated to my lamented and old 
friend, the Rev. Mr. Hope. 

Of Gieindela I also received a new and most remark- 
able species from Western Australia. 

Gieindela MacLeayi : length, 6', breadth, 2' ; of a gilt 
copper colour, head broad, eyes prominent, thorax almost 
square, rounded laterally with a transverse sulcate near the 
anterior and posterior margins, and a longitudinal one in the 
middle ; elytra of a beautiful purple, with three longitudinal 
bands of a whitish yellow, one marginal, another sutural, 
and the third contral, which does not entirely reach the 
margin at its posterior part ; inferior parts of the body of a 
beautiful irradiated green ; anus, brown ; antennae and legs 
of a red copper colour, variegated with green ; thighs 
covered with a whitish pubescence; labrum white, trans- 
verse, with its anterior margin sinuous. 

This beautiful insect has an Indian appearance. I have 
dedicated it to Mr. McLeay, junr., who has already done so 
much for Australian Entomology. 

The same magnificent collection of West Australian 
insects I obtained from the Rev. Mr. Bostock contains a 



38 On an undescribed Senecio, 

specimen of Cicindela which only differs from Circumcincta 
by its fine light green colour ; I suppose it to be a local 
variety. 

I will conclude with the following remark. The Tetracha 
Australasias of Hope is perhaps the same as the Grucigera 
of McLeay, junr., but it is certainly different from the insect 
figured under the name of Australasias by White, in the 
expedition of the Beagle (pi. 1, fig. 1). The latter belongs, 
I think, without doubt to the Humeralis of McLeay. 

With the addition of the sort lately described by Mr. 
McLeay in the fifth number of the " Transactions of the 
Entomological Society of New South Wales," the number 
of Australian Tetracha is actually eight, and will be cer- 
tainly soon very much increased. 



Art. VI. — Characteristic of an undescribed Senecio, from 
South Africa. By Ferd. Mueller, M.D., F.RS. 

In a communication very recently received from Peter 
MacOwan, Esq., principal of Shaw College, of Grahamstown, 
the writer of this note has been desired to give an opinion 
on the specific validity of a new species of Senecio, dis- 
covered not long ago by that learned and ardent investi- 
gator of South African plants, in the vicinity of Algoa Bay. 
I entered on the examination with all the more pleasure, 
not only because the material for comparison of plants from 
extratropical Africa is extremely rich in the Phytologic 
Museum of Melbourne, but because I was also anxious to 
promote in any way within my power the researches of a 
gentleman who exercises already important bearings on the 
elucidation of the plants of the Capeland, and who, moreover, 
has commenced to add largely to the South African collec- 
tions already in possesion of my institution, from the 
german naturalist and travellers, Ecklon, Zeyher, Drege^ 
Pappe, and Gueinzius. 

The genus Senecio is not merely more widely distributed 
over the globe than any other existing, from the polar to 
the equinoctinal regions of both hemispheres (though 
almost absent in North Australia), but it embraces also more 
species than any other, nearly a thousandbeing on record, some 
however but ill defined. The genus almost as rich in 
species, and almost as extensively diffused is Solanum, and 
then seemingly follow Panicum, Carcx, and Euphorbia 



from South Africa. 39* 

though in Australia Acacia surpasses all others largely in 
the number of specific forms. The species of Senecio, as 
representatives from almost every part of the globe, become 
thus of the greatest possible interest, and are certain to be 
always among the first which come under the notice of any 
phytographical observer. The groundsels, I may- remark, 
though generally of the more humble form#bf vegetation, 
present, in a recently discovered species from the Chatham 
Islands (Senecio Huntii: " Vegetation of the Chatham Islands," 
sketched by F. M., p. 23, plate 3) ; and in the Victorian and 
Tasmanian & Bedfordii (F. M., report, 1858, 26) fair-sized 
trees, perhaps the only truly arborescent species of the globe. 

In transmitting the botanical object, to which more 
specially this brief memoir has reference, the discoverer 
justly observes, " its nearest affinity to be with Senecio 
" Paucifolius, from which however it abundantly differs in 
" its peltate leaves. The leaf is very like a frequent form 
" of S. Oxyrifolius, but that plant has discoid capitula and 
" a corymbose-paniculate inflorescence." In these lucid 
remarks I cannot but fully cod cur, and it will be therefore 
with these two congeners that Mr. MacOwan' s Senecio will 
rank under the highly appropriate name chosen by that 
gentleman for this new species. It may however be that 
occasionally monocephalous varieties of S. Paucifolius and 
S. Oxyrifolius are formed ; and again, forms of S. Tropceoli- 
folius with more than one capitulum, and thus the affinity 
between these evidently closely allied plants would become 
still nearer. The diagnosis would approach to the follow- 
ing :— _ 

Senecio Tropceolifolius (MacOwan) : — Herbaceous, gla- 
brous ; leaves small, peltate, cordate-orbicular, or verging 
into a rhomboid or renate form, repand, all roxlical or crowded 
towards the base of the stem, on long petioles ; stem simple, 
scapelike, monocephalous, with very few distant minute 
scales ; involucre without calycular bracts, unless one, as long 
as the discal flowers, consisting of about 13 scales ; ray- 
flowers yellow, about twice as Long as those of the disk ; 
achens glabrous. 



to 



On Meadows at Grahamstown. Pet. MacOwan, Esq., M.A. 
The only specimen transmitted, is about a span long, and 
without root, which probably will prove tuberous. Petioles 
1-2" long, slender; leaves measuring about one inch, without 
distinct teeth ; the point of insertion about one-third above 



40 On an undescribed Senecio. 

the base ; neither nerves nor veins prominent. Involucre 3-4/" 
long. Ray-flowers about 7. Disk-flowers about 20, hardly 
above 2'" long, a little exceeding the copious and very tender 
bristles of the white pappus. Ripe fruit not seen on this 
occasion. 

8. Paucifolius, to which Mr. MacOwan justly compares 
his plant, though somewhat resembling it in habit, assumes 
by its sessile leaves of mostly ovate shape a very different 
appearance ; the nerves, moreover, are not radiate. The 
flowerheads of both bear a great resemblance, as a comparison 
of 8. Paucifolius in the Melbourne Phytological Museum 
at once rendered manifest. The affinity of 8. Tropceoli- 
folius is indeed nearer to S. Oxyrifolius ; the differences of 
the latter consist in a pleiocephalous inflorescence, in a 
lesser number of scales constituting the involucre, in the 
abscence of ligular flowers and in hispidulous achens. On 
this, as an apt occasion, the writer would still remark, that 
in the extensive series of South African species of Senecio, 
diagnostically defined by Professor Harvey, one does occur 
among those formerly undescribed, as 8. Leucoglossus, so 
named by Dr. Sonder. The specific name is, however, pre- 
occupied by a West Australian plant, described in the 
second Vol. of the " Fragm. Phytogr. Austr.," p. 15. The 
name of the homonymous South African plant might thus 
be altered into 8. Actinoleucus. 

The writer connot conclude this brief notice of a South 
African plant without a tribute of homage to the two illus- 
trious phytographers, Drs. Harvey and Sonder (of whose 
lengthened friendship he may well be proud), who, in con- 
structing their noble work on the vegetation of extratropical 
Africa, have so far and so rapidly advanced to bring to- 
gether their discoveries and those of their predecessors in a 
form clear erudite and accessible ; though alas ! the hand of 
death has withdrawn one of these discoverers of the Cape 
flora from amidst his glorious exertions, from exertions with 
dignity sustained to diffuse combined knowledge and de- 
light, and certain to stamp his name on that part of the 
globe for all time. But it will not be there alone where the 
children of Flora will speak with every returning spring of 
both Harvey and Sonder. It is also on the oceanic shores 
of the Australian continent, where we ever will be reminded 
of the genius of these great men, when we contemplate the 
wonderfully rich, varied, and beautiful marine vegetation of 
our own extensive coasts. 



Cretaceous Fossils in Australia. 41 

Art. VII. — On the Decomposition of Pyrites. By Mr. 

Shiress, of Ballarat. 

[Read by the President, 10th December, 1866.] 

This paper treated of a new method of decomposing 
pyrites by bringing the ore in contact with the fuel. 

[Subsequently Mr. Shiress was requested to furnish the 
Council with some data by which a conclusion could be 
arrived at as to the correctness of the theory ; but this Mr. 
Shiress has not thought proper to do. — Ed.] 



Art. VIII. — On Three New Victorian Birds. By Professor 

M'Coy. 

Professor M'Coy exhibited a specimen of the Herodias 
grezetta, shot in Gipps Land. This has been only doubtfully 
added by Gould to the list of Australian birds, from inspec- 
tion of a photograph of a specimen killed in Queensland. 
The Victorian specimen exhibited was not only new to the 
colony, but the first of the kind that had been actually 
identified with the species from actual comparison. The 
second new Victorian bird exhibited was a new species of 
Bristle-bird, Sphenura Broadbenti (M'Coy), found by Mr. 
Broadbent near Portland. The third was a new species of 
Pardalotus, recently described under the name P. Xanthopyge 
(M'Coy), first noticed by Mr. Leadbeater, taxidermist at the 
Museum, but previously confounded with the P. punc- 
tatus. 

The characters of all these forms were dwelt on in detail, 
and the specimens exhibited have been in the National 
Museum for two years. 



Art. IX. — On the Discovery of Enaliosauria and other Cre- 
taceous Fossils in Australia. By Professor M'Coy. 

This paper was to illustrate a small but most valuable 
series of fossil specimens, sent by Mr. James Sutherland to 
Professor M'Coy, from the head of the Flinders, for the 
National Museum, in continuation of the series formerly 
described before the Society, presented by Messrs. Sutherland 
and Carson, of Collins-street, and which enabled Professor 



42 Cretaceous Fossils in Australia. 

M'Coy to establish the existence in Australia of the cre- 
taceous formation. The present collection enabled Pro- 
fessor M'Coy on this occasion not only to confirm his 
previous determination of the geological age of the rocks of 
the district, but to make the very important announcement 
of the occurrence of Enaliosaurian fossil reptiles of the 
genera Ichthyosaurus and Plesiosaurus, as well as the 
characteristic molluscous genus Ancyloceras and a Belem- 
nite, and a second species Ammonites allied to European 
cretaceous forms. These were exhibited and described under 
the following names : — 

Ichthyosaurus Australis (M'Coy). 

Numerous deeply bi-concave vertebra?, the bodies 4 inches 
wide, 3 inches deep, and 1J inches long. 

Plesiosaurus Sutherlandi (M'Coy). 

Length of centrum 2 J inches, width 3f inches, depth 2 J 
inches. This differs in its proportions from the New 
Zealand Plesiosaurus, described by Professor Owen, to% 
which it is most nearly allied. 

Plesiosaurus macrospondylus (M'Coy). 

Having the bodies of the vertebrae much longer in propor- 
tion to their width than any known species. Length 
3 inches, width 3 inches, depth 2J inches. The anterior 
and posterior margins are longitudinally wrinkled as in the 
P. rugosus. 

Ancyloceras Flindersi (M'Coy). 

A gigantic species equalling the A. gigas of the Lower 
Greensand in size, but more nearly resembling the A. 
Tabarelli of the French Lower Greensand in marking. 

Ammonites Sutherlandi (M'Coy). 

A new small species like the French Am. Paraudieri of 
the Gault. 

Belemnitella diptycha (M'Coy). 

A species with two dorsal inflected folds or sulci on the 
dorsal face ; broadly hastate guard, eight lines wide ; agreeing 
in size and shape almost exactly with the English and 
French lower cretaceous B. plena. 



The Glacial Period in Australia. 43 

Art. X. — A Contribution to Meteorology. 

[Eead 11th February, 1867.] 
Mr. G. W. Groves read a paper with the above title, in 
which he sought to prove the correctness of his weather 
prophecies, and ascribed to the " Science of Terrestial 
Magnetism " certain principles upon which his calculations 
were based. 



Art. XI. — On the Glacial Period in Australia. By the 
Rev. J. E. Tenison Woods, F.L.S, F.G.S., &c. 

[Read at the Annual Conversazione of the Royal Society, March 4, 1867.] 

I owe some apology to the Society for the brief and scat- 
tered notes on this subject, which I bring before their notice 
this evening ; but I trust they will see that it contains the 
germs of what is of the utmost importance to science, not 
only in Australia, but the scientific conclusions of many 
eminent men of Europe. It is well known that what is 
termed the glacial period has occupied a very prominent 
position in the researches of geologists at home. I need not 
particularize now what is ordinarily understood by the term, 
for most of my hearers will be familiar with the facts to 
which I refer. It appears that during the close of the 
tertiary period Europe, and indeed we may say the whole of 
the northern hemisphere, has been visited with a climate 
which is only now equalled by what is seen in Greenland 
and the Arctic regions. What that is will be best under- 
stood by Dr. Eink's paper in vol. xxiii. of the Royal Geo- 
graphical Society s journal, p. 143. Not only have such snowy 
regions as the Alps been the sources of glaciers, which have 
extended far beyond their present limits, but such temperate 
regions as the south of England have been visited by floating 
icebergs. Large masses of drift and boulder till have been 
strewed all over Great Britain ; projecting rocks have been 
grooved, striated, and ground down ; and in Scotland the 
evidence is such that nothing short of an immense system 
of glaciers will explain the evidence presented by that 
country. I need not go into the details of all this. They 
are so well known now as to be found in every popular 
manual of science. They have caused quite a revolution in 
our received explanations of terrestrial phenomena, and have 
in turn themselves become the subject of various theories. 



44 The Glacial Period in Australia. 

Some have wished to account for them by supposing a cap 
of ice to have formed in the Arctic regions sufficient to 
reduce the whole temperature of Northern Europe. Others 
have proposed various modifications of the land of South 
Europe to account for the facts. One very eminent geolo- 
gist, Professor Ramsay, considers the change in climate to 
have been so vast and general that it can only be explained 
by supposing the earth to have revolved upon a different 
axis at that time ; for observe, the appearances are not con- 
fined to Europe. Even as far as the tropical latitudes, such 
as the West Indies, the effects of extreme cold are perceived 
in the later tertiary geology. It is not my business now 
to specify these theories, but I wish to call your attention to 
the fact that the universality of a period of cold seems to be 
questioned by none ; and even Australia is supposed not to 
have been exempted from it. Indeed, Dr. Joseph Hooker 
accounts for the antarctic flora, or more properly our alpine 
flora, in this manner ; and the prevalence of the glacial 
period, even in Australia, forms a prominent feature in the 
graceful theory of Dr. Darwin, and the speculations of his 
numerous supporters. Now, this is the question to which 
I wish to call your attention this evening — Has this theory 
of a glacial period for all the world been borne out by 
observations in Australia ? Of course we do not expect such 
evidence as the groovings and striations of icebergs, drift, 
and "till" or roches moutonnees. These signs do not extend in 
the northern hemisphere below the 40th parallel of latitude. 
But do we find evidence of extreme cold ? On the contrary, 
we find evidence of extreme heat, or at least a heat almost 
tropical in South Australia, and as a consequence a sub- 
tropical fauna. I do not propose to specify the instances 
upon which these conclusions are based, but I will mention 
a few of the most striking. In the first place, every geologist 
on becoming acquainted with our tertiary fauna is struck 
with its climacteristic resemblance to the fauna now existing 
in the Philippine seas and Indian archipelago. It is not 
that the shells and corals are similar, but the genera are 
such as are found principally in tropical or subtropical 
regions. I refer now to the extinct fauna and to our earlier 
tertiary beds, where any species, if they exist now, do so in 
very different localities. I may mention as instances of this 
Limopsis Belcheri, which is very common in the miocene 
beds. Professor M'Coy, in the "Annals of Natural History," 
states that only a few specimens have ever been found, and 



The Glacial Period in Australia. 45 

these were dredged up from a depth of 90 fathoms off the 
Cape of Good Hope ; but a few shells, which after careful 
comparison with the specimens in the Museum, I pronounce 
to be the same species of L. Beleheri, were lately cast 
ashore on the south coast of South Australia. They are 
much smaller in size than the fossil specimens, and their 
extreme rarity shows the different conditions under which 
they now exist. Pectunculus laticostatus is another of the sur- 
vivors, but now never found in Australia. A coral (Flabellum) 
another, but existing only in the Chinese seas. These and is 
other instances which might be alleged prove that whatever 
changes have taken place are from a warmer to a colder 
climate, since the earlier tertiary periods in S. Australia. 
But when we come to those deposits which correspond in 
point of time with the glacial period of Europe, we find the 
contrast still more marked. As a general rule in the glacial 
deposits, it is said that shells of existing species exist only 
in extreme Arctic latitudes, and when found in tropical 
latitude of tropical species are always stunted in their 
growth in such a manner as must be attributed alone to 
cold influences. Not only also were Arctic species able to 
live in the temperate seas of Britain, but species belonging 
to temperate species were able, owing to the severity of the 
climate, to find a congenial home in tropical seas. Now; in 
Australia, we find the exact contrary. Though we do not 
find actual tropical species in our quaternary beds of Aus- 
tralia, still we find a great many species which only live 
now in much warmer parts of Australia. A fine instance of 
this was lately furnished to me by Mr. Lefroy, the super- 
intendent of the Convict Department of W. Australia. He 
sent to me from Perth two very large specimens of Fusus 
colossus, some which had been dug out from the quarries 
close to the prison. I need not remind you of the fine 
specimen of this shell which is in our National Museum, and 
was brought from Port Essington. One of my fossils is as 
large, and weighs about ] lbs. As far as I am aware 
F. colossus has never been found outside the tropics, and yet 
it appears that it was able to live and grow to a large size 
at Perth, W. A, during what was a period of extreme cold in 
Europe. But this is not a solitary instance. The whole 
quaternary fauna of Perth is of an actually tropical character. 
In beds of the same age, in South Australia, we have the 
same phenomena repeated. All the shells found are of much 
larger size than those which exist upon the coast at present, 



46 The Glacial Period in Australia. 

and those which are not found in the same places are to be 
looked for in warmer localities. The contrast in some cases 
is most marked. Venus strigosa (Sow) is a tolerably common 
shell at Guichen Bay. It is also very common but of much 
larger size in the quaternary deposits. Shells of a size 
equal to that of the fossils are only to be found at Port 
Lincoln, which is in very much warmer seas. Venus aphro- 
dina is the common shell at Kobe now ; a variety repre- 
senting, as I believe, Lamarck's V. aphrodinordes (not 
the shell so named in the National IVIuseum, which is a 
Philippine species). This shell is abundant also at the head 
of Spencer's Gulf. The fossils at Robe are of a kind only 
found in the warmer climate. One more instance out of 
thousands which I could cite : — A peculiar variety of Bulla 
Australis (called by some naturalists B. striata) is only 
found now in Western Australia. It is only found as a 
fossil in Robe, and the existing species at Port Adelaide 
does not belong to the same variety. I need not detain you 
with more particulars, but I may sum up the whole in this 
announcement— that after carefully considering the subject 
for a period of more than two years, during which thousands 
of fossils and shells have passed through my hands, I am 
convinced that during the glacial period of Europe our con- 
tinent and seas have passed through a subtropical climate, 
or one at least very much warmer than what we experience 
now. This conclusion is formed upon evidence of the same 
nature as that from which they conclude a period of extreme 
cold at home ; and most of the arguments used there apply 
here, but in an inverse order. I believe that the same con- 
clusions are forced upon us by the fossil flora, though none 
of the species discovered here and in Australia have been 
identified. Yet I am sure my botanical friends will agree 
with me in saying that they offer evidence confirmatory of 
a warmer climate prevailing during the time in which they 
grew. In Tasmania this is especially remarkable where 
palms and a sub-tropical flora are found well preserved in 
extensive deposits. The importance of the conclusion to be 
drawn from these facts is obvious. If we had no period of 
extreme cold in the southern hemisphere, then the argu- 
ments or the theories which account for the glacial epoch, on 
the hypothesis of changes which aifected the whole earth, 
must be abandoned. The extent to which such theories 
have been relied upon can hardly be credited by those who 
have not paid attention to the later developments of 



The Manufacture of Paper. 47 

Darwin's hypothesis. I do not pretend to say how far 
received theories may be modified by the facts to which I 
have drawn attention, but I am convinced that the glacial 
period must be confined to the northern hemisphere, and 
some other explanation must be sought for our Alpine flora. 
I may remind the Society, however, that I do not wish to 
extend my observations further than Australia proper. In 
New Zealand, Julius Haast has found extensive evidence of 
glacial action, but the observations are rather too limited for 
us to conclude anything directly therefrom. A true glacial 
period in New Zealand would be a puzzling fact, and very 
difficult to reconcile with what we observe in Australia ; but 
we may find hereafter that even in Europe climatial 
changes may depend upon physical conditions to which 
New Zealand has been especially and exceptionally sub- 
jected. At any rate there has been no glacial period in 
Australia — in fact, the continent is now passing through a 
colder period than any of which we can find evidence in its 
previous geological history. 



Art. XII. — The Manufacture of Paper from Native Plants. 
By J. Cosmo Newbery, B. Sc, Analyst of the Geological 
Survey of Victoria. 

[Read 8th April, 1867.] 

The subject of paper-making from raw materials has been 
for many years occupying the special attention of manufac- 
turers in Europe and America, in reference to the supposed 
deficiency for meeting the increased demand for paper, con- 
sequent upon the progress of education, and the use of this 
material in various branches of industry. Hitherto rags have 
been the great staple upon which paper-makers have 
depended, and for many reasons they are the best 
adapted for the manufacture of the finer varieties of paper, 
they have passed through a thorough cleansing from refuse 
during their conversion from raw vegetable fibres into woven 
fabrics, and even the wear and tear to which they have 
been subjected, renders them particularly well adapted for 
the purpose. When, however, the manufacturer has to resort 
to raw material, the whole cost of this cleansing and prepar- 
ing has to be defrayed by the paper produced. I am of 
course speaking of the best white rags ; when those of an 



48 The Manufacture of Paper. 

inferior quality are used, they need much time and labour to 
fit them for conversion into white paper. It is well known 
that almost every vegetable fibre may be used in making 
paper, but though experiments have been made for the past 
hundred years to find a substitute for rags, only very 
limited success has attended any of them. In the British 
Museum there is a collection of sixty specimens of paper 
made from different materials, the result of one man's ex- 
periments in or about the year 1 770 ; and the Patent-office 
reports teem with patents for the use of various fibres, or 
the method of treating those already proposed. But no fibre 
has yet been found to make a paper equal to white linen 
rags. Some on account of their comparatively trifling value, 
arising from the limited use to which they are otherwise 
applicable, can be used to mix in various proportions with 
rags to make the cheaper white papers, such as that used for 
newspaper, which is now seldom made with more than 
thirty per cent, of rags. Up to the present date, everything 
proposed as a perfect substitute for rags has been ex- 
cluded by the cost of freight or preparation, or by these 
expenses combined. It is within the last ten years that 
straw came into use as a partial substitute for rags in poor 
white papers ; and until lately the difficulty of and expense 
of removing the silicious coating and other expenses con- 
nected with working it, made the paper cost almost as much 
as pure rag paper. About 1860, esparto, a tough Spanish 
grass, was introduced into England, and since then into 
Belgium, and some has even found its way to the United 
States. 

In England this grass has almost wholly superseded straw 
in white papers, and also to a great extent in brown and 
wrapping papers. Though in the latter so many articles 
may be used that it is very difficult to arrive at a correct 
estimate of the quantity of any one of the components in the 
brown paper of any country. The best brown papers of 
England and America consist in a great measure of Manilla 
hemp derived from waste and worn-out cordage ; and jute 
fibre, either derived from old bags or waste fibre, shipped 
direct from Calcutta ; and, as I have mentioned esparto in 
England, the cost of freight and customs' duty to a great 
extent preventing its use in America. The amount annually 
imported into England is about 15,000 tons, and is worth 
about £6 per ton. Jute is also largely imported, but I have 
no data as to the amount. 



The Manufacture of Paper. 49 

The loss in the manufacture of the articles I have named, 
are approximately — rags, 30 per cent. ; Manilla hemp (clean), 
for brown paper, 35 per cent. ; esparto, 40 per cent. ; jute, 
40 per cent. ; straw, 60 per cent. ; which at once shows the 
value of esparto and jute over straw, and of rags over all. 
Between jute and esparto it is difficult to judge, but I be- 
lieve that esparto is preferred for white paper, while jute 
works much easier into brown. 

It was with the idea of finding a substitute for esparto in 
case paper mills were started here, that towards the close 
of 1865 I began a series of experiments on grasses growing 
in the neighbourhood of Melbourne, and have found that 
Victoria produces many fibrous plants that may be used in 
the manufacture of paper, a branch of industry which must 
at some time become an important one to this colony. It is 
not my intention to give you an account of all the fibrous 
plants I have examined, as I should then be encroaching too 
much on the province of our learned member, Dr. Mueller, 
who has told us through our President that he has found 
some forty plants which yield a fibre from which paper may 
be made ; but I shall limit myself to calling your attention 
to two grasses, or more properly, perhaps, sedges. 

The Xerotes Longifolia and a variety of Lepidosperma, 
which I believe to be extremely well adapted for mixing 
with rags for a white paper, or alone or with any of the 
ordinary ingredients for making brown and wrapping papers. 
These two plants are to be found over almost the whole 
colony, especially on dry, open, sandy country, such as that 
between Melbourne and Frankston, where they cover 
miles, to the exclusion of almost every other plant. In some 
places the Xerotes Longifolia predominates, in others the 
Lepidosperma is in greater quantity ; but this is immaterial 
to the manufacturer, as the treatment is the same for both 
grasses. On this dry country the plants grow from eighteen 
inches to two feet in height, but when near water, to a much 
greater height. I have seen it near the edge of a swamp at 
Western Port growing to a height of six feet or more, but the 
fibre in this was much weaker than in the short grass, and the 
loss in manufacture would be much greater on account of a 
pithy substance which encircles the fibres, which would be lost 
while the fibre was being converted into pulp. I have also 
noticed a considerable difference in. strength between samples 
of the grass gathered at the close of 1865 and that gathered 
at the end of the past year — that of 1865 being stronger and 

E 



50 The Manufacture of Paper. 

finer. The samples compared were taken from a paddock 
near Malvern. The difference may be accounted for by the 
difference of rainfall during these two years, and would tend 
to show that the manufacturer should collect the grasses 
from the driest localities. As I have stated, these grasses 
are the best Victorian material for a substitute for esparto 
that has come under my notice. Under ordinary circum- 
stances the grasses may be collected without pith. The 
resinous coating is easily got rid of by an alkaline solution, 
and at the same time the colouring matter is rendered 
soluble. The per centage of pulp is fully equal to esparto, 
and the fibre as applied to paper making quite as strong- 
Another point greatly in their favour is, that they have no 
other uses and are at present valueless. 

It may be interesting to go over the present methods used 
in converting raw material into paper. The number pro- 
posed and patented is very great, but all have one object in 
view, the destruction of the silicious and resinous coating, 
which, besides rendering the fibre brittle, protects the 
colouring matter from the action of the bleaching solution. 
It has been proposed to crush the fibre between rollers, and 
then to destroy this coating by means of an acid, either 
hydrochloric, sulphuric, or nitric may be used. This has 
been found to answer in the case of sugar-canes, but for 
materials having a fine fibre it does not answer well, as the 
acid invariably acts on the fibre, rendering it weak and 
harsh. Others digest the crushed fibre in vats for from ten 
to eighteen hours with an alkaline solution heated by steam 
pipes. This works well with some fibres, but as in the case 
of the acids, the fibre is to some extent damaged. I believe 
no method has succeeded so well as that in which the un- 
crushed material is placed in a rotary high-pressure boiler, 
with a solution of lime or dilute alkali, after which the 
aperture is closed and high pressure steam introduced 
through a pipe passing through the axle upon which the 
boiler revolves, and the pressure maintained at about 100 lbs. 
per square inch for from five to fourteen hours. When the 
fibre is removed from the boiler, the coating is either dis- 
solved or rendered lose so that it may be easily removed in 
the process of washing in a beating machine, and at the 
same time the greater part of the colouring matter, which 
has been rendered soluble by the action of the alkaline 
solution, is washed away. 

The expense of this method is not much greater than when 



The Manufacture of Paper. 51 

vats are used, as there is considerable saving in time and in 
the amount of alkali used ; besides which, there is the great 
advantage of having the coating thoroughly destroyed, and 
that without the expense of a crushing. When lime is used, 
the grass fibres,, are hardly acted upon at all. I don't know 
whether this method has ever been used with New Zealand 
flax, I think it might answer, for that material is so readily 
acted on by an alkali or an acid, that it is impossible to treat 
it in a vat. 

An alkaline solution which had hardly any affect on 
Xerotes Longifolia or Lepidospermia, completely destroyed 
the fibre of the flax. The solution I used contained slightly 
over one per cent, of caustic soda, and the experiments were 
conducted in open vessels at a temperature of 212° F., so 
that the quantity of alkali I used would be in excess of what 
is required in a high pressure boiler. I am not quite certain 
of the amount of lime or alkali which would be required per 
ton of the grasses whose use I have proposed, as it will need 
experiments on a larger scale than any I have been able to 
make to fix. it definitely. 

It has been proposed to treat raw materials without the 
aid of solutions — first passing them through crushing rollers 
and packing the crushed material in a strong iron vessel, and 
then introducing super-heated steam, which is said to act far 
more effectually and in much less time than the rotary boiler 
process, but I have only the patentee's statement to go 
upon. The use of super-heated steam has been patented 
before, but it has always been introduced into vessels con- 
taining alkaline solutions, the patentees forgetting that the 
steam would give up its extra heat to convert the water present 
into vapour, and that the concentrated alkaline solution 
which would be formed, would act most detrimentally upon 
the fibres. There are other methods of treating raw mate- 
rials, but no great success has yet attended any of them. 
There is also the manufacture of paper from wood, which 
may soon become one of importance, though the paper will 
never be a strong one. 

After one of the processes I have spoken of has been gone 
through, the fibre is washed and beaten into pulp in wha is 
termed the pulping-engine ; and if for brown paper, it is then 
coloured and sized as required before passing ont to the 
Foudeneir machine to be rolled into paper. But if white 
paper is required, it has to be bleached ; this in the • case of 
vegetable fibres takes much longer than in the case of rags, 

E 2 



52 The Manufacture of Paper. 

though the chemicals used are the same, chloride of lime, 
dilute acid, and weak alkaline solutions. The acid used 
is usually hydrochloric or sulphuric, which must be 
very dilute or the fibre will be injured. A process 
has been patented lately in France for using carbonic 
acid instead of the stronger acids, which has the ad- 
vantage of being cheaper, and an excess does not 
damage the fibre. It is proposed to generate this acid by 
burning charcoal in a current of air and making it pass up 
through the vat containing the bleach by introducing it at 
the bottom by means of a perforated pipe. After the bleach- 
ing, the pulp undergoes the same treatment, no matter from 
what material it is derived. 

There seems to be great difficulty in selecting a site for a 
mill close to Melbourne, as the Yarra, besides being liable to 
floods, is not sufficiently clear for white paper, and the 
small streams would not supply sufficient water during the 
whole year. Few, I think, know that one hundred gallons 
of water are used in the production of every pound of white 
paper. 

Everyone interested might make experiments testing the 
value of plants for paper-making, without having any prior 
knowledge of the manufacture by working thus : Gathering 
the leaves when they have attained their full size, and 
drying in the sun, then taking a weighed quantity and 
mascerate it with water in a mortar, then digest it in a hot 
solution of lime, or di]ute alkali, or strong soap answers 
very well, as long as the solution is coloured, then wash 
with hot water, dry and weigh. The result is nearly correct 
for brown paper, but a little too high for white, on account 
of the loss which takes place in pulping. 

Machinery was brought here by the late Mr. Kenny, who 
intended to start a manufactory. Since his death this 
machinery has lain idle, but I think we may hope soon to 
see it in operation. 



Art. XIII. — On Colonial Wines. By Rev. John J. 
Bleasdale, D.D., F.L.S., F.G.S. 

[Read 13th May, 1867.] 

Mr. President and Gentlemen, 

The subject of this paper may be said to belong to the 
primary objects contemplated by this Society — viz., to 
record original investigations in art, science, and literature, 
and I trust it will possess, if not a lively, at least sufficient 
interest to engage your attention for a brief portion of this 
evening. 

Before entering on the subject permit me to say, that I 
hardly think it necessary to offer you an excuse or apology 
for having chosen Colonial Wines for my subject ; but there 
may be others who will read this paper who can know 
absolutely nothing of my fitness for my task save what 
they can glean from the internal evidences that it may 
afford. Neither do I intend to trouble you or any one else 
with an autobiography further than to state, that more than 
a quarter of a century ago I was placed in favourable cir- 
cumstances for acquiring a thorough knowledge of the 
growth and treatment of the vines and wines of Portugal, 
especially in the vicinity of the capital, and that I made use 
of the opportunity to the best of my ability. 

On my arrival in this colony, now more than sixteen 
years ago, one of the first things that I turned my attention 
to, as an occupation for the little leisure afforded in the 
intervals of ministerial duty, was to collect what informa- 
tion I could concerning wine-making and vine-culture in 
Victoria and New South Wales. 

Early in 1851 I visited the vineyards on the Barrabool 
Hills, and obtained samples of the various kinds of wines at 
that time manufactured. The white was for the most part 
agreeable young wine, partaking of a hock character. The 
red, without any exception, was high coloured, sweetish, and 
adorned with a bouquet that I can liken to nothing I am 
acquanted with. Greater age of the vines, and better treat- 
ment of the wine, have gradually corrected much of this ; 
and of late years I have tasted wine from these same which 
was free from this gout de terrain, and quite good in other 
respects — in fact, really good wine. 

I need not advert to the causes which subsequent to 1851 



54 On Colonial Wines, 

made vineyards more profitable for fruit than wine until per- 
haps as late as 1858. Even in 1859 comparatively little had 
been done in this colony in the way of systematic cultivation 
of the vine. There were not many men in the country 
acquainted with vine-culture and wine treatment, and of this 
small number some had other pressing and more presently 
lucrative avocations ; and most of the rest did not altogether 
believe in the suitability of the soil and climate. Previous 
to 1858 the Sydney agent of the Messrs. M 'Arthur, of Cam- 
den turned his attention to the Melbourne market, but after a 
time all but gave up the attempt to establish a branch busi- 
ness among us. 

I allude to these matters now, because out of this attempt 
have come most of the details which I am going to touch 
upon in the first part of this paper. While this project was 
before his mind, the gentleman I allude to supplied me with 
abundant samples of what we knew by the name of Sydney 
wines, both red and white — the best being from Camden 
— and also with samples of ports, sherries, and hocks. 
These last-named were sent for the purpose of standards, 
to which the colonial wines were to be referred in their 
various leading characteristics, such as alcoholic strength, 
bouquet, resistance of change, &c. 

I had intended publishing the results of my investigations 
as soon as they were in a condition to be laid before the 
public. But the introduction of wines from the Hunter 
River district, different in many remarkable respects from 
those with which I had been furnished by Mr. Ralph 
Hutchinson, caused me to lay aside my intention till I 
should be in a position to report upon them also. About this 
time I first saw really good wine from South Australia ; and 
this again presented fresh characteristics and new points of 
interest. A desire to make my study complete induced me 
to defer still longer ; and then circumstances occurred which 
obliged me to all but abandon every kind of chemical inves- 
tigation. Thus to this day my results have remained on the 
pages of my laboratory note-book. 

I set to work upon these Sydney Wines in the latter 
months of 1859 and about the beginning of 1860, when I had 
scarcely well finished studying, analysing, and comparing 
them (for I had not a deal of leisure time), Mr. J. E. Blake 
appeared in Melbourne, and in an incredibly short time made 
us thoroughly acquainted with Irrewang and Kaludah, red, 
white, and rosy. From this point the history of colonial 
wine in Victoria dates and starts. Till then no wine, the 



On Colonial Wines. 55 

produce of these colonies, was regarded as a beverage, which 
oould be safely placed upon the table, save with great 
caution and an apology, and only in a few rare and excep- 
tional instances ; and it required considerable hardihood in 
any one professing to know aught about wine to assert, in 
the company of gentlemen, that he could relish any of even 
our best colonial wines. 

But while Mr. Blake's importation of wines, of his own 
making, created a new era, it did much more, for it indirectly 
and by emulation brought the fine wines of South Australia 
for the first time into general notice, and thus gave to the 
public opportunities of comparing our own colonial produce 
with that of our sister colonies. 

I need not say how much this country has profited by 
these opportunities, and what a spirit of emulation has 
sprung up among us. 

At later times I tested some wines said to have been made 
by Mr. Lindemann, on the Hunter, with much the same 
result as to alcohol, but very different in the power of 
endurance. Of this class of wines I have met with fine 
specimens, made by Mr. Walsh and Mr. Everist, of Haw- 
thorn, but they had not the same age as the Irrewang — the 
wine I have always thought the best colonial I ever tasted. 
May I hope for his own benefit and the benefit of the con- 
sumers, that Mr. Blake will be able to equal it at Tabilk. 

Belonging to the same high class are the wines of 
Adelaide, made by Mr. Gilbert and Mr. E. J. Peake, of 
Clarendon. I speak of these, because I am well acquainted 
with them, both red and white. They are wines which 
would do honor to any country in the world. I tasted also 
a few samples from Kapunda, at least called Kapunda, 
chiefly red, which rose to the character of middling young 
port, but with a somewhat different flavour. With reference 
to these wines I am happy to be able to furnish a far higher 
expression of opinion than my own word. A gentleman 
desired me a,bout a year ago to procure a few dozens, and 
send them to friends in England and Ireland. I selected 
a red wine of Mr. Gilbert's, and a Hiesling, a few bottles of 
Kapunda red, and the rest believed to be Mr. Peake's 
Palomino Blanco. 

Samples of this little lot found their way eventually into 
the hands of one of the largest and most extensively known 
Dublin Wine Merchants, who, when they had rested for a 
month or two, invited some other good judges to sample them. 
And, I have it on the most reliable authority, that they all 



56 On Colonial Wines. 

concurred in the expression of opinion, that they were new 
in some of their charactistics, and excellent in all. And 
that if such kinds could be supplied at fair prices, they would 
command ready sale. 

Another class of wines, all Victorian, are the produce of 
the Geelong district, with which I would place the young 
wines of Yering. These are delicate, dry, and admirable 
summer wines. I have seen samples of Dr. Hope's wines, 
of Batesford, and of Mr. Dardell's, and some others, as well 
as the Yering, of great merit. Some wines of Dr. Hope's 
were absolutely splendid. The same may be said of Sun- 
bury and Riddell's Creek wines. 

When we pass the Dividing Kange north and east, we at 
once come upon another class of wines quite distinct from 
any of those already enumerated, strong, luscious, and full- 
bodied. Here the Scyras and the Verdelho grape seem to 
come to perfection, while the Riesling also appears to sur- 
pass the produce of Adelaide in sweetness. What these 
wines will come to I can only guess, but they promise great 
things. From Castlemaine, Sandhurst, Wahgunyah, Albury, 
and lately from the Goulbourn, I have met with wines that 
lead us to hope that this country will ere long replace 
without disadvantage every one of the best imported 
varieties, and with this decided advantage, that they are 
not sophisticated. 

The first lot, then, which I took in hand, was the produce 
of the Camden vineyards, New South Wales, furnished by 
Mr. Hutchinson, of Sydney, at that time agent for the 
Messrs. Macarthur. 

These consisted of several samples of different ages of 
wines, labelled "Cawarra" and Red Camden, at least they 
are so entered in my note book. The " Cawarra " was a 
fine pale coloured white wine, somewhat resembling 
Sauterne, but of course with little bouquet, very thin, quite 
dry, and altogether a delicious hot weather wine. A mean of 
five distillations gave it 7'28 per cent, of alcohol 
(absolute alcohol). But it would not keep ; if a bottle were 
opened, a glass or two taken out, and the cork replaced, 
next day it showed much acetic acid, and by the third 
was quite sour. I speak of warm weather. I could never 
detect a trace of sugar in this wine, while the residue 
of vegetable matter, extractive, &c, was the least I ever saw 
in any wine, yet when drank, it gave one the idea " of a 
mouthful of wine." It was remarkable for little tannic acid. 
My experiments on the Red Camden were many and 



On Colonial Wines. 57 

various ; for I became much interested in it. By distillation 
I obtained 10 per cent, of alcohol : and by evaporation, con- 
siderable, but not excessive, residue. Its colour was near 
Burgundy, and its bouquet, though deficient, was agreeable ; 
but unlike that of any wine I am acquainted with. It might 
be called a dry wine. It contained a good deal of extractive, 
tannic acid, &c, and I well remember the trouble it gave me to 
reduce the residue after evaporation to a condition of dryness. 

Much used to be said about the perishable nature of all 
colonial wines. " If you open a bottle you must drink it, or 
it will turn sour directly." Now, when I proceeded to 
operate on this wine, I was at once struck by the falseness of 
the cry about being easily destroyed, turning sour, &c, at 
least in the case of red. The method I took in experiment- 
ing on this sample, was to take a bottle in hot weather, 
open it and take out two wine glasses-full, and replace the 
cork in about the same way as a servant might be supposed 
to do, and let it stand for a week, and then re-open it and 
draw another glass or two, and replace the cork, and so on. 
I can state truly of this wine, as indeed of some of the 
Adelaide red wines, that nothing could surpass its resist- 
ance to acidity. I exhibited to a number of private friends 
the bottles in which I carried out the above experiments ; 
marked as they were by rings of deposit, thicker as they 
descended towards the bottom ; while in some cases, the last 
three glasses had deposited nearly all their colouring matter, 
but were still strong sound wine. 

After this, I considered the durability of our red wines to 
depend entirely on the ripeness of the grapes, careful fermen- 
tation, and on keeping the casks well attended to before the 
time of bottling, and great caution about matters made use 
of in fining. Subsequently I subjected those red and white 
wines, with which Mr. Blake commenced to create a wine 
market in Melbourne, to much the same kind of tests, and 
in the case of the reds, with success second only to the 
Camden Beds. But in the case of his white wines, " the 
Kaludah " and "Irrewang," and remarkably in the case of the 
latter, I found that they would resist change, and remain 
good after being opened, better than ordinary good German 
wines, of a somewhat similar class — Biesling for example. 
And here again, while the kind of grapes had something to do 
with it, fermentation and after treatment had much more. 

Three specimens of "Irrewang," yielded an average of 
9103 of alcohol, while the same number of specimens of 
Kaludah, gave only 8 31. 



58 



On Colonial Wines. 



Abstract of the Average Strength of Wines of Australia shown 
at the International Exhibition of 1862, and subsequently 
Analyzedby Dr. Keene. 







Proof Spirit per cent. 


V 

•si 








& & 


Seat of Growth. 


Colour. 


g bD 

is a 


5 8 


p 

> 

< 


O ft«8 

so 




New South "Wales 


Eed 






25-9 


14-9 


2 


Do. do 


White 


246 


18 9 


22-7 


13. 


4 


Victoria 


Eed 


28 6 


20-2 


233 


13-4 


7 


Do. do 


White 


279 


20-2 


25-6 


147 


5 


Mataro-Victoria ... 


Red 








202 


11-7 




Frontignac do. ... 







— 


22- 


12-7 




Hermitage do 







— 


20'8 


120 




Burgundy do 




23-9 


28"6 


26-7 


15-3 




Red Victoria 


... 





— _ 


28-6 


16-5 




White do 


White 





— 


25-9 


149 




Tokay ... 










27*9 


16-0 




White Pinean 










246 


14-1 




Australian Sauterne 










20-2 


11-6 




Chasselas 


» 


" 


— 


246 


14-1 





In every instance the average is about three per cent, of 
spirit stronger than I found it in the samples I distilled, 
which may be accounted for by either stronger samples 
having been chosen for transmission to Europe, or the not 
unreasonable addition of three or four per cent, of spirit to 
help them to bear the voyage. 

The remainder of my paper will have reference to a series 
of experiments, chiefly on the durability of colonial white 
wines, which I have but lately concluded. 

Most of you probably know, that during the late Inter- 
colonial Exhibition I officiated as Special Commissioner for 
Juries, and also as chairman of the jury in class 3, section 
9, comprising all the exhibits of wine from the Australian 
Colonies. 

I need not now say more in this place of the results of 
the examinations made by myself and my very able co-jury- 
men, than that they will be found so far as our judgment 
upon the excellence or the special goodness of the wines 
went, in the printed report of the jury of the section soon 
to be issued to the public. 

My object in mentioning these matters now, is for the 
purpose of introducing and to some extent denning the 
peculiar nature of the observations and experiments on 



On Colonial Wines. 59 

wines, which I wish to bring before this Society. These have 
very little or nothing to do with the awards of the jurors. 
It was the circumstance of my position as chairman of the 
jury, and of my having a large and commodious private 
office as Special Commissioner for Juries, that furnished me with 
a favourable opportunity of watching and experimenting on 
the very numerous and varied specimens of wines placed at 
my disposal. 

The experiments which I made, and the inferences drawn 
from tli em, do not properly belong to the general report of 
the Section, because they were made privately by myself, 
and primarily to satisfy my own curiosity, and as such, I 
now respectfully bring them before you, and request you 
to consider them as belonging to the class of objects embraced 
by the Society. 

The reason of my instituting the inquiries I am about to 
detail at some length, was this. I know that however well 
satisfied individuals may be of the durability of our wines, 
the public mind is full of the notion that they will not keep, 
that if you draw a cork out of a bottle, you must either 
drink the contents at once, or lose them ; especially in the 
case of white wines, for one of two things, it used to be said, 
will certainly occur ; either it will turn to vinegar in a day 
in hot weather, or will become thick and discoloured and 
"nasty." A little more favourable opinion used to be enter- 
tained of the red varieties ; but even they were some way 
implicated with the white, and both colours shared the same 
judgment from the ladies, viz., if you open a bottle you 
must at once drink it or lose it. It was then to this wide- 
spread and most injurious opinion (and to my mind most 
ill-founded) of the perishable nature of our native wines, 
that I addressed myself under circumstances which were 
calculated either to establish it, or utterly destroy it in the 
minds of the intelligent and unprejudiced. 

The jury commenced examining wines in the latter weeks 
of December, and by the end of January had completed the 
main body of the white samples, amounting to more than 
one hundred, from various parts of Victoria, New South 
Wales, a few from Grafton and Queensland, South Australia, 
and Western Australia. Obviously these samples stood high 
in the estimation of their owners, or they would not have 
been sent for exhibition. Presumably, objects are not ex- 
hibited for the purpose of bringing discredit on the owner 
or producer. I therefore take the liberty of assuming that 
these exhibits were the very best their owners possessed. 



60 



On Colonial Wines. 



I will now endeavour to bring you at once to the nature 
and conditions of my experiments, premising only that : — 

In the first place it occurred to me that, for some years 
to come, probably no individual could have the same chance 
of studying the best colonial wines as was offered to me. 

And secondly, taking into account the heat of the summer 
weather, and the extremes of heat and cold to which the 
office was exposed, the thermometer often standing for many 
hours at 90°, and then rapidly falling to 65°, there was 
afforded a range of trials, such as no wine cellar either of 
a merchant or a private individual can boast, for naturally, 
both the one and the other would strive to avoid such un- 
natural extremes. In my case this was just what I wanted, 
and I availed myself of it to the utmost. 

The following forty-eight samples were taken at random 
out of more than one hundred, and they have turned out 
rather below the average of the whole in their keeping 
powers : — 

VICTORIA. 







°& 




Name of Exhibitor. 


Name of Wine. 




Remarks. 


1. Everist, T. J. 


Terret 


_ 


Kept pretty well. 


2. Ivanhoe Lodge ... 


White Ivanhoe 


— 


Kept for 10 days. 


3. Billing, N. 


Shepherd's Riesling 


1864 


Kept well. 


4. Hewitt, J 


No name 


1865 




5. Hewitt, J. 


No name 


1866 




6. Morgan's 


Chasselas 


1866 


Kept well for one month, 
afterwards cloudy. 


7. S.E 


White Wine 


1866 


Fairly. 


8. 


Dromana White 


— 


Fairly for one month. 


9. Hope, Dr. R. C. ... 


White 


1866 


Very well indeed, and im- 
proved. 


10. Hope, Dr. R. C. ... 


Riesling 




11. Weber Brothers ... 


Hermitage 


1866 


Kept well. 


12. Weber Brothers ... 


A Sweet Water 


1864 


Do. do. 


13. Tronetti, J. P. -,.. 


White 


1866 


Turned after a few days. 


14. Weber Brothers ... 


Riesling 


1865 


Kept very well 2 months. 


15. Heine, August 


Chasselas 


1866 


Do. and even improved. 


16. Meredith, T. 


Tokay 


— 


Did not keep well, but re- 
mained bright. 


17. Vlaminick Brothers 


White 


1865 


Very good. 


18. Corowa Vineyard... 


Tokay 


1865 


Did not keep well. 


19. Piper, W 


White Muscat 


1864 


Kept well. 


20. Piper, W 


Chasselas 


1864 


Kept wonderfully, some of 
a bottle still remaining. 


21. Piper, W 


White Marangau 


1864 


Like ammontillado sherry. 


22. Ross and Co. 


White 


1866 


Soon became discoloured. 



On Colonial Wines. 



61 



SOUTH AUSTEALIA. 







° bo 




Name of Exhibitor. 


Name of Wine. 


ci+J 


Remarks. 






i*£ 




1. Green, W. 


Riesling 


1863 


Kept well. 


2. Green, W. 


Schiraz 


1860 


Do. 


3. Winckels, F. 


Tokay 


1864 


Did not keep well. 


4. Eoss, R. D. 


Mixture 


1864 


Kept for three weeks. 
/ Both these samples kept 


5. Smith and Sons ., 


Sherry 


1864 


J and improved. It is 


6 Smith and Sons ... 


Sherry 


1864 


j now more palatable 
^ than when opened. 


7. Charlesworth,T.W. 


Tokay 


1865 




8. Randall, W. 


Verdeilho & Tokay 


1865 


Kept pretty well. 


9. Green, W. 


Schiraz 


1861 




10. Auld, P. 


Mixture 4 grapes 


1865 


Kept for ten davs. 


11. Eeynell, J. 


Verdeilho 


1862 


Moderately. 


12. Hunt. F. R. 


Madeira 


1865 


Kept for one month. 


13. Auld, P. ... 


Hock 


— 


Kept very well. 


14. Hardy, T. ... 


Verdeilho 


1862 




15. Gilbert, J 


Verdeilho 


1860 


Kept good three months. 


16. Gilbert, J 


Verdeilho, sample 2 


1860 


Do. do. 


17. Peake, E. J. 


Pedro Ximenes 


1863 


Improved to the last glass. 


18. Peake, E. J. 


Verdeilho 


1864 


Do. do. 


19. Peake, E.J. 


Grenache 


1864 


Did not keep beyond a 
month, became turbid. 



NEW SOUTH WALES. 



Name of Exhibitor. 


Name of Wine. , 


° tD 


Remarks. 


1. Messrs. Wyndham 

2. Fallon, J. t. 

3. 

4. Doyle, J 


Dalwood White 

Tokay 

Bukkulla 

Shiraza & Tokay 


1863 
1863 


Kept exceedingly well. 

Do. do. 
Kept very fairly. 



WESTERN AUSTRALIA. 







°& 




Name of Exhibitor. 


Name of Wine. 




Remarks. 


1. Clifton, W. P. 


Verdeilho 


1859 


All these wines kept and 


2. Garden Hill Vine- 


Muscadine 


1863 


improved immensely ! 


yard 




and 


When first opened they 






1864 


had a bad smell, were 


3. Hardy, Joseph 


White 




rather thick, and tasted 
sweet. The Verdeilho 
became a fine strong 
Madeira. 



62 On Colonial Wines. 

The wine on which I conducted my experiments was that 
which was opened for the judges. 

1. When they had done with a sample bottle, it was set 
aside just as left, the cork replaced as nearly as possible 
as a servant might do it in a private family ; and it was 
let stand, cork uppermost, on the table. All the white 
wines were served in the same way, save that as some 
people very properly decant their wine into suitable decanters, 
some were so decanted, especially for experiment, and the 
stoppers placed in them, and then let stand on the same 
table with the rest. 

2. The same was also done for the Red Wines, but it soon 
became clear that there was no need of watching them, for 
they most manifestly improved by this rough handling. 

3. From time to time until the middle cf April, nearly 
three months, the corks were drawn out of the White Wines, 
now become the main subject of inquiry, and carelessly 
replaced. 

Surely, then, if they were capable of resisting all the heat 
of last summer, and all the violence done to them by repeated 
openings and shakings, there is evidence enough supplied to 
break down for ever the old calumny against them on the 
score of want of durability. That those kept well which 
had been made well is proved abundantly by the table. 

With a view to ascertaining one or two points in the 
chemical conditions of the wines thus favourably shown, I 
instituted the following short series of simple experiments, 
for the purpose of determining in such a way as any person 
of ordinary intelligence might easily learn to repeat them, 
the presence of: — 

1. Tannic acid. 

2. A rough estimate of the excess of tannic acid over the 
persalts of iron present. 

3. If the persaHs of iron were in excess of the tannic 
acid. 

4. The presence of gallic acid. 

(a.) A portion was treated with excess of carbonate of 
soda, and the change of colour noted. 

(b.) To a portion of that so treated with alkali — was added 
in excess a persalt of iron — 1 used the sulphate. A deeper 
colour denoted the presence of an excess of tannic acid.. 

(p.) Another portion was treated with gelatine, and after 
precipitation had taken place the supenatant fluid was 
treated with a persalt of iron for gallic acid. The tannic 
acid is wholly thrown down by the gelatine, and the gallic 



On Colonial Wines. 63 

acid left, as it is not attacked by gelatine. A blackening of 
the wine so treated would show gallic acid. 

In all the samples which had stood the severe handling 
just described, I found hardly more than a trace of gallic 
acid ; and in the soundest and finest of them, the Yallumba 
Sherry and one or two of Peake's and Gilbert's scarcely a 
trace, and not a great excess of tannic acid ; showing that 
the excess of tannic acid had been happily removed, if it 
ever was great, and that what remained had not been 
oxidized and raised into the higher form of gallic acid. 

Whilst treating of these chemical aspects of wine, I will 
avail myself of the present opportunity to say a few words 
upon another interesting point. I know I am going to run 
the greatest risk of forfeiting my good reputation in the 
minds of the great part of wine-makers in Victoria. But 
truth and science are to be preferred to prejudice ; and if 
I must forfeit my reputation in consequence of what I am 
going to add — well, let it be so. 

The subject, then, that I am going to call your attention 
to is the use of strong spirits of wine under certain circum- 
stances. 

This employment of brandy, or spirit of wine, is useful 
under at least two wholly different conditions, and for pur- 
poses widely distinct. It must be borne in mind that wine- 
making and maturing are almost entirely of a chemical 
nature, scarcely any operation but involves numerous 
chemical laws. Yet as a rule scientific chemists are bad 
makers of wine, partly because the whole chemistry of wine 
is not yet fully known, and partly because they are 
habitually too fond of instituting new inquiries. Perhaps 
these admissions will soothe, if not quite appease, my pre- 
judiced friends. Now to the subject. 

In countries like the warmer districts of Victoria, and 
the whole of South Australia, the musts are exceedingly 
rich in saccharine matter, with abundance also of those 
nitrogenised substances which are necessary to fermentation ; 
and so actively does fermentation proceed, that in a very 
few days the whole of the saccharine matter is split up into 
spirit, water, and carbonic acid. For if left to themselves in 
warm weather the saccharine and nitrogenous matters will 
soon come to a balance ; either the whole of the sugar will 
have been split up — and in that case a dry wine will result 
— or if there be too little nitrogenous matter to exhaust it, 
then the product will be a sweet one. 

Whatever the wine is, sweet or dry, one thing is certain, 



64 On Colonial Wines. 

that in hot climates you can never produce wine with the 
perfume (bouquet) peculiar to those of colder regions. 
Nature has fixed the impassable barrier. If you are to have 
the perfumed wines of France — Sauterne or fine Chablis for 
example — you must also have all the other conditions, espe- 
cially slow, long-continued fermentation at a low tempera- 
ture ; and in this case there is no demand for any addition 
of extraneous spirit, for it would almost certainly destroy or 
vitiate the so-much-prized bouquet, &c. 

1. When the fermentation goes on, as it does in all the 
warmer districts of Australia, the intelligent maker will 
watch the change in specific gravity, and when towards the 
point which he considers low enough, he will throw in one 
or two per cent, of very strong brandy, say 30 to 40 over- 
proof, and when possible made from the same kind of grapes 
as his wine has been obtained from. In a few words I will 
attempt to make the reason plain. The addition of one, 
two, or three per cent, of strong spirit fixes and renders 
henceforth either wholly, or very nearly wholly, inoperative 
the albuminous matters, and prevents further rapid fer- 
mentation — prevents therefore the formation of spirit ; and 
just in proportion as it prevents the formation of spirit does 
it preserve the natural sugar. The addition, then, at the 
proper time of a little strong spirit, not only adds nothing 
to the amount which would have been produced if all the 
sugar had been split up, but in very many instances it pre- 
vents the wine from becoming spirituous in a high degree ! 
As, therefore, we cannot have here generally Johannisberg, 
and Sauterne, and Burgundy, in approximate perfection, we 
must turn our attention to perfecting wines of the Portu- 
guese, Spanish, and Italian character. And when we have 
reached to the achievement of Lisbon sweet and Lisbon dry, 
and Bucellas in whites, and to Colares and Ports in red, we 
may be very well satisfied, even if three per cent, of brandy 
were used to save a portion of the saccharine matter. Whilst 
on this topic I may add that boiling the must would do for 
it the same as the brandy, fix those matters which are 
necessary to carry on active fermentation. 

2. Brandy is sometimes, and I think needlessly, added to 
wine before it is sent on a voyage. Here I agree with the 
anti-brandy doctrine, for if the wine was properly made and 
matured there is no need of strong spirit being added. 

3. In Portugal every vineyard-keeper makes a quantity 
o what he calls " arrome," and what the Spaniard calls 
" arrope " — fresh must — before any fermentation has taken 



On Colonial Wines. Qo 

place, carefully boiled down till of nearly the thickness of 
treacle, and most carefully scummed while being evaporated. 
It consists then of the natural saccharine matter of the ripest 
and best grapes, to which is added when cold five per cent, 
of brandy. This is used, if occasion require it, for giving 
additional sweetness and fulness to wine. This is a very 
different affair from the geropiga prepared for sophisticating 
Port wines. 

4. The use of brandy for the purpose of what may be 
called fortifying wines, i.e., making artificially a compound to 
resemble some European wine, and perhaps for the dishonest 
purpose of passing it off for what it is not, I reprobate. 

5. Eegarding fining wines, it may be mentioned that 
when whites of eggs are used, unless the wine shows a vast 
excess of tannic acid, when they have been beaten up to a 
froth, a small portion of brandy is added to diminish the 
effect they would otherwise produce in taking too much of 
the tannic acid out. By ignorance of this much wine has 
been utterly ruined. 

It belongs naturally to this place, to state that no real 
advance in wine making, and in creating marketable wine — : 
wine I mean that can be supplied from year to year of the 
same character— can be made, unless accurate accounts of 
every circumstance of climate, soil, vines, fermentation and 
after-treatment be kept in every wine cellar, as well as sam- 
ples of the wines themselves. This for the sake of reference 
and comparison. 

I would suggest here, that were cellar-books purchasable, 
ruled and headed so as to give a column for each particular 
I have alluded to, and a good many others which I need not 
touch upon at present, with an ample space on one of the 
margins for remarks, one great step would be taken in the 
right direction. The owner of a vineyard would soon find 
his account, in having such records carefully kept. It is 
only by adopting these necessary means, that wine of a kind 
which happens to secure a market can be continuously sup- 
plied from year to year. I have no doubt but my friend 
Mr. Blake of Tabilk, has by him books that would serve as 
perfect models of this kind of record. I cannot be too em- 
phatic in saying that everything done to each particular 
wine should be carefully recorded. 

It is not, however, my intention to write an essay on 
elementary matters and technicalities in wine making, but 
to point to one or two things which occur to me as not 
having been sufficiently insisted upon in the several useful 



Q6 On Colonial Wines. 

treatises which have issued from our local press ; my object 
on this occasion has been jra-ther to give a summary of my 
own observations on those colonial wines which have formed 
the subjects of my private studies and experiments. 

Many inducements of a public character have been held 
out to foster this industry ; and perhaps the most valuable 
efforts have been made by the Board of Agriculture towards 
fostering this spirit, by publishing reports on colonial wines, 
and awarding premiums for the best samples. 

It is matter of regret that the prizes offered for wines 
during the last two years have been inadequate to draw the 
best of our vignerons into competition at the Agricultural 
Exhibitions, and that the recommendations offered by the 
judges, regarding the storing of samples of the best kinds, 
have not been carried out fully ; the objects of the recom- 
mendation being, that in future years judges may be able to 
state what at present no man can — viz., how each sample has 
stood the test of keeping, and still more, how specimens have 
stood a voyage to Europe and back ; for it is only from data 
of this kind that the merchant will be justified in trying 
foreign markets, and the producer and wine-keeper here 
learn how to correct faults in fermentation, and in fact errors 
which will affect the character of our wines. 

It must ever be borne in mind, that we are still in the 
very infancy of wine producing, but it is for the most part a 
healthy infancy and full of promise. The rapidity with which 
our Adelaide neighbours have attained almost perfection, and 
the steps they have taken to ensure it, are full of instruc- 
tion, easily attainable by our own cultivators ; and though we 
may not all at once attain to their peculiar excellence, yet 
we may attain to others in our own produce, not less rare 
and valuable ; though as different in kind as are the finest pro- 
ductions of France from those of Germany, Spain, Italy, or 
Hungary. 

As regards the magnitude of our wine imports, I am 
enabled to lay the account before you for 1866. 

The following tabulated statement has been courteously 
supplied by the Honourable the Commissioner of Trade and 
Customs, and will, it is believed, be replete with interest for 
the intelligent, as showing the quantity of wine entered at 
the Custom House during 1866, the various countries from 
which it was shipped, and the total amount Victoria spent 
that year on wines. 

It would appear that only about £3,000 worth of wine 
was imported from South Australia and New South Wales, 



On Colonial Wines. 



67 



and that the whole of the rest of the amount (£241,132) was 
for wine of foreign growth, whether arriving direct or com- 
ing through other colonial ports. 

In round numbers Victoria imported from South Australia 
9,000 gallons, valued at five shillings (5s.) per gallon, and 
very nearly, if not quite, the whole may be presumed to 
have been of South Australian growth. 

From New South Wales, Victoria received 13,300 gallons, 
at a declared value (average) of 10s. per gallon. Con- 
sequently very little of this could have been colonial 
produce. 

So that the whole importation of colonial wine imported 
into Victoria from the Australian colonies, calculated at half 
a bottle per head, would about suffice for the population of 
Melbourne for one day. 

One may be pardoned for wishing to see a much larger 
proportion of our cash spent on the purchase of colonial 
wine, which, for its generous qualities, deserves better of us 
than our custom has been hitherto. 

VICTORIA.— 1868. 

Return showing the Quantity and Value of Wine Imported 
during the year 1866, arranged under the several places 
or Shipment. 



Place of Shipment. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


r 


183 pipes, 67 butts, 20 puns, 1,437 hhds., 50 


) 


United Kingdom < 


half-hhds., 104 bfls., 108 casks, 13,380 qr.- 
casks,511 octaves, 17,965 cases, 21,301 galls. 


V £203,156 


New South Wales j 


77 hhds., 4 casks, 242 qr.-casks, 46 octaves, 
139 cases, 1,733 galls 


| 6,662 


New Zealand 


13 qr.-casks, 281 galls. 


351 


South Australia ... 


105 hhds., 18 qr.-casks, 6 cases, 2,882 galls. 


2,262 


Tasmania ... 


1 hhd., 8 casks, 3 qr.-casks, 3 cases, 182 galls. 


286 


Western Australia.. 


2 galls 


1 


FOREIGN STATES. 






Bordeaux 


98 hhds., 100 qr.-casks, 6,144 cases, 486 galls. 


10,213 


Bourbon .. 




igall 


1 


Cadiz 




8 galls 


4 


Cape Town.. 




24 galls 


23 


Charente .. 




1,259 cases, 296 galls 


1,198 


Hamburg .. 




30 cases, 15 galls 


96 


Mauritius .. 




5 galls 


5 


Oporto 




50 hhds., 1,242 qr.-casks, 185 cases, 20 galls. 


14,282 


Rotterdam .. 




1,213 cases, 52 galls 


1,834 


San Francisco 


72 galls. 


28 


Tome 


10 galls. 


10 


m , f 


183 pipes, 67 butts, 20 puns, 1,768 hhds., 50 hf.- 


} 


Total 1 


hhds., 104 brls., 120 casks, 14,998 qr.-casks, 
557 octaves, 26,944 cases, and 27,373 galls. 


V £241,132 



J. G. Francis, Commissioner of Trade and Customs- 
Custom-house, Melbourne, 26th April, 1867. 



68 



On Colonial Wines. 



The subjoined table, taken from the statistics just pub- 
lished, shows our total amount of wine for 1866 to have been 
195,953 gallons. Taking the population of Victoria to be 
633,000, this quantity would allow about five half-pints to 
each individual — a quantity hardly sufficient to supply the 
colony for three days if ours had become a wine-drinking 
population. There is an end then to all talk about this 
colony being in a position at present, or likely of becoming 
so for a few years, to supply anything approaching the wine 
required by the people in proportion as their instincts draw 
them more and more to it. 

VICTORIA. 

The Ackeage under Vines, and their Produce in each County and 
Unsettled District, and in the entire Colony, during the 
Year ending 31st March, 1867. 



Counties 

AND 

Unsettled 
Districts. 

Counties. 
Anglesey 


No. of 
Acres 
undei 
Vines. 


VINES. 


© 

ES 
T3 

1 

a 


a 

a 


No. Of 
Vines. 


Grapes Gathered. 


o +3 , 


■s**« 

.Bo 


Total. 


No. 

4 

704 

50 

7 

365 

1,004 
36 

"56 
23 

4 
50 

270 

42 

10 
425 

848 
58 
95 


No. 

4,000 

1,008,970 

92.300 

13,162 

929,348 

2,24*1,881 

76 5 400 

115,840 
30,000 
10,000 
90.000 

470,000 
67,000 

17.090 

744,614 

1,374,080 

147,750 

236,691 


Cwt. 

10 

2.299 

235 

99 

110 

1,972 
64 

"62 

43 

3 

234 

2,875 
92 

112 

4,854 
296 
383 
760 


Cwt. 

3,097 

29 

198 

5,231 

7*409 
308 

245 
13 
17 

184 
1,300 

130 

80 

2,778 

14,534 

326 

139 


Cwt. 
10 

5,396 
264 
297 

5,341 

9*381 
372 

307 

56 

20 

418 

4,175 
222 

192 

7,632 

14,830 

709 

899 


Gals. 

17,546 
200 
360 

33,004 

50,758 
2,033 

*975 

60 

110 

181 

9,000 

432 

450 

15.116 

62,935 

2,254 

, 569 


Gals. 
21* 


Bourke 

Dalhousie 


Dundas 


Follett 






Hampden 


Mornington ...... 

Norm an by . 

Polwarth 


Talbot 

Villiers 


Unsettled Districts. 
Gipps Land.. 


The Loddon ... .. 
The Murray 


The Wimmera ... 


Total, 181-7 

Total, 1866 


4,051 

4,078 


7,669,126 
8,199,618 


14 503 

18,063 


36,019 
31,686 


50,521 
49.749 


195,953 
176,959 


21 

795 


Increase 


» 


530,492 


3,560 


4,332 


772 


18,994 


774 


Decrease 



Note. — The acreage and number of vines are for the year ending 31st March, 1867 ; the 
quantity of grapes gathered, and of wine and brandy made, are for the previous season. 
The grape crop comes in too late to admit of its being returned when the agricultural 
statistics are collected. 

William Henry Arc pier, Registrar-General. 



On Colonial Wines. 69 

If we take the yield of Victoria as returned in the above 
table, as the minimum of our produce, and also the returns 
from New South Wales and South Australia, the total 
recorded quantity in gallons for 1866 will be as under : — 

Victoria ... ... ... .. 195,953 gallons. 

New South Wales ... ... ... 168,123 „ 

South Australia ... ... ... 839,979 „ 



1,204,055 



Suppose the whole produce of the three principal wine 
colonies of Australia to be available for the population of 
Victoria, who shall be imagined to have become suddenly 
enraptured with colonial wine, and must have it as long as 
a drop remained, the quantity above stated as obtained from 
reliable records would supply us with a trifle less than fifteen 
pints — say a dozen bottles each. 

Allowing a very moderate supply to the adult population, 
and omitting tee-totallers and children, I calculate it would 
not suffice for one month ! and that we should have to go 
eleven months of the year without one drop obtainable for 
love or money. 

I venture now to draw the modest conclusion, that for 
many years to come, we of Victoria are unlikely, with all our 
natural advantages, to supply our own needs. I have been 
repeatedly assured that a single wine store in Great Bourke- 
street, sold in one day more than 500 quart bottles during the 
last summer ; and that the Australian Wine Company dis- 
posed of upwards of 15,000 gallons, chiefly in small 
quantities, rarely exceeding quarter casks, during the same 
time ; and at rates seldom exceeding one shilling per quart 
bottle. 

So far then as the instinct and taste of our people are 
concerned, nothing can be more hopeful ; and so far as the 
prospect of adequately gratifying it goes, nothing looks more 
disheartening ; for the planting of the vine is not progress- 
ing at all in the ratio in which it might be expected. 

Whilst on this topic, perhaps for the last time in my life, 
permit me to add a fervent hope, that the evidences afforded 
by the Exhibition, the results of the jurors soon to be in the 
hands of the public, and these little investigations of mine, 
may influence another important element in vineyard form- 
ing and wine-making, viz., the monetary. The time has 
now surely arrived when this produce will be treated like 
any other, and advances of money made upon it, just as on 
coals or wool. 



70 



On Colonial Wines. 



Gentlemen, I thank you for patiently listening to so long 
a paper, but one word more before I take leave of this class 
of subjects, the study of which has afforded me pleasant 
occupation for my leisure time for many years. 

It may be asked in other places to which this paper will 
travel in your Transactions, why I, a clergyman, should have 
taken so much trouble about a subject of this nature ? To 
reply fully to such a question would be long. Yet one or two 
reasons may be briefly stated. Certainly it is part of my duty 
to inculcate morality, to discourage and put down drunken- 
ness to the best of my ability, and to strike a blow, if possible, 
at the very root of the evil. Experience has long ago con- 
vinced me that pledges and resolutions to abstain from 
ardent spirits are but "poor safeguards of unstable virtue ;" 
and that to effect a lasting cure the natural instincts must 
be not violently assaulted with resolves, but steadily and 
gently turned towards sources of reasonable and healthy 
gratification, while the danger of excess is effectually 
removed. 

The experience of all warm countries where wine is the 
universal beverage leaves no doubt but that where the vine 
flourishes in luxuriance, there our beneficent Creator intended 
that his children should drink the produce of it and be glad. 

I need not recur to scenes of drunkenness with which we 
were all only too much familiarized a few years back ; but 
I will lay before you some tables of shocking deaths brought 
on certainly by drunkenness. The wretched effects of this 
vice are forced upon the clergyman and the medical officer 
more than upon all others. Consider for a moment the 
subjoined tables, and say if I did or did not propose to 
myself a meritorious work when I set about striving to turn 
this current into another channel ; and to help in providing 
the requisite conditions. 

Females. 

11 
8 
9 

10 
9 

18 

156 

Of the above numbers thus much is known, that 51 females 
died certainly of delirium tremens, and 406 males. 

These tables do not contain the other forms of death 
derivable from drink, they are purposely confined to deaths 



Males. 


Females. 




Males. 


1853 (6 months) 40 . 


9 


1860 


78 


1854 .. 107 . 


27 


1861 


39 


1855 .. 68 . 


15 


1862 


40 


1856 .. 61 . 


10 


1863 


22 . . 


1857 .. 42 . 


12 


1864 


28 


1858 .. 57 . 


9 


1865 


47 .. 


1859 .. 50 . 


9 




679 



On Colonial Wines. 71 

directly and immediately caused thereby. And is it not a 
sad contemplation ? 

Again, during eight of the above years I was constantly 
engaged with investigations, chemical and histological, some- 
times for myself, at others for members of the medical 
faculty, and for the General Hospital ; and had constant access 
to the laboratory of the late Government Analytical Chemist, 
for whom I performed for several years very nearly the whole 
of the microscopic and histological work. I thus had oppor- 
tunities which few non-medical men have had in this 
country, of witnessing the ravages made by ardent spirits on 
the human constitution. 

Peculiar forms of liver and kidney disease ; fatty 
degeneration of the softer viscera ; molecular changes, such 
as softening of the brain ; and insanity ; — these are a 
few of the more prominent rapid consequences of habitual 
spirit-drinking in this warm dry climate, as presented to the 
student of disease. When to the above catalogue, which 
affects primarily the drunkard himself, you add all the ruin 
and misery of a family, the wretched home and starving 
neglected children, you arrive at something like what used 
to be daily and hourly before the eyes of a minister of 
religion in this new country. 

Application has been made to the Sheriff of Melbourne and 
to Dr. Paley, the able head of our great Lunatic Asylum, for 
such statistics as they possess of crime and insanity caused 
by the abuse of ardent spirits, and in each case I have been 
politely promised all the information which it is in their 
power to communicate. But I regret to say I had not 
applied for it in time to allow of its being furnished for this 
paper. 

On the whole perhaps it will be as well to make another 
short paper, by way of appendix to the present, as soon as I 
have obtained it, and also more of a like character from 
Sydney, Adelaide, and Hobart Town. 

If a man believed in the existence of a fundamental 
remedy, cheap, easy of application, wholesome and safe, 
would he not be to blame if he did not try to apply it ? I 
have tried to clear the way to give it a chance. I believe in 
the remedy myself — I have more than a theoretical belief in 
it. I am no quack. I hate quackery. Had the slightest 
suspicion of quackery attached to me, I am quite sure the 
Medical Society of Victoria would never have elected me 
one of their two honorary members. 

The following anecdote is worth placing on record. 



72 On Colonial Wines. 

In my youth I spent full seven years in and near the 
great capital of Portugal, in times of turmoil and almost dis- 
organisation of society, consequent on civil wars, when the 
utmost excitement prevailed and the bad passions of men 
for a season broke loose, yet in that city of three times the 
population of Melbourne, and where wine was not more 
than two pence the quart bottle and strong brandy five 
or six pence the imperial pint, I never saw a Portuguese 
drunk. The occasional spectacle of a Dutch or British 
sailor drunk in the gutter, and dealing largely in loyalty to 
his own country and eternal execration of all others, used to 
afford an hour's cheap amusement to a whole street. Among 
themselves drunkenness, and delirium tremens, and our 
forms of liver complaint were wholly unknown. 

In the interests then of health and morality, and cheerful 
and happy homes, may I be pardoned for recording my 
heartfelt wish, that I may live to see the time when 
even the humblest labourer, at the close of his hot day's 
toil, will stroll into our fine parks and public gardens, and 
there with his happy family around him, enjoy his hour 
of relaxation and drink his bottle of wholesome wine at the 
cost of a few pence, without either the reproach of extrava- 
gance or the danger of intoxication. In fact I hope and wish 
to see the Victorians a healthy, sober, jolly, wine-drinking 
population. 



BTlLfWETX ANT) KNIGHT, PRINTERS, 78, COLWNS-STREP.T EAST. 



OSA^ 



5*,VCK 

m 



Art. XIV. — On the Condition of the Blood after Death from 
Snake-Bite, as a probable clue to the further study of 
Zymotic Diseases, and of Cholera especially. By 
George B. Halford, M.D. 

[Read 10th June, 1867.] 

Mr. President and Gentlemen, 

On the 25th of last April I addressed a letter to the 
Editor of The Argus, of which the following is part : — 

" When a person is mortally bitten by the cobra-di-capella, mole- 
cules of living ' germinal ' matter are thrown into the blood 
and speedily grow into cells, and as rapidly multiply, so that 
in a few hours millions upon millions are produced at the expense, as 
far as I can at present see, of the oxygen absorbed into the blood 
during inspiration ; hence the gradual decrease and ultimate extinc- 
tion of combustion and chemical change in every other part of 
the body, followed by coldness, sleepiness, insensibility, slow 
breathing, and death. 

" The cells which thus render in so short a time the blood unfit to 
support life, are circular, with a diameter on the average of one 
seventeen-hundre4th of an inch. They contain a nearly round 
nucleus of one two thousand- eight-hundreth of an inch in breadth, 
which, when further magnified, is seen to contain other still more 
minute spherules of living ' germinal ' matter. In addition to this, 
the application of magenta reveals a minute coloured spot at some 
part of the circumference of the cell. This, besides its size, dis- 
tinguishes it from the white pus, or lymph corpuscle. 

"Thus, then, it would seem that, as the vegetable cell requires for 
its growth inorganic food and the liberation of oxygen, so the animal 
cell requires for its growth organic food and the absorption of 
oxygen. Its food is present in the blood, and it meets the oxygen in 
the lungs ; thus, the whole blood becomes disorganised, and nothing 
is found after death but dark fluid blood, the fluidity indicating its 
loss of fibrine, the dark colour its want of oxygen, which it readily 
absorbs on exposure after death. 

" Let it not be thought that microscopic particles are unable 
to produce such great and rapid changes. It is well known, and 
I have frequently timed it with my class, that a teaspoonful of 
human saliva will, when shaken with a like quantity of decoction of 

G 



74 On the Condition of the Blood 

starch, convert the whole of the latter into sugar in a little less 
than one minute. If ptyaline, the active principle of saliva, exerts 
this power at most in a few minutes, then surely the active principle 
of the secretion of the serpent's poison-gland may exert an infinitely 
greater power in as many hours. 

" It results, then, that a person dies slowly asphyxiated by depri] 
vation of oxygen, in whatever other way the poison may also act, 
and so far as the ordinary examination of the blood goes, the 
post-mortem appearances are similar to those seen after drowning 
and suffocation. 

" I have many reasons for believing that the materies morbi of 
cholera is a nearly allied animal poison.. If so, may we not hope to 
know something definite of the poisons of hydrophobia, small-pox, 
scarlet fever, and indeed, of all zymotic diseases 1 

" 1 am, Sir, your obedient servant, 

"GEORGE. B. HALFORD. M.D. 
" April 25. 

" P.S. — At the suggestion of my friend Dr. Neild, I am going 
to try the inhalation of oxygen as a remedy." ' 

My reason for addressing The Argus was to obtain 
immediate and extensive circulation, copies of the letter 
having been sent home by the mail the following day. I 
hope the subject will appear of sufficient general importance 
to have warranted my so doing. 

The letter you will perceive contains a statement of facts, 
upon which is built the hypothesis of the cause of death 
after snake-bite, and of the probable origin of cholera from 
an allied animal poison. I proceed now to state those facts 
to the Society, and to develop the hypothesis which I put 
forth, not as the whole truth, but as a means by which the 
action of animal poisons on the body may perchance be 
arrived at. 

A gentleman, aged thirty-three, was bitten on the finger 
by a cobra-di-capella. About three hours afterwards he was 
discovered moaning by Mr. Fielder, who states : " I went to 
his side and found him perspiring freely, face flushed ; the 
third finger of the left hand punctured at the knuckle of the 
second joint, from which a dark fluid oozed freely ; finger 
swollen and turning black and purple, discoloration extend- 
ing to the back of hand, which was puffed up, having a 
glassy and livid appearance ; thence upwards and nearly to 
the elbow, redness and irregular streaks and patches denned 
the track of mischief. I applied the ligature at first sight 
close above the elbow, and gave brandy, also washed the 



after Death from Snake-bite. 75 

wound with the same until medical assistance was sent for." 
About half an hour after the discovery, Mr. Fitzgerald says : 
" I found the patient in a state of stupor (like a person under 
the influence of a narcotic). He had a fair pulse, about 80. 
The extremities were below the natural temperature," and 
the surface of the skin generally covered with a cold 
moisture. The power of speech was lost : when attempting 
to speak the words seemed so thick that they could not be 
understood." In eight or ten minutes after this, although 
stimulants were freely given, the symptoms changed very 
much. "The patient had lost all consciousness, and his 
face and lips were livid ; respiration scarcely to be noticed, 
and pulse difficult to detect." He was then removed to the 
hospital, where he died in about half an hour ; Mr. Fitz- 
gerald remarking that " his respiration stopped from ten to 
fourteen minutes before the heart's action." Dr. Mousse 
says, " On arriving at the hospital he was in a dying state, 
the general appearance was livid, and the temperature of the 
body so lowered that it could be felt by the touch." 

The next day & post-mortem examination was made, at 
which I was invited to be present. Nothing abnormal was 
discovered except fluid alkaline dark blood and some con- 
gestion of the lungs. I took a little of the blood from the 
spinal canal, and placed it under the microscope in Dr. 
Mousse's room. It appeared to contain a very large quantity 
of colourless corpuscles, of large size. With this observation 
I left. 

The same evening the cobra was brought to me. I made 
it insensible with chloroform, and turned it into a jar of 
spirit till the next day, when I removed all the poison I 
could, about half a drachm or more, and reserving a little for 
microscopic examination, injected the remainder beneath the 
skin of the abdomen of a full sized dog. The animal died 
after the usual symptoms during the same night. 

POST-MOKTEM EXAMINATION. 

The subcutaneous tissue was infiltrated with dark serum, 
extending nearly as high as the axilla and down to the 
thigh ; outwards nearly as far as the spine, inwards a little 
beyond the linea alba. 

No evidence whatever of inflammation or disease of any 
internal organ or of the lymphatics. 

The blood was in parts in a semi-fluid, in parts in a fluid 
state. No fibrinous coagula anywhere. 

G 2 



76 On the Condition of the Blood 

MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION OF THE BLOOD. 

I was at once struck with its resemblance to the blood 
of the man I had seen the day before at the hospital, and 
now with my own instrument and appliances I spent the 
whole of two days (it being holiday time) examining this 
blood. What I hastily took for white corpuscles at the 
hospital with a strange instrument and no conveniences for 
quiet observation, turned out to be nucleated cells of a 
perfectly circular form, with a diameter on the average of 
Ifijo inch. The nucleus nearly round, ^o i ncn broad. 
Besides this I detected on the second day, after applying 
magenta, a minute spot at some part of the circumference of 
the cell. This remarkable spot, when once seen, was dis- 
tinctly visible in all. 

Plate I. 

Foreign cells seen in the blood of the dog poisoned by the venom of the 
Cobra di Capella. 



® 



o 



® 




X 400 diameters. X 1100 diameters. 

Copied from the Author's drawings, by Br. Neild. 

Of these cells there must have been many millions ; they 
were present in the blood of every part of the body, but in 
much greater quantity in the dark congested parts of the 
lungs. None, however, were detected in the fluid of the 
thoracic duct. 



after Death from Snake-bite. 77 



EXAMINATION OF THE POISON. 

It was distinctly acid, nearly as thick as fluid honey, 
becoming more so on exposure. Under the microscope, 
besides epithelium and much molecular matter, it contained 
nucleated cells of the same size as those I have described as 
found in the blood, but I saw no spot, or macula, in the 
circumference, neither had I at this time detected any in the 
cells found in the blood, and by the next day my assistant 
had unknowingly thrown away my little drop of poison, and 
the cobra being in spirit, with the poison-glands laid open, 
the form of the cells was destroyed. 

We have now to ask the very important question, what 
are these cells \ They differ from the white corpuscles in 
size and in the presence of the spot, or macula, on the 
circumference. The diameter of the white corpuscle 
being, according to Beale, from 4^ inch to ^Vo mcn > ne 
gives a drawing of one, however, nearly ^kb inch, but the 
shape is different, and he describes no macula which so emi- 
nent an observer could not have overlooked with the 25 of an 
inch objective. (My own observations were made with a 
splendid \ of Ross and the 4 m ch of Smith and Beck). 
Gulliver says the diameter of the white corpuscle is 2S00 
of an inch, and Carpenter g 000 seldom larger or smaller. 

Mr. Ealph figures it about ^0 of an incn - 

My own observations on the blood have been very nume- 
rous, and as regards the white corpuscle, its size, and I believe 
also its state of maturity, vary very much. The average being 
in man ^ of an inch, in the dog m. When much larger it 
my be difficult to distinguish it from the new cell. The 
largest white corpuscles I have ever seen were in the blood 
taken from the umbilical artery of a pup, while in utero. 

But when the white corpuscles abound in the blood, there 
is usually an increased amount of fibrine also, as in the Leu- 
cocythcemia of Bennett and Leucocytosis of Virchow. The 
latter author speaks also of their existence in large numbers 
in cases where there is a diminution of fibrine as in typhoid 
fever. In these cases of snake-poisoning there was a defi- 
ciency of fibrine in the blood allying them, if we are to look 
upon these cells as white corpuscles, to the leukaemia of 
fever, in which, according to Virchow, the lymphatics are 
unaffected. 



78 On the Condition of the Blood 

Are they granular cells of pneumonia ? In the first place 
no pneumonia was found ; and secondly, they are unlike 
them. 

Are they pus-cells ? All observers agree in stating that 
there is considerable difficulty in distinguishing well deve- 
loped pus-cells from the white corpuscles of the blood. The 
action of reagents upon both being nearly if riot precisely 
identical. Their usual diameter is, according to Paget, 
from 2500 to 3000 °f an inch. Virchow represents them as 
25^- of an inch. Hassall figures them 3350 of an inch. 

Bennett, of Edinborough, makes them larger, i.e., from 
1 , _i_ 
1200 l0 2000. 

Are they large exudation cells ? No exudation was dis- 
covered anywhere, and they are also different in structure. 

What are they ? 

Their perfectly circular outline, and large nucleus prove 
them to have grown without impediment, and to have, as 
evidenced by their numbers, multiplied enormously and 
rapidly ; in other words, living " germinal " matter from 
the cobra has been thrown into the blood and grown at its 
expense. 

What is the meaning of the macula % 

Until further opportunity occurs to me, I would ask, can 
it be possible that the germ inheriting the qualities of its 
parent is fed by the blood which tends to make it one of its 
own corpuscles, but produces instead a hybrid nucleated 
maculated cell, except for its circular form, like a rep- 
tile's blood-corpuscle ? or is the macula a more general 
characteristic of cells than is yet known ? 

Immediately after the occurrence of the accident which 
led to the foregoing observations, I endeavoured to pro- 
cure Australian snakes in order to see the effects of their 
poison on the animal frame, and, if possible, to find some 
means of counteracting it. But I have found the winter 
too far advanced, and have been only able, although applying 
in many quarters, to procure two very young black snakes. . 

The snakes were very disinclined to bite, and my desire 
being great to examine the poison, I killed one for this 
purpose, and to my regret found very little in either gland. 
What there was was slightly acid, and consisted chiefly of 
free nuclei, having generally a translucent circular nucleolus, 
sometimes two ; some of the nuclei and nucleoli were oval. 
I examined them with the ^and-^ inch objectives. 



after Death from Snake-bite. 79 



Plate II. 

Germinal matter, or free nuclei, from the poison-gland of young 
Australian Black Snake. 




# 

# • 



X 400 diameters. X 1200 diameters. 

From a drawing by the Author. 

Determined not to lose the little poison I had, I minced up the 
glands and inserted them beneath the skin of the abdomen 
of a dog. The severe illness and speedy death of one of 
my children prevented me continuing the inquiry. It 
was, however, proceeded with by Mr. Lawrence, one of my 
class, who has been kind enough to forward me the following 
notes : — 

"May 11th, 1867. — Professor Halford inoculated a dog 
with the poison of a young black snake, about eighteen 
inches long, by inserting the gland beneath the skin of the 
abdomen. The same evening he examined a drop of blood 
from the ear, and found the number of white corpuscles 
greater than in normal blood, and at least two cells similar 
to those seen after poisoning by the cobra-di-capella, but of 
somewhat less size. The dog at this time did not show any 
very marked symptoms — he had vomited once and seemed 
unwilling to move about. 

" 12th. — Professor Halford being unable to continue his 
observations to-day, I examined the blood. The number of 
white corpuscles was much increased. After much dilution 
with solution of magenta, each field presented about twenty- 
four of these bodies, among which a few of the characteristic 
cells could occasionally be seen. As regards size, there was 
not here such a striking contrast between these cells and the 
white corpuscles as there was in the cobra-case, when a 
single glance was sufficient for diagnosis between them ; but 
still the nucleus being always single, the presence of the 
macula and a peculiar clearness of the cell are, I think, 



80 On the Condition of the Blood 

sufficient to prevent the two being confounded together. 
I drew several under the camera lucida, of which the 
diameters were from 2^0 to ^ of an inch. 

Plate III. 

Maculated nucleated cells, from the blood of the dog ivhich recovered 
inoculation of the poison of the Australian Black Snake. 



® 



X 400 diameters. 
From a drawing by Mr. 0. V. Lawrence. 

The dog at this time (the forenoon) was drowsy, and when 
compelled to move about did so with difficulty, seeming very 
weak, especially in the hind parts. His eyes were dull and 
protruding, and he evinced pain by his doleful looks and by 
snapping at his hind legs. In the afternoon he was very 
much worse. 

"13th. — Examined carefully the blood from the ear and 
tail. Number of white corpuscles much less than yesterday, 
and not one of the other cells to be found. The blood 
coagulates much more readily than it did yesterday. The 
dog is much better, and except a little stiffness appears to 
be quite well." 

The observations of Mr. Lawrence are very interesting, 
and seem to point to the simultaneous disappearance of the 
cells and restoration to health. 

Six days after this, that is, on the 19th, I very carefully 
examined this dog's blood myself, and found nothing 
abnormal, none of the white corpuscles exceeding ^ °f 
an inch in diameter. 

The remaining snake I kept constantly before the fire. It, 
not eating, afforded a very good illustration of heat being 
converted into motion, for it became very lively, and bit a 
kitten in the foot one afternoon at half-past three o'clock. 
The kitten died at ten minutes past-seven the same evening. 
On examination the lungs were not congested. The blood 
was everywhere dark and fluid ; some taken from the in- 



after Death from Snake-bite. 81 

ferior vena cava contained many of the characteristic cells, 
and in that of the saphena vein of the bitten leg were many 
free nuclei " germinal matter" exactly corresponding to 
those of the serpent's poison. 

Plate IV. 

Germinal matter, or free nuclei, and large maculated nucleated 
cells from the blood of the saphena vein of a kitten, bitten in the foot 
by young Australian Black Snake. 






•'© 



® 



X 400 diameters. 
From a draioing by Mr. Ashworth. 



After this a pigeon was bitten, and died in twenty-two 
minutes. The blood was not fluid, and none of the 
characteristic cells were found. It would be impossible to 
say that in this case none existed, the fluid part was 
only examined, and therefore there might be such cells in 
the clotted parts. Want of time, caused by family illness, 
&c, prevented my examining this case, in fact the case of 
the kitten and the following were more observed by my 
students than by myself. 

However, the condition of the blood of pigeons bitten by 
the rattlesnake has been recorded, according to Nysten in Le 
Dictionaire de Medicine, by Dr.Brainard, of Illinois. 

" ] st. Change of shape of the red corpuscles from oval to 

round. 
" 2nd. Abundance of white corpuscles, grouped together 

in nipple-shaped masses. 
" 3rd. Liquid state of the blood in the cavities of the heart 

from want of coagulation of fibrine." 

It is not improbable the doctor saw similar cells to those 
we have been describing, taking them, as I did at first 
glance, for white corpuscles. 

Not having then seen the cells in the poison of the 
serpent as particularly as I wished, I killed the reptile, 



82 On the Condition of the Blood 

and on examining the poison — of which there was little more 
than a trace — found the same free nuclei with nucleoli as in 
the other, with only here and there an indication of a 
maculated cell like those seen in the blood. Mr. Lawrence 
thought he saw one or two. but it is extremely difficult to 
tell these cells from the serpent's blood-corpuscle, which 
may have become round by being placed in fluid. In the 
strange cell the nucleus is larger and the macula also. 
They were so in the cells pointed out by Mr. Lawrence, but 
to clear up this point I must wait till next summer. I may 
mention that a week before this, the snake being very lively, 
I let it bite a pigeon and a rat, which it did savagely and 
shook them, but not the least harm resulted to either. 

To return to the poison, a minute quantity was inserted 
into the thigh of a rat ; it died in one hour. 

The examination of this blood was made by Mr. Ashworth, 
another member of my class, and his observations were con- 
firmed the same evening by myself. 

The blood was everywhere fluid. The following are Mr. 
Ashworth's words : — 

" The large nucleated cells were readily seen if carefully 
looked for in • the uncoloured blood (i.e., without magenta 
dye), the large cells being three times the diameter of the 
red corpuscles. 

" In the femoral vein of the injected leg were many of 
the cells and free nuclei, the latter mostly circular, some 
oval, of a diameter of ^ of an inch, the exact size, shape, 
&c, of those of the poison nuclei of the serpent's venom.* 

" The blood in the vena cava and vertebral veins contained 
the same cells and nuclei. 

" In the lungs the same cells were found in addition to a 
large number of white corpuscles." 

* T may mention that in all the cases recorded in this essay in which the 
foreign cells were seen, accurate drawings were made either by Mr. Lawrence, 
Mr. Ashworth, or by myself. These were shown at the meeting, and 
enlarged drawings made from them by Mr. Morton, whom I have to thank 
for his invariable readiness to assist me with his pencil. 



after Death from Snake-bite. 83 



Plate V. 




Germinal matter, or free nuclei, and maculated nucleated cells from the 
blood of a rat poisoned by the Australian Black Snake. 



Q9A 

# 

X 400 diameters. 
From a drawing by Mr. Ashworth. 

I have collected a few cases of snake-poisoning in order 
to draw your attention to the state of the blood after 
death. 

Case 1. — Henwood, a soldier, aged 40, was bitten in the 
finger by a diamond snake of Tasmania, and died 92 hours 
after. The blood was fluid and dark, and fibrinous clots 
were nowhere found. On cutting into the lungs very dark 
fluid blood oozed freely. The absorbents were not affected. 

Case 2. — Cartwright, a man bitten by an Australian snake, 
died twenty minutes after. The whole blood of the 
body was in a fluid state, not one single clot was observed, 
nor did it coagulate when exposed to the air. The lungs 
were healthy, but filled with dark fluid blood, with black 
patches here and there. 

Case 3. — Underwood, a man bitten by an Australian snake. 
Dark fluid blood, with some thread-like clots, in the right 
ventricle. The lungs were very much congested, resembling 
in many parts the patches of pulmonary apoplexy. 

Case 4. — A man, aged about 30, keeper of the reptiles in 
the Regent's Park Zoological Gardens, was bitten on the nose 
by a cobra-di-capella, and died in 90 minutes. The blood 
was dark, alkaline, and fluid. The right side of the heart 
contained blood, the left side none. The lungs were con- 
gested. 

Case 5. — A powerful man was bitten by an unknown 
snake. In this case it was remarked that spitting and 
coughing up of blood followed. The blood had no tendency 
to coagulate, neither did that which was drawn with the 
cupping-glasses, although the breathing was natural, and the 
heart's action 90 per minute. He died 24 hours after the 
bite. 

Case 6. — A sepoy was bitten by a cobra-di-capella. 



84 On the Condition of the Blood 

Three hours after the bite blood-spitting occurred. Soon 
after cupping was resorted to, and seven or eight ounces of 
blood drawn off, which remained perfectly fluid. Eight 
hours after the extremities were cold and corpse like. This 
man ultimately recovered, the medicine being chloroform, 
arrack, and camphor. 

Such being the facts preceding and following death from 
snake-poison, let us see what problems we have to solve : — ■ 

The body is minus heat. 

The blood is minus oxygen. 
Ditto ditto flbrine. 
Ditto plus foreign cells. 

1st. The body is minus heat. Let it be remembered that 
in death from starvation and in lingering diseases, the tem- 
perature of the body is kept up at the expense of the tissues, 
even of the nitrogenous. In snake-poisoning the bitten man or 
dog is breathing ; oxygen is absorbed, combustion occurs, but 
where is the heat ? Combustion does not take place in the 
tissues, as is evidenced by the general coldness ; the red 
corpuscles do not convey the oxygen, as is shown 
by the state of the blood, for, as in cholera, the 
blood is dark even as it flows through the arteries, 
and becomes red on exposure to the air. Combustion 
occurring, the heat that should result is rendered latent, 
or rather is . converted into motion ; the molecular motion 
necessary for the aggregation of the billions of particles 
constituting the new cell growth. If this view of the loss of 
heat be correct, then after death, when oxygen no longer has 
access, and that contained in the blood is used up, the mole- 
cular forces being arrested, the heat should be again rendered 
up to the now lifeless body. 

I have not as yet had a fair opportunity of making the 
observation, but a rise of temperature after death from cholera, 
yellow fever, &c, of seven and of even nine degrees, has been 
observed, an amount of heat requiring for its production 
molecular energy or chemical action sufficient, if converted 
into mechanical force, to raise many tons weight several feet 
from the ground, or to raise the lifeless corpse higher than 
our highest building. Tyndall, when speaking of the atoms 
of water, calls them " giants in disguise." " The force of 
gravity almost vanishes in comparison with molecular 
forces ; " the pull of the earth upon a pound weight as a 
mass, is as nothing compared with the mutual pull of its 
own molecules." 



after Death from Snake-bite. 85 

I shall have presently to refer to one authentic case of 
cholera, in which a new cell-formation existed in the blood. 
Is it unreasonable then to assume that possibly in cholera 
and yellow fever the heat during life may be replaced by 
molecular motion, and be re-manifested when that motion 
is destroyed, as after death ? I think at least physicians 
must no longer simply record, but endeavour, by as rigid 
an adherence to physical laws as possible, to account for the 
rise of temperature after death from cholera or any other 
disease. 

2nd. The blood is minus oxygen. 

The gas has been absorbed but appropriated by the new 
cells, the red corpuscles carry it not to the tissues, or at 
least not in sufficient quantity, and the blood soon becomes 
charged with carbon. Dr. Marcet states in the Lancet, of 
February 2, 1867, that the exhalation of carbonic acid from 
the lungs requires a certain temperature, and that as the heat 
of the body falls so the carbonic acid tends to accumulate in 
the blood. Part of the oxyen inhaled probably enters into 
the composition of the growing germinal matter, constituting 
the new cell-formation, the remainder uniting to form car- 
bonic acid and water. 

Now, if we suppose that the blood is deprived of one 
quarter of its oxyen only, death would speedily result, for the 
late Dr. Snow found that if an animal breathes an atmo- 
sphere containing from 10 \ to 16 per cent, of oxygen, instead 
of the normal quantity, 20 per cent., it soon dies, although 
provision is made for the removal of the carbonic acid as 
fast as it is formed.* 

The oxidation of the food in the blood and of the tissues is 
transferred from the bitten man to the foreign cell, which is 
equivalent to saying, that animal "power is transferred from 
the one to the other. 

It is wonderful to reflect how long this power or energy 
may be retained by living "germinal" matter. Seeds grow 
after ages of inaction. Vaccine matter is dried and carried all 
over the world ; the poison of the cobra has been inoculated 
and caused death after having been kept ten years. 

3rd. The blood is minus fibrine. 

Of this there is no doubt, and it is interesting to inquire 
how far this may be dependent upon oxygenation. 

The blood is dark and fluid in all cases in which it has 

* Carpenter's Human Physiology, Sixth Edition. 



86 On the Condition of the Blood 

been deprived of oxygen, as in suffocation and drowning. 
On the other hand, when animals have breathed an excess of 
oxygen, the blood coagulates with remarkable rapidity. 

Dr. Gairdner found the proportionate amount of fibrine 
corpuscles and albumen in the arterial blood of healthy 
rabbits to be — 

Fibrine, 165 

Corpuscle, 82-35 

Albumen, 4630 
When other rabbits were made to breathe pure oxygen for 
half an hour, the proportion was — 

Fibrine, 240 
Corpuscle, 69 "5 6 
Albumen, 40'23 

4th. The blood is plus millions of cells. 

So large an amount of cells produced in so short a time 
fully accounts for the disorganization of the blood and death. 
But death occurs sometimes so rapidly, that it would appear 
impossible for cells to be formed in so short a time. In 
which case we must consider the change in the blood to be 
brought about as rapidly and in the same manner as the change 
from starch into sugar under the action of ptyaline. It seems 
our only explanation. Quite as mysterious, indeed, is the more 
rapid change which takes place in the condition of the blood 
after death by lightning. A case has lately occurred at home in 
which " the great veins were distended with very dark blood, 
everywhere perfectly fluid — not a symptom of a clot, neither 
did it show the slightest tendency to coagulate after its 
escape." It does not however follow that a few minutes is 
too short a time for the blood to lose a quantity of oxygen 
sufficient to destroy life. For the germinal matter, if not 
checked in its growth, gains strength as it proceeds, vires 
acquirit eundo, and deprivation of oxygen for a few minutes 
is always fatal. 

Again the presence of these cells leads us to ask whether 
they are in any way connected with fermentation ; if so it 
would strengthen, if not establish, the theory that fermen- 
tation is never excited except under the influence of 
microscopic organisms, and that, as affirmed by Pasteur and 
others, each particular organism sets up a particular species 
of fermentation, and we might add of animal or vegetable 
poisons its peculiar species of disease, and further, that in 
all zymotic diseases these particular organisms should 



after Death from Snake-bite. 87 

be diligently looked for where indeed their presence has long 
been suspected, viz., in the blood. 

Respecting the development of animal and vegetable life 
in different media as the probable cause of the various pro- 
cesses of fermentation, Sir Henry Holland observes : " It is 
one of those curious questions where doubt exists as to the 
respective conditions — which is cause, which effect, in their 
mutual relation \ Such doubt is generally solved in the 
event by some simple and single observation, deciding not 
merely the particular problem, but opening a way to know- 
ledge beyond." 

I now pass to consider Cholera. Discarding contradictory 
accounts, I shall quote principally from the last edition of 
Aitkin's Science and Practice of Medicine, and from 
Holland's Medical Notes and Reflections, and Watson's 
Practice of Physic. 

Dr. Aitkin says : " The remote cause of this disease is 
unquestionably a poison ; for at no period has a person in 
good health in this or any other country been known to 
become in a few minutes shrivelled up, his whole body to 
be of an icy coldness, his face and extremities to turn purple, 
and, with or without vomiting of a peculiar fluid like rice- 
water, to die in a few hours, except under the influence of a 
poison." " The doctrine now, therefore, universally accepted 
regarding the pathology of cholera is that a poison has been 
absorbed, and infects the blood ; that after a longer or shorter 
time it produces a primary disease of the blood ; that it 
undergoes enormous multiplication in the living body of 
the cholera patient, as a result of the morbid process so 
established ; and that changes are induced in the function of 
respiration directly consequent upon this alteration of the 
blood." 

This is, you observe, the pathology of snake-poisoning, so 
far as I can apprehend it. 

Sir Henry Holland says : " Singular though the symptoms 
of cholera are, in their suddenness and fatality, they offer 
no difficulty which does not equally belong to other 
kindred diseases. We may even go a step further and affirm 
that the notion of an animal virus, applied to absorbing 
surfaces, and engendering the disorder by entering into the 
circulation, is that which on the whole best accords with 
the character of the disease, and with the analogies most 
obvious to other morbid affections. We have many proofs 
of the power and virulence of different poisons of this class, 



88 On the Condition of the Blood 

and of the remarkable changes they produce on the nervous 
system and the blood ; often so speedily after their absorp- 
tion that all observation is frustrated in seeking to follow 
the train of events, and speculations equally at fault in 
attempting to find a theory for them. The action of the 
morbid cause of cholera seems to have most kindred with 
these poisons ; the change which takes place with such 
rapidity in the properties of the blood being, as I think, the 
great feature of the disease, the basis probably of all the 
other symptoms." 

We have seen that loss of heat and rapidly succeeding 
death, attended with fluid dark blood, are the principal 
features of severe snake-poisoning. 

In cholera, Dr. Aitkin says : " The phenomena resulting 
from the changes in the blood are the proper and distinctive 
symptoms of the disease, and the term ' algide,' first used by 
the French pathologists, very happily designates one of its 
most remarkable and constant symptoms, viz., the diminu- 
tion of animal heat. The algide symptoms, in truth, 
essentially constitute the characteristic phenomena of this 
disease. In proportion to them is the malignity and rapidity 
of the case. They afford the only measure of its severity, 
and from them only can a correct prognosis be formed. The 
vomiting, purging, and cramps are now considered as non- 
essential phenomena ; for authentic cases of cholera are on 
record, by several of the most eminent writers on this 
subject, entirely divested of these symptoms ; and the 
suddenness with which the poison sometimes extinguishes 
life is extremely remarkable. When the cholera reached 
Muscat, instances are given in which only ten minutes 
elapsed from the first apparent seizure before life was ex- 
tinct." Dr. Gavin Milroy relates that at Kurrachee, in 
1845-6, " Within little more than five minutes hale and 
hearty men were seized, cramped, collapsed, and dead." 
" Instances of death taking place in two, three, four, or more 
hours are extremely common." 

Sir Thomas Watson observes of the London epidemics 
of 1832, 1849, and 1853 : "In fatal cases death took 
place sometimes in the course of two or three hours ; and it 
was seldom delayed beyond twelve or fifteen." Dr. James 
Johnson says : " In rapidly fatal cases there is a great ex- 
haustion of the power of generating heat ; the air expired 
from the lungs becomes progressively colder ; and so do all 
parts of the body until they are merged in that of death." 



after Death from Snake-bite. 89 

Now, the post-mortem appearances in those who have died 
in the severe or cold stage of cholera present nothing but an 
altered state of the blood, which is usually black and fluid ; 
indeed, blood drawn from an artery in this stage is black, 
and Schmidt has found the amount of oxygen contained in 
the blood corpuscles lessened by one-half. 

In a former part of this paper I have said that the snake- 
bitten man breathes, oxygen is absorbed, combustion occurs, 
but where is the heat ? Referring to cholera, Dr. Parkes 
evidently had similar thoughts, he says : " But as the 
mechanical part of respiration remains perfect, and as there 
is no impairment in the voluntary command of the respira- 
tory muscles, and as the heart evidently beats in many 
cases till stopped by the want of blood on the left side, 
we are compelled to look for the cause of such arrest 
of the circulation in the only remaining element of respira- 
tion, namely, in the blood itself."* 

I may allude here to those singular muscular contractions 
which occasionally happen after death by cholera, and quote 
from the writings of my late friend and colleague, Fred. 
W. Barlow. You will find his papers in the London 
Medical Gazette from 1848 to 1850. He mentions instances 
of convulsions in India after death by cholera in the corpses 
of soldiers, which were so violent that their comrades, " in 
order to calm the timid, bound the limbs to the bed-frame." 
Again, " A gentleman who died in 1832 of rapid cholera, 
was turned after death completely on the side by a strange 
and forcible combination of muscular action." And " muscular 
contractions, after death, took place to a remarkable extent 
in a man who died from cholera at Grosvenor-place, in 
Bristol. The fore-arms were powerfully flexed, and the 
hands approximating, gave the attitude of praying to the 
body. No other parts were affected." Lastly, " A young 
man died of cholera. In ten minutes (while I, Mr. N. B. 
Ward, of Clapham, was talking to his bereaved mother), I 
was quickly summoned by the nurse, who told me that my 
patient was not dead, as she had seen him move. On my 
return to his bed-side, I found him as I had left him, with- 
out pulsation or respiration. In two or three minutes, how- 
ever, I was almost as astonished as the nurse had been, at 

* "Though the passage of the blood through the lungs has been free, its 
natural change is interrupted by cholera." — Dr. James Johnson on The 
Influence of Tropical Climates on European Constitutions. 



90 On the Condition of the Blood 

seeing the eyes of my dead patient open and move slowly in 
a downward direction. This was followed, a minute or two 
subsequently, by the movement of the right arm (previously 
lying by his side) across the chest. There was likewise a 
slight movement of his right leg. The motion of the eyes 
occurred but once ; those of the limbs were repeated to a 
greater or less degree four or five times, and fully half an 
hour elapsed before they entirely ceased. These movements 
were not by such fits and jerks as are usually the result of 
spasmodic action." 

Dr. Bennet Dowler, of New Orleans, mentions the case 
of an Irishman, aged twenty-eight, in which, not long after 
death from yellow fever, the left hand was carried by a 
regular motion to the throat, and then to the crown of the 
head ; the right arm followed the same route on the right 
side ; the left arm was then carried back to the throat and 
thence to the breast, reversing all its original motions, and 
finally, the right hand and arm did exactly the same. 

Dr. Dowler proved, by completely separating limbs which 
exhibited these movements from the trunk of the body, 
that the influence of the nervous system was not in any 
degree essential to their production.* 

Now, admitting that post-mortem movements have been 
seen after death by apoplexy, &c, yet they have never been 
of the character described after death by cholera and yellow 
fever. If it could be once proved that the symptoms of 
cholera were due to the presence of a new growth in the 
blood, molecular or cellular, then seeing the close relation 
that exists between the muscular fibres and their capillaries, 
and between the latter and the components of the nervous 
centres, it would not be difficult to trace these post-mortem 
muscular movements to molecular changes still going on in 
the blood, changes which I have before alluded to as produc- 
ing heat, and now apparently motion. 

I am proud to bring the thoughts of my late friend, W. F. 
Barlow, in unison with my own. He says, " There is some 
stimulus or other, though we know it not, which irritates 
the muscles after death from cholera. Is it possible that 
changes in the blood go on, and stimulate their fibres, or 
the minute branches of the motor nerves which ramify 
therein ? Further inquiry may one day solve what is com- 
plex now, by finding out circumstances necessary to an 

* Carpenter's Human Physiology, Sixth Edition. 



after Death from Snake-bite. 91 

explanation, but as Mr. Paget remarks, the problem is too 
difficult while the data are so few and the unknown things 
so many." 

I must however say, I have met with no record of such 
movements after death by snake-bite, but at the same time 
the observers have been few and their attention not directed 
to any phenomena occurring soon after death. 

I must now bring before this Society a remark made to 
me by Dr. Mousse', of the Melbourne Hospital It was to 
the effect that the man bitten by the cobra when brought to 
the hospital was like one in the cold stage of cholera, and 
at the post-mortem examination he said that, ivith the ex- 
ception of not being so thick, the blood was just like that of 
a cholera patient. Of cholera Dr. Mousse has had much 
experience. 

I now come lastly to the remarkable and solitary case 
of cholera to which, when speaking of the presence of 
foreign cells in the blood of the snake-poisoned man, I said 
I should refer. Dr. James M. Cowan, in the Edinburgh 
Monthly Journal, observes of the body of a woman who had 
died of cholera, " there was not a single morbid appearance 
which could be held as accounting: for the cause of death," 
but " on examining a drop of blood under a power of 240 
linear diameters, in addition to the red and white corpuscles 
were numerous other bodies, which could not fail to attract 
notice, generally circular in shape ; some however oviform ; 
a few caudate, and composed of a well defined membrane, 
not at all puckered, enclosing one or two distinct granules. 
These were very small, quite round in form, and possessed 
of clear centres. Tbey appeared to be attached in general 
to one of the extremities of the circumference of the cor- 
puscle ; in some cases it was difficult to say whether they 
were adherent to its interior or exterior." The doctor was 
totally unable to account for their appearance. 

But other observers, such as Yirchow, have said that there 
is an increase of the white corpuscles in the blood of cholera 
patients. Can it be possible that this eminent man has 
mistaken foreign cells for the white corpuscle? I think 
not. I should rather suppose he speaks of the observations 
of others, and yet it must be remembered that on my first 
hasty examination of the snake-poisoned blood I took the new 
cells for white corpuscles, but afterwards, with my own 
instrument, immediately saw my mistake. 

It cannot be unreasonable to suppose that as both the 

h2 



92 On the Condition of the Blood 

symptoms and post-mortem appearances in severe cases of 
cholera and snake-poisoning are nearly identical, they may 
have a kindred origin. Certainly the facts before us urge 
us to a further and searching examination of the blood in 
cholera. If the cells described by Dr. Cowan should again 
and always be found, the probability of animal poison 
as the cause of cholera would be greatly strengthened.* 

This may provoke a smile. I put it forth as hypothesis, 
perhaps fanciful hypothesis, and yet if we consider that the 
dried poison of the cobra has been kept for ten years and 
then destroyed life by inoculation, and remember that the 
home of cholera and of the cobra and other venomous 
reptiles is India, and that millions of reptiles die yearly, 
and that as pollen is carried from place to place by insects, 
so may this dried poison be, or carried into the upper 
currents of the air, and subsequently inhaled — for the 
lung has no thick cuticle to be pierced, and therefore no 
poison-fang is needed — and kill a man in a little more than 
five minutes, or if not kill so soon, in addition to the 
gradual robbing of animal heat, produce by its presence in 
the capillaries of the muscular system those fearful cramps 
that follow the cold stage and the post-mortem movements 
before alluded to.t I say, if we consider these things, 
con pled with the total darkness in which we dwell respect- 
ing the origin of this fearful disease, the smile that at first 
it is impossible to repress soon passes away, and we are 
driven to think seriously of the presence of some animal 
poison at least. I do not think this hypothesis more un- 
reasonable than that some years ago put forward by one 
of our most eminent writers, viz., Sir Henry Holland, 
" which looks to animalcule life, diffused by the atmosphere 
or by man, as the source of the disease — a form of life not 
cognizable by our senses, or other present means of research, 
but nevertheless producing a virus which acts noxiously or 
fatally on the body of man." 

Time will not permit me to say more than just allude to 
the probability of yellow-fever and most zymotic diseases 

* By some it may be asked, May not these have been vegetable cells ? 
Indeed, the line of demarcation between animal and vegetable organisms is 
becoming daily less definable, and it is even said that rapidly-growing 
fungi play the part of animal cells, i.e., absorb the organic matters on which 
they grow, and yield up carbonic acid. 

| Some people, arguing about infection, speak as though poisons were 
dissolved in the atmosphere, and everybody must inhale them, whereas they 
are suspended or diffused, whereby A may be infected and B may not. 



after Death from Snake-hite. 93 

being due to animal poisons, and also that opprobrium, if I 
may so call it, of surgery, pysemia. Even so lately as 
February last, Mr. Savory says : " The worst cases of 
pysemia, those in which death is most rapid, reveal after- 
wards the least sign of local disease. Indeed, in the very 
worst cases there has been no time for local mischief to 
supervene. The whole mass of the blood is so poisoned and 
spoiled that it kills outright. In these cases the blood is 
found unnaturally dark and fluid, with few, large, black, 
soft, and imperfectly formed clots. Its power of coagulation 
is evidently impaired." 

Lastly, as suggested to me by my friend Dr. Bayldon, are 
the cells seen in leucocythsemia, white corpuscles or other 
animal cells ? 

I would advocate a thorough re-examination of the blood 
in all these cases, and strongly recommend the use of 
magenta dye in every instance.* In support of my views 
I will quote the words of a great living physiologist, 
M. Claude Bernard : "In all post-mortem examinations the 
state of the blood more especially deserves our attention. 
Towards this object the energies of all our physiologists 
ought to be mainly directed. Organic chemistry, however, 
is unfortunately not in an advanced state, especially as 
regards the constituent principles of the animal organization ; 
and chemical analysis must, therefore, be in a great measure 
left aside, when the properties of the blood are the subjects 
of investigation ; in other terms, a physiological analysis is 
in this respect far preferable." 

Further investigation must be deferred till the summer, 
and in the meantime I cannot but think that a wide field 
for research into the molecular condition of the blood in 
disease has been opened. Although it must be confessed 
that if any light is thrown by these researches upon the 
origin and mode of action of animal poisons, it is only suffi- 
cient to show us the great darkness that is before us. In 
bringing before the Society the hypothesis of the abstraction 
jf oxygen from the body by the growth of germinal matter in 
snake-bite, and possibly in cholera and many other diseases, I 
have done so in no vain mood, but with a sincere desire to add 
my mite to the discovery of truth, and even should all 
turn out error, as possibly it may, the labour will not have 
been for me, and I trust not for others, in vain. 

* The proportion I find most generally useful for histological inquiry is 
one drop of Power's or Judson's dye, to twenty of distilled water. 



94 On the Condition of the Blood. 

One word as to the influence of large doses of alcohol : 
In the Australian Medical Journal of April, 1859, a case 
of snake-bite is recorded by Dr. Doughty, in which two 
bottles of brandy were drunk without the slighest symptoms 
of intoxication ; and Mr. Gill bee mentioned to me a case in 
which he gave a girl, aged fourteen, three bottles without 
intoxication, and she recovered. 

These cells being of a rapid growth, have probably a brief 
existence, recovery from snake-bite being usually sudden. 
Alcohol, as you know, has powerful attractions for oxygen, 
and being immediately absorbed by the veins of the stomach, 
if it should engage the oxygen the cells would perish and 
recovery ensue. 

The inhalation of oxygen must be quite an experiment, 
some authors, as my former eminent and much respected 
teacher, Dr. Bence Jones, thinking the gas essential to cell 
life, others of authority, as Dr. Beale, deeming it prejudicial. 



Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 95 



Art. XV. — Notes on Australian Coleoptera. By Count 
F. De Castelnau. 

PART II. 

Second Family— CARABIDjE. 

This great family is largely represented in Australia, and 
the proportion of species found on this continent is at least 
equal to the number of its representatives in the European 
fauna. I will present in a summary way the catalogue of the 
known sorts, and describe briefly those much more numerous 
that are still new to science ; in this paper, however, I shall 
only be able to review the first tribes of the family. 

Pamborido3. 

The genus Pamborus forms most entirely this tribe, and 
is entirely Australian. Mr. Gory gave in 1 836, in Guerin's 
Magasin de Zoologie, a monograph of these insects, in which 
he describes five sorts — Alternans, Morbillosus, Guerini, Viridis, 
and Elongatus. The first had previously been described by 
Latreille, and the two following by Boisduval in his 
"Fauna of Australia." I have since then described in my 
" Etudes Entomologiques " a sixth sort, under the name 
of Cunninghamii, from the Northern territory. 

I have endeavoured, but in vain, to find permanent characters 
separating A Iternans from Morbillosus, and I believe them to be 
mere varieties one of the other. Guerini presents a particu- 
lar appearance, which caused Mr. Hope to propose for it the 
genus Callimosoma, but this has not been adopted by subse- 
quent authors. Mr. Masters has lately found in consider- 
able numbers, in the Pine Mountains of Queensland, an 
insect differing only from Guerini by the absence of the 
golden margin of the elytra ; but it appears to be a simple 
variety of it. In some specimens the thorax is much broader 
than in others. No sorts of Pamborus have yet been found 
in Victoria, but they appear to be rather common in the 
northern parts of New South Wales and in Queensland. 
Viridis is found on the Clarence River; it is easily identified 
by its green colour, and the lateral costae of its elytra being 
entire. It is generally smaller than Alternans, but I have 
seen specimens from Brisbane as large as those of this 
species. 

I have only two new sorts of Pamborus to record here. 



96 Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 

Pamborus Brisbanensis : length 11/; black with a green 
margin to the thorax and to the elytra ; thorax broad, much 
wider behind than at its anterior part, with a lateral border 
forming a deep margin towards the posterior angles ; it has 
a deep and longitudinal sulcate on the disc, and two short 
but deep ones on the posterior part ; elytra with eight longi- 
tudinal and equal costas, between each of which is a line of 
elevated punctures. 

This insect has nearly the form of Guerini, and two speci- 
mens were found by Dr. Howitt near Brisbane ; one is, 
through his kindness, in my collection. 

Pamborus MacLeayi: length 10'; much shorter and broader 
than Alternans, and something of the form of Guerini; black, 
with the margin of the elytra of a dark green; thorax almost 
square, strongly marginated laterally, with the posterior 
angles broad and very protuberant ; the impressions similar 
to those of A Itemans, but the form very different, being much 
broader and wider in its posterior part ; elytra shorter, but 
with costse and impressions like Alternans. 

In my collection, found by Mr. Wilcox on the Clarence 
River. 

LACORDAIRIA. 

The new genus I propose under this name is very remark- 
able, as presenting characters belonging to various groups ; 
the long-pending palpse show its affinity with Gychrus and 
Pamborus, but the anterior legs are strongly emarginated on 
their inner side, like those of many true CarabidcB, Brachy- 
nidcs, &c. It is evident to me that this insect ought to be 
placed between the last Cychrida (Sphceroderus) and Pam- 
borus, which, in my system, are all united in one family, but 
Mr. Lacordaire having divided it in two, it must be placed 
at the head of his Pamboridce, in modifying the characters 
of that family, as far as the anterior legs are concerned ; this 
genus has also a great affinity with Lestignathus, but is very 
distinct by the form of its palpi. Maxillary palpi very long, 
hanging down, with their second articles long, broad, inflated, 
particularly towards its extremity, third conical much shorter 
than the precedent, fourth very large, oval, dilated inside, 
pointed at its end, where it is hirsute. Labial palpi like the 
former, with their second article very long, the third short, 
and the terminal large, inflated and of an oval form, dilated 
inside, and pointed at its extremity ; it is hirsute. Labrum 
large, furcated ; mentum without a tooth ; antennae rather 



Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 97 

long, slender, with the first article much longer than the 
others, the second the shortest of all, the third rather 
longer than the following, which are hirsute. Legs rather 
slender ; anterior thighs rather inflated, and canaliculated on 
their inner side ; tibias of the same pair strongly emar- 
ginated ; spurs situated one before the end and the other 
apical. Tarsi slender, the anterior ones rather dilated in the 
male, spongious beneath ; the first article the longest, the 
other three cordiform, the fourth being the shortest ; claws 
simple. Head small, oval, narrowed behind the eyes, these 
small ; thorax something like the one of Cychrus rostratus ; 
elytra oval, rather long, separated from the thorax. This 
genus is dedicated to the illustrious author of the " Genera 
des Coleopteres." 

Lacordairia Cychroides : length 5' ; of a brownish black ; 
head oval; thorax almost square, rather narrowed behind, 
with two strong longitudinal impressions on the posterior part, 
a sulcate in the middle, and the sides strongly marginated ; 
its anterior and posterior angles rounded ; elytra rather 
long, covered with fine regular and deep longitudinal striae ; 
the parts of the mouth, and intervals of the two striae 
impressed towards the end; antennae, from their fourth article, 
and tarsi of a light brown. 

Clarence River and Brisbane, under stones. 

Lacordairia Proximo, : length 5' ; differs from Cychroides 
by its form, broader and shorter ; the thorax is wider and 
about as broad as long, with its anterior angles more 
advanced ; the elytra are also broader, more of an oval form, 
with the strise generally deeper. 

From the mountains of Victoria (Yankee Jim). 

Lacordairia marginata : length 3 J' ; very nearly allied 
to Calathoides, and of the same form ; the impressions of the 
posterior part of the thorax shorter ; striae of the elytra not 
deeper towards the sutura than near the margin ; a yellow 
margin to the elytra. 

I found a single specimen of this insect at Melbourne in a 
flood of the Yarra River. It probably inhabits the moun- 
tains of Victoria. 

Lacordairia angustata : length 6'; very much of the same 
form as Cychroides, but more elongated ; thorax longer, a 
little more cordiform, with the posterior angles more erect ; 
elytra a great deal longer, being at least two and a half 
times the length of the thorax, for all it is larger itself than 
in all the other sorts. 



98 Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 

From the Blue Mountains of New South Wales. 

Lacordairia Erichsoni : length 4 J' ; of a rather shiny- 
black ; head oval and long ; thorax almost square, about as 
broad behind as in front, rounded laterally, with the margin 
much broader behind than on its anterior part ; it has a 
longitudinal sulcate on the middle, and a strong impression 
on each side behind ; elytra striated, with the intervals 
flat ; they are rather broad, depressed, oval form, and have 
a strong line of punctures on the margin ; parts of the 
mouth, antennae, and tarsi, brown ; antennas hirsute after 
their first three articles. 

I had this insect in a collection, where it was stated to be 
from Tasmania. 

Note. — Lacordairia proocima and angustata are dis- 
tinct by their narrow and cordiform thorax, and the 
numerous strong striae of their elytra ; Galathoides and 
Erichsoni by their broader and more square thorax, and the 
striae of the elytra less numerous, and with the intervals 
flat, which gives them a more smooth and brilliant appear- 
ance. 

Lacordairia Calathoides : length 3 J' ; of a metallic 
black, very shiny ; thorax broader than in the preceding, 
with its anterior angles much more rounded ; elytra 
short, oval, with longitudinal striae feeble near the 
margin and stronger towards the sutura; a series of very 
large punctures on the margin of the elytra ; anterior parts 
of the mouth and legs brown ; head very small. 

Tasmania. 

Lacordairia Argutoroides : length 3' ; head oval; thorax 
almost as long as broad ; rather narrow in its posterior part ; 
slightly marginated laterally ; the anterior angles rounded ; 
it presents a longitudinal striae on the middle, and two 
impressions behind : elytra of an oval form, rather strongly 
striated ; the entire insect is of a dark brown, with the parts 
of the mouth, antennae, and legs, of a dark yellow. 

From the mountains of Victoria (Yankee Jim). Dr. 
Howitt's collection. 

Lacordairia Anchomenoides : length 3' ; of a more elon- 
gated form than the preceding ; head oval, of a dark brown, 
with the parts of the mouth and the antennas of a light yel- 
lowish colour; the last article of the palpi dark; thorax 
oblong, a little broader in front than backwards, with the 
anterior angles very rounded ; it has a broad and equal 
lateral margin, a rather deep longitudinal strias on the 



Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 99 

centre, and two impressions on its posterior part ; its colour 
is of a light brown, with the margin lighter ; elytra of a 
long oval form, striated, of a glossy brown, with the margin 
of a light yellow-brown ; inferior parts of the body and legs 
of the latter light colour. 

Mountains of Victoria (Yankee Jim). In Dr. Howitt's 
collection . 

Carabidm Proper. 

Carabus which is otherwise represented in most tem- 
perate regions of the world, either in the northern or in the 
southern hemisphere, does not appear to inhabit any part of 
Australia. As far as general form goes it seems to be repre- 
sented by Pamborus. The allied genus Calosoma, on the 
contrary, has at least three representatives in New Holland — 
Curtisii (Hope) which is the same as Shayeri of Erichson, 
seems to inhabit the entire continent of New Holland. I 
have it in my collection, from Melbourne, New South Wales, 
the Paroo River, Flinders Eiver, Swan Eiver, Granthaume 
Bay, and Adelaide. It is never very common. 

This Calosoma has nocturnal habits, and is sometimes 
taken during dark nights in the most frequented streets of 
Melbourne. 

The other sort described, Calosoma Australis (Hope), is a 
very rare insect, of which few specimens have yet been 
found, generally towards Cooper's Creek, in the central 
part of the continent. 

I describe here a new sort in Dr. Howitt's collection. 

Calosoma Grandipenne : length 12'; of a dark green, lighter 
on the margins of the elytra ; head smooth, having only a 
few punctures near the eyes ; thorax short, broad, rounded 
laterally; marginated with a longitudinal sulcate in the 
centre, and two large round impressions behind ; it is smooth 
on the disc, and granulated laterally ; elytra very large, 
broad, twice and a half as long as the head and thorax 
united : convex, covered with very strong punctato-strise ; 
the intervals between these striae having a few impressions, 
these latter forming regular lines on the eighth and twelfth 
intervals ; margins granulous ; lower side of the thorax of a 
metallic green ; abdomen brown, with the sides of the 
segments tinged with green; legs black ; parts of the mouth 
and antennae of a dark brown. 

Only one specimen of this insect has been found near 
Melbourne. 



100 Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 

Odacanthidw. 

Of this tribe I only know a new genus, and representatives in 
Australia of Gasnonia and Ophionea. Mr. MacLeay, jun. , has 
described, in the " Transactions of the Entomological Society 
of Sydney," two insects as Odacantha, but one is a Gasnonia 
and the other is not perhaps even a Truncatipenni, but in 
all cases does not belong to this tribe, perhaps to the 
following 

GASNONIA. 

Gasnonia Ohscura : length 3 J' ; black ; thorax covered 
with a dense puncturation, and bordered on the sides ; elytra 
glossy with puncturated lines which do not extend over their 
posterior portion ; parts of the mouth and four first articles of 
the antennae of a pitch brown ; legs yellow with the knees 
brown ; the tarsi spotted with the last colour. 

Kockhampton ; sent to me by Mr. Thouzet. 

Gasnonia Micans. 

Odacantha Micans: MacLeay, jun., e{ Trans, of the Ent. 
Soc. of Sydney." 

From Port Denison. 

Gasnonia ? Glarensii : length 5 J' ; of a glossy black ; head 
long, oval ; thorax long, with a slight longitudinal line in the 
middle ; its disc covered with little transversal strise and its 
sides strongly punctured ; elytra with punctured striae, which 
do not extend further than the middle, with a large yellow 
oval spot on the extremity ; legs yellow, with the knees and 
tarsi brown ; extremity of the palpi yellow. 

I received this pretty insect from Mr. Wilcox, who found 
it near the Clarence River. It is of large size for the genus, 
and its elongated form gives it the appearance of the genus 
Apiodera. Having only one specimen I could not dissect 
the buccal parts. 

OPHIONCEA. 

This is entirely an Indian form ; it differs only from 
Gasnonia by the fourth article of its tarsi, which is bifid. 

Ophioncea Thouzeti : length 3 J' ; black ; thorax red ; 
elytra feebly striated of a dark blue, with a transverse 
yellow band on their anterior third part, and another on 
their extremity ; there is also a short white longitudinal 
spot on the posterior part that joins the latter band, below 
black, with the thorax red ; legs brown, with the thighs of a 



Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 101 

dark blue ; parts of the mouth and base of the antennae 
brown. 

This beautiful little insect was found by Mr. Thouzet near 
Rockhampton. 

Note. — This insect is very nearly allied to one of the 
Indian sorts that have been wrongly united with Cyano- 
cephala, but differs by the white posterior spot of the elytra 
being a short longitudinal line, and not a rounded one. 

ANASIS. 

Mentum emarginated, with a feeble but inflated tooth in 
the centre ; the wings of the mentum very short and broad, 
rounded at the apex; mandibulae rather short, arched, pointed; 
labrum transversal, ciliated ; palpi maxillary with their two 
terminal articles large, long, the third embracing the base of 
the last, which is oval or rather pointed at the extremity ; 
the last of the labial rather large, oval, and pointed ; antennae 
filiform, as long as the head and thorax together; the first 
article long (of the length of the two following together), the 
second short, the third much longer than the following, the 
others almost cylindrical; head rather large, oval, with the eyes 
prominent, and forming behind a rather long neck ; thorax 
much narrower than the head, fusiform, rather inflated in 
the middle ; scutellum small, triangular, elongate ; elytra 
much broader than the thorax, depressed, parallel, truncated 
behind, and a little shorter than the abdomen ; legs rather 
long ; slender anterior thighs, rather inflated near the knees ; 
tibiae entire, slender at the base, increasing in size towards 
the tarsi ; these long, slender, their first article longer than 
the following, the fifth the largest of all ; anterior tarsi 
thicker, almost cylindrical, the first and fifth articles long 
and about equal, the others short, the second triangular, and 
the two following rather cordiform ; claws simple. 

This genus comes very near to Odacantha, of which it has 
the form. 

Anasis Howittii : length 4' ; of a bronzed brown ; head 
black; thorax covered with strong puncturations and having 
a longitudinal sulcate on each side ; it has also a longitudinal 
sulcate in the middle ; elytra with punctate striae ; legs, 
palpi, and antennae, yellow. 

From Geelong, in the colony of Victoria ; found on a 
flower, and is in Dr. Howitt's collection. 



102 Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 

Ctenodactylidai. 

The insects of this group known till now are all American, 
and it is with hesitation that I transfer to it the new genus 
I propose forming under the name of 'Eudalia on the Odacan- 
tha Latipennis of Mr. MacLeay. This insect can hardly be 
called a Trwncatipenni, his elytra being only slightly 
sinuated, but not truncated at the extremity. On account 
of the claws of its tarsi being simple, it can only be placed 
with Leptotrachelus, but its form is nearly allied to Pionycha, 
and it is well characterised by the penultimate article of the 
tarsi not being bilobed. 

Eudalia Latipennis. 

Odaeantha Latipennis. — MacLeay " Trans, of the Ent. 
Soc. of Sydney." 

From Port Denison. 

Eudalia Waterhousii : length 5' ; black, covered with a 
dense puncturation ; elytra striated, and having a very narrow 
posterior yellow margin ; parts of the mouth, base of the 
antennae and legs of a brownish yellow. Same form as the 
first species. 

This insect was found by Mr. Waterhouse in Arnheim's 
Land, and that gentleman kindly favoured me with a speci- 
men of it. 

Galeritidce. 

DEYPTA. 

Of this genus one sort (Australis, MacLeay, senior,) has 
been known for a long time ; no others have yet been dis- 
covered in Australia, but I will describe here a species of an 
allied genus. 

Dendroscellus Smaragdinus, "Chaud. Materiaux," &c, 1861, 
p. 55 : length 5' ; bluish green, very densely puncturated ; 
palpi, antennae and legs black ; thighs, with the exception of 
the knees, parts of the mouth, base of the antennae, and 
tarsi of a brownish red. 

This pretty insect was sent to me from Rockhampton by 
Mr. Thouzet ; it is very nearly allied to Longicollis Dej. from 
Malacca, but it is distinguished by its tibiae, which are black 
in the Australian, and red in the Indian species. It is by 
mistake stated by Baron Chaudoir to have been found near 
Melbourne. 



Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 103 

ZUPHIUM. 

The number of known sorts of this genus is very limited, 
but they are disseminated ail over the globe ; New Holland 
seems to have a fair share of them ; four are in my collection, 
of which one appears to be the Z. Australis of Chaudoir, 
found by Mr. Masters about Sydney ; the others are new. 

Zuphium Thouzeti: length 4J'; of a brownish black; 
antennae of a lighter colour and pubescent, with the excep- 
tion of their first article ; elytra striated, with a reddish spot 
on the humeral angle ; this spot disappears in some speci- 
mens ; abdomen and parts of the mouth brown. 

Rockhampton. Found by the indefatigable collector, Mr. 
Thouzet ; I have one specimen also from Port Denison. 

Zuphium Rockhamptonensis : length 2 J'. This little species 
is very like Z. Chevrolati of the south of Europe ; the head is 
black, with the base of the antennae and buccal parts tes- 
taceous ; thorax of a light brown ; elytra lightly striated, 
yellow, with a broad brown transversal band on the middle 
which grooves narrower towards the sutura ; lower parts of 
the body and legs yellow. 

Rockhampton. Very rare, sent by Mr. Thouzet. 

Zuphium Master sii: length 2 J' ; same size, and very much 
like the former ; head black, with a brown spot behind the 
eyes ; parts of the mouth and entire antennae yellow ; 
thorax of the same colour, as also the elytra and the rest of 
the body and legs ; elytra striated ; a few long straight hairs 
dispersed over the body. 

The unique specimen of this sort in my cabinet was found 
by Mr. Masters on the Eastern Creek, New South Wales. 

ZUPHIOSOMA. 

The insect on which I propose forming this new genus 
has entirely the form of Zuphium, but is distinct by the basal 
article of the antennae much shorter and the absence of the 
tooth of the mentum. It could only be taken for Metaxidius, 
but it differs by the palpi, which are not hirsute, and the 
antennae longer than half of the body, and formed of articles 
long and slender. 

Zuphiosoma Fulvax length 3'; of a reddish brown; head 
and thorax covered with a dense puncturation ; elytra rather 
darker, punctured and striated ; parts of the mouth, antennae, 
and legs of a dirty yellow. 

Rockhampton, Mr. Thouzet. 



104 Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 

HelluonidcB. 

This tribe, entirely absent in Europe, is numerously repre- 
sented in Australia ; all its sorts were till lately placed 
under the generic name of Helluo, but the researches of 
modern entomologists have limited that genus to the only 
species on which Bonelli had established it, Hellus Gostatus, 
first brought to Europe by Peron, the learned naturalist of 
Captain Baudin's expedition. To this insect, Baron 
Chaudoir adds ("Bulletin de Moscou") a sort he calls Garinatus, 
which is not well known to me. I received one specimen 
under that name from Count de Mniszech, but it is so very 
closely allied to Gostatus as to be very difficult to distinguish 
from it. It is thought certain that some of the specimens 
found near Sydney differ considerably from those of Mel- 
bourne and Tasmania. 

Mr. Lacordaire states erroneously that in this family the 
tarsi are similar in the two sexes ; in the Melbourne Helluo, 
which I believe to be the same as Gostatus, the anterior 
tarsi of the male are dilated. 

The Helluonidce of Australia can be divided in the follow- 
ing manner : — 

A. Body without wings — 

a. Antennae not compressed, but more or less cylindrical. 

* Labrum covering almost or entirely the mandibulse. 
s. Tooth of the mentum short and obtuse (Helluo. ) 

ss. Tooth of the mentum very long, slender and acute 

(Pseudhelluo). 
** Labrum square, not covering the mandibulae (Aero- 

gonys). 
aa. Antennas compressed (Helluodema). 

B. Body with wings — 

a. A tooth to the mentum. 

* Head oval (Gigadema). 

** Head inflated behind the eyes (Helluosoma). 
aa. No tooth to the mentum (JEnigma). 

Pseudhelluo has the general form of JZnigma, but is 
easily characterised by its very large labrum covering 
entirely the mandibular and its mentum having in its centre 
a long spine ; the wings of that organ are also very long ; 
the last article of the palpi is conical; the anterior tibiae 
are sulcated and very strongly emarginated. 



Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 105 

Pseudhelluo Wilsonii: length 5'; head broad, covered with 
a dense and strong puncturation, black, with the parts of 
mouth and antennas yellow ; eyes very large ; thorax short, 
very broad, with the anterior angles rounded ; a longitudinal 
sulcate on the middle of the disk ; it is flat, very strongly 
punctured, and of a reddish brown; scutellum small and 
elongated; elytra depressed, brown, covered with points, 
and having numerous longitudinal and regular striaa : under 
side of the body and legs of a light reddish brown. All the 
upper part of the insect is hirsute. 

From Brisbane ; sent to me by Mr. Wilson. 
Acrogonys has been established by Mr. MacLeay, junr. 
("Transactions of the Entomological Society of Sydney," No. 
2), on an elegant insect from Port Denison ; it is very 
nearly allied to Helluo, and if it was not for the form of the 
labrum it ought to be united with that genus. The only 
sort known, Hirsuta, presents two different forms, probably 
sexual; in one, the costae of the elytra are all about equal ; 
in the other, they form on each side of the insect a sort of 
carina. 

Helluodema is a new genus I propose establishing on Mr. 
Thomson's Helluomorpha Batesii ("Arch. Ent." vol 1, p. 134). 
This insect has the general appearance of Helluomorpha, but 
cannot be united with it, the terminal article of the 
labial palpi being securiform as the maxilliary and the fourth 
article of the tarsi being of the same form as the preceding, 
and not bilobated ; the tooth of the mentum is simple, and 
the body without wings. The general form is elongate, 
slender, with the sides of the body almost parallel. The 
compressed form of the antennas clearly separates this genus 
from all the others of the tribe found in Australia. 

This insect inhabits Moreton Bay and the Clarence River. 
Gigadema is a name proposed by Mr. Thomson in his 
"Arcana Naturse" for a large Helluo of the northern parts of 
Queensland, the principle character of which ought to be, 
according to this author, the absence of a tooth to the 
mentum, and on this account he compares it only with 
JEnigma. Unfortunately no sort of Helluonidce probably has 
a tooth more distinct than this, and it is curious to see that 
this very tooth is faithfully represented in the beautiful 
figure Mr. Nicolet has given of this insect in Mr. Thomson's 
own work. Without this I should hardly have believed that 
the insect I was studying was the same as Mr. Thompson's. 
This genus Gigadema has been established on an entire 



106 Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 

false character, but for all that, as the insect on which it is 
formed must be separated from Helluo, I propose to preserve 
the name in modifying its generic characters. 

Since Mr. MacLeay has described, under the name of 
Helluo Grandis, an insect that appears to be the same, pro- 
bably another sex, but this fact is uncertain ; it differs from 
Titana by the anterior margin of its thorax, which is ad- 
vanced and circular, and by the terminal article of its maxil- 
liary palpi being a little more securiform. Germar has also 
described a sort under the name of Helluo Longipennis, 
very nearly allied to the former. The sorts known to me 
as belonging to this genus are the following : — 

1. Gigadema Titana, Thomson, " Arcan. Nat." page 93, 
pi. 5, figs. 1, 8. 

From Port Denison, Clarence River, and the region of the 
Lachlan River. 

2 ? Gigadema Grandis, MacLeay, junr., " Transactions of 
the Ent. Soc. of Sydney," No. 2, p. 108. 

From Port Denison. 

3. Gigadema Longipennis, Germar; "Linn. Ent.," vol. 3, 
p. 162. ° 

Generally from South Australia, but I have some specimens 
rather smaller from the Paroo River, and one other of the 
same size from Swan River. In many specimens the anterior 
thighs are considerably inflated. The tooth of the mentum is 
bilobated. 

4. Gigadema Bostockii : length 17'; very nearly allied to 
the two preceding, but broader ; entirely of a glossy black ; 
head large, deeply punctured ; thorax broad, cordiform, with 
the anterior angles protruding and rounded as in Longi- 
pennis ; the disk shiny and without punctures, the margin 
densely coverd with them ; a deep longitudinal sulcate in 
the middle ; elytra strongly striated, with the intervals of 
the striae deeply punctured ; legs and inferior parts of the 
body covered with strong puncturations. 

I received this insect from the Rev. Mr. Bostock ; it in- 
habits the northern parts of Western Australia. 

5. Gigadema Paroensis: length ll r ; of a shiny black; 
covered with very strong puncturations which extend over 
the entire thorax with the exception of some small spaces 
on the disk ; the thorax is cordiform, broad and straightly 
truncated in front ; elytra moderately elongate, striated and 
strongly punctured; antennae hirsute, except on the four 
basal articles. 



Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 107 

One single specimen in my collection, from the Paroo River, 
in the central parts of New Holland. 

Note. — This fifth sort is easily distinguished by its smaller 
size and its thorax almost entirely puncturated ; Grandis 
has the anterior margin of its thorax advanced and rounded 
in the middle, with its anterior angles obtuse ; Titana and 
Longipennis have both the anterior margin of the thorax 
lightly emarginated, and the anterior angles advanced, but 
the first is constantly larger than the other, and its thorax 
is broader in its posterior part and less cordiform. Grandis 
is of all the one whose punctures are the finest. 

6. Gigadema Minuta : length 10' ; of an opaque black ; 
covered with very strong punctures, more dense on the disk 
of the thorax than on any other part ; head large ; thorax 
broad, very short, with its sides rounded ; elytra striated ; 
inferior parts of the body punctured, but rather glossy ; 
antennae hirsute, except on the four first articles. 

Ipswich (Queensland) ; found by Dr. Howitt, to whom I 
owe a specimen. Since, I have received two more from Port 
Denison. 

Note. — This insect is, perhaps, Mr. Hope's JZnigma 
Unicolor, but his description agrees equally with several 
other Helluonidce. 

7. Gigadema Thomsoni : length 12' ; of a dull black ; 
covered with a dense puncturation ; thorax broad, the sides 
rounded, but forming a sort of angle at their posterior and 
broader part ; elytra covered with small punctures, and 
striated. 

From Port Denison. 

This sort is very much like the former, but the colour is 
more dull, the head is less impressed in front ; the thorax is 
more equally punctured, and has a different form ; the elytra 
are not so deeply striated. 

Helluosoma is another new form of Helluonidce, which is 
distinguished by the presence of wings, the mentum armed 
with a tooth, and the head inflated laterally behind the eyes. 
The form is rather depressed, broader than in Gigadema, and 
the colour generally brilliant and metallic, often blue, as in 
jEnigma. Five sorts of this group are in my collection ; 
the head is rather large ; the antenna? rather long and 
cylindrical ; the thorax strongly cordiform. 

Helluosoma Ater : length 7' ; black ; very strongly punc- 
tured ; antennae hirsute ; thorax rather long, slightly im- 
pressed ; elytra finely puncturated and striated ; inferior 

i 2 



108 Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 

parts glossy ; tarsi brown. This is the only sort of the genus 
entirely black. 

Sent to me from Rockhampton (Queensland), by Mr. 
Thouzet. 

Helluosoma Resplendens : length 6' ; strongly punctured ; 
of a beautiful metallic blue ; pubescent ; parts of the mouth 
and antennas black ; thorax short ; abdomen glossy ; elytra 
long and parallel. 

This beautiful little insect was found near Port Denison 
by my collector, Mr. Girardin. 

Helluosoma Cyanipenne, Hope (JZnigma), " Transact 
Ent. Soc. of London ;" length 8'-10' ; black, brilliant; strongly 
punctured ; thorax impressed ; elytra depressed, rather 
broad, of a beautiful blue, densely puncturated and striated. 

Port Denison and Rockhampton. 

Note. — This insect was placed by Hope in the genus 
JEnigma, probably on account of its colouration, but it has 
a tooth to the mentum. 

Helluosoma Cyanea: length 9 J' ; of a dull, dark blue, 
almost black ; general form elongate ; pubescent ; strongly 
punctured ; thorax impressed ; elytra long, parallel, of a 
dark blue, strongly punctured and striated. 

Rockhampton, by Mr. Thouzet ; Clarence River, Mr. 
Wilcox. 

JEnigmais easily distinguished by its broad compressed form, 
which makes it very different from the other genera of the 
family. It was established by Mr. Newman on a very beautiful 
insect from Queensland, that he called Iris. Since, Mr. Hope, 
" Trans. Ent. Soc," has described two other sorts under the 
same generic name, but one is certainly a Helluosoma, and 
the other evidently does not belong to the genus. 

The jFmigma Iris is an insect of the most magnificent 
purple, with the head, thorax, and posterior margin tinged 
with metallic green ; its thorax is very broad, transversal, 
very little narrower behind than at its front part. 

It is found not only in Queensland, but also in New South 
Wales, but is very rare in all parts. 

I describe as new the two following sorts. 

^Enigma Newmanni : length S'-IO' ; which is only dis- 
tinguished from the former by the form of the thorax, which 
is less transverse, more cordiform, and much narrower 
behind. It may be a variety of the precedent. 

I have in my collection a specimen from Cook's River, near 
Sydney. 



Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 109 

^Enigma Splendens : length 10'. This magnificent insect is 
of a beautiful green, with apurple tinge at the base of the elytra; 
head with some scarce punctures ; parts of the mouth and 
antennae black ; the latter hirsute, except on their first article ; 
thorax broad, but much narrower behind than in front ; 
elytra densely punctured and striated ; inferior parts of the 
body brilliant, and of a blackish green ; legs black 

Sent to me from Port Denison by my collector, Mr. 
Grirardin. 

Brachinidce. 

This tribe, which is numerously dispersed almost all over 
the world, is most scantily represented in New Holland. 
Of its different genera one alone, which is almost of a tropical 
form {Pheropsophus) , has been found till now on that con- 
tinent. The Pheropsophus Verticalis, of which Dejean made 
an Aptinus, is rather common ; I have it from Brisbane, Syd- 
ney, Melbourne, and Adelaide, but it is much more abun- 
dant in the eastern colonies than in the southern. It is sub- 
ject to considerable variations in its colouration, the thorax 
being sometimes entirely black, sometimes yellow with the 
only exception of the anterior margin, and often spotted, with 
these two colours. All these varieties are found in the 
different localities I have mentioned. 

Mr. Howitt, the explorer, brought from Cooper's Creek a 
variety of this insect, in which a humeral yellow spot is often 
seen, and in one specimen the yellow spots have so much 
expanded that the elytra seem to be of that colour, with 
four black spots on each, two being sutural and common to 
both. The specimens of Pheropsophus from the north of 
Queensland form a different species. 

Pheropsophus Australia: length 8 J' ; head orange colour, 
with a black transversal band between the eyes ; thorax 
black ; elytra of the same colour, without any posterior 
yellow margin, but with a rather narrow transverse 
yellow and sinuated spot a little before the middle ; inferior 
parts of the body black ; under side of the thorax marked 
with orange colour ; parts of the mouth, antennae, and legs 
orange ; knees black. 

From Rockhampton (Queensland). 

Note. — This sort is very nearly allied to Verticalis, but 
easily distinguished from it by its larger size, its elytra 
rather longer, without the terminal bordure, the colour 



110 Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 

of the inferior part of the margin of the elytra, which is not 
yellow but black, and the transversal yellow spot much 
narrower. 

Lebiidce. 
This family is very extensively represented in Australia, 
but the documents I have collected on it not being ready, I 
will reserve them for a future publication. 

Pericalidce. 

This family, as established by Lacordaire, contains a most 
extraordinary assemblage of insects belonging evidently to 
very different groups ; Coptodera, Phylophlceus, &c, are very 
nearly allied to Lebiidce, and I will postpone the study of 
them till I describe the latter. Mormolyce is a gigantic Agra ; 
Scopodes cannot be in a natural system far removed from 
Elaphrus. I will here mention a true Catascopus, which does 
not seem to have been described. 

Catascopus Chaudoiri : length 10'. This insect is one 
of the largest of the genus; it is more nearly allied to 
Brasiliensis than to any other known to me. It is 
entirely of a dark green, with the thorax generally a little 
lighter ; head large, with two strong longitudinal impres- 
sions between the eyes, and two slight ones further 
backwards; thorax more broad than long, cordiform, 
strongly marginated laterally, with the anterior angles pro- 
truding ; it has a deep longitudinal sulcate on its centre, a 
strong, arched, transverse impression forward and another 
straight behind; elytra long, parallel, depressed, very 
strongly emarginated at their extremity ; the upper angle 
of this excavation forming a strong tooth ; they are covered 
with deep strise ; the interval between the second and 
third marked with three punctiform impressions ; a sort of 
carina runs from the humeral angle to the extremity, follow- 
ing at some distance the margin ; inferior parts of the body, 
legs, parts of the mouth and antennse black ; tarsi covered 
with a brown pubescence. 

Clarence River. 

The head is sometimes black, and the elytra have, in some 
specimens, a bluish tinge. 

Pseudomorphidc&. 
This most curious family is almost entirely Australian. 
The sorts belonging to it seem to be dispersed all over this 
vast continent. 



Notes on Australian Coleoptera. Ill 

SILPHOMORPHA. 

Silphomorpha Picta : length 5 J' ; resembles entirely Nitidu- 
hides, with the exception of the thorax, which is either 
entirely black, or with two broad longitudinal bands of that 
colour, leaving the middle red. 

This insect is found rather commonly in the northern 
parts of Queensland, at Port Denison, and Rockhampton. 
Of the numerous specimens I have received, not one has 
the thorax entirely red as are the specimens of Nitiduloides 
found in Victoria and New South Wales. 

Silphomorpha Marginota : length 5'; broad, depressed, of 
a shiny black ; parts of the mouth, antennae, and the very 
narrow lateral margin of the thorax and elytra brown ; the 
latter with a large yellow spot extending to all the length 
of the elytron, and on its base, dilated at its extremities ; 
having entirely the form of the one of Nitiduloides and Picta, 
but running at some distance of the margin ; inferior parts 
of the body and legs of a brownish black. 

From the Paroo Kiver, in Dr. Howitt's collection. 

Silphomorpha Quadrisiquata : length 3' ; black, glossy ; the 
sides of the thorax and elytra yellow ; the centre of the 
first having generally a red or yellowish longitudinal band ; 
elytra smooth, very feebly striated, and having each two yellow 
spots, the first at the base in its middle, bifurcated at its 
inferior extremity, and the second not far from the end, 
oblong, pointed at top and growing broader toward the ex- 
tremity ; parts of the mouth, lower side of the body and 
legs of a light yellow brown ; the sides of the thorax and 
abdomen often black. 

This insect is rare in Victoria, and more common in South 
Australia. 

Silphomorpha Bicolor : length, 3^ ; black, glossy ; elytra 
very feebly striated ; margins of the thorax and elytra black ; 
a longitudinal band on the latter nearer to the margin 
than to the sutura, arched, wide at its base, where it forms a 
sort of a hook ; it terminates a little before the extremity, 
and does not touch the sutura ; parts of the mouth, antennse 
and inferior side of the body brown ; the lower sides of the 
thorax and abdomen black. 

From Eockhampton, Mr. Thouzet ; and Port Denison, 
Mr. Girardin. 

Variety, similar; but the thorax yellow, with only a 
black longitudinal band on each side. 



112 Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 

Port Denison. 

Note. — This may be a distinct species, but having only- 
seen one specimen of it, I think it prudent to wait till more 
are discovered. 

Silphomorpha Amabilis : length 4 J' ; head black, with the 
parts of the mouth and antennse of a reddish brown ; thorax 
yellow, with a large black spot occupying its centre ;. elytra 
yellow, Avith a black spot on the base near its centre ; the 
sutura, the extremity, and a very broad transverse band on the 
middle of the same colour ; this band is dentated on its sides, 
and does not extend to the margin ; inferior parts of the 
body and legs of a light brown. 

Port Denison. 

Silphomorpha Marginata : length, 3' ; very nearly allied to * 
Guttiger, but smaller, of a dark brown ; parts of the mouth 
and antennae of an orange yellow ; lateral margins of 
the thorax and of the elytra of the same colour ; the latter 
entirely smooth ; a yellow spot on the sutura of an oval 
form, but ending in a point towards the scutellum ; this 
spot does not extend so far towards the latter organ as 
in Guttiger; lower parts of the body and legs of a darkish 
brown. 

Melbourne and Sydney. 

Silphomorpha Bimaculata : length 6' ; very nearly allied 
to Colymbetoides, but narrower ; no red margin to the thorax, 
and a very narrow one to the elytra; the yellow spot on the 
elytra almost round, or rather oblong. 

Eockhampton. 

Silphomorpha Biplagiata : length 6-J' ; also very nearly 
allied to Colymbetoides, and having the same broad and 
depressed form ; no red margin to the thorax, nor to the 
elytra; the yellow spot of the latter round, or rather 
oblong. 

Brisbane. 

Silphomorpha Discoidalis: length 3'; nearly allied to 
Guttiger, but smaller and more oval ; of a light reddish 
brown, very brilliant ; sides of the thorax lighter ; elytra 
black, with the external margin brown ; a large broad spot 
of the colour of the thorax covering the scutellum, and run- 
ning along the sutura ; its external side keeping an oblique 
direction; the surface of the elytra is very smooth; there 
is a weak sutuial stria, and a few others more feeble on the 
surface (they can only be seen with a magnifying power) ; 
under sides red ; legs yellow. 



Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 113 

From the Murray River. 

Note. — This insect is also allied to Suturalis, but its form 
is more oval, more narrow ; the yellow spot of the elytra is 
much broader at the base, so as to have, when the two elytra 
are united, a very long triangular form. 

Silphomorpha Thouzeti: length 2 J' ; very nearly allied to 
Marginata, but of a more elongate and oval form ; no yellow 
margin to the thorax, nor to the elytra ; the sutural spot 
rather broader than in Emarginata; parts of the mouth and 
antennae of a pitchy brown ; lower parts of the body and 
legs of a dark yellow. 

Rockhampton, Mr. Thouzet. 

Silphomorpha Rockhamptonensis : length 4-J' ; of a dark 
pitchy brown, almost black, glossy ; parts of the mouth and 
antennas of the same colour ; elytra smooth, with a dark 
yellow spot arising near the base towards the middle of the 
breadth, and directing itself obliquely towards the sutura, 
which it joins a little below the middle, forming thus, by the 
union of the two elytra, a sort of broad V ; inferior parts of 
the body of a dark brown ; legs rather lighter. 

Rockhampton, Mr. Thouzet. 

Silphomorpha Occident dis : length 5'; general form 
rather broad, compressed ; of a pitchy brown ; parts of the 
mouth and margin of the thorax and elytra of a light reddish 
brown ; a slight impression on each side of the thorax on its 
posterior margin ; elytra with light striae formed of points ; 
the greater part of their surface is covered by a very large 
yellow spot which begins behind the humeral angle and joins 
obliquely the sutura, extending to near the extremity of the 
elytra ; inferior parts of the body and legs of a light reddish 
brown. 

Swan River. Sent to me by the Rev. Mr. Bostock. 

Silphomorpha Brisbanensis : length 5' ; of a pitchy 
brown ; parts of the mouth, antennas, and a very narrow 
margin on the sides of the thorax and elytra of a brownish 
red ; elytra with a few longitudinal undulations, but no 
strias ; they present on the sutura a long, narrow, and 
yellow spot extending to very near the scutellum and the 
extremity ; it is moderately expanded towards its centre ; 
inferior parts of the body of a dark brown ; legs rather 
reddish. 

Received from Mr. ^\ ilson, of Brisbane ; also from Port 
Denison and from the Clarence River, Mr. Wilcox. 

Silphomorpha Guttifer : length 3 J' ; very nearly allied 



114 Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 

to Guttiger, but form rather more elongate, and the yellow- 
spot of the elytra almost circular and placed on the posterior 
half of the elytra. 

Port Denison. 

Note. — The last seven sorts are nearly allied to Guttiger, 
but are distinguished — Occidentalis, by its punctured elytra ; 
Marginata and Brishanensis, by the light-coloured margin of 
the thorax and elytra ; Guttifer, by the yellow spot of the 
elytra being posterior; Rockhamptonensis } by the same,having 
the form of a V, by the junction of the two elytra; Thouzeti, 
by its elongate form, its general colour, &c. 

I have now to mention a series of species entirely black, 
or of a dark brown without spots on the elytra ; they are 
all more or less connected with Sp. Fallax of West, which is 
a large sort rather commonly found in the southern parts of 
Australia. 

Silphomorpha Grandis : length 8' ; of an oblong "form ; 
black, glossy ; parts of the mouth and antennas brown ; 
thorax rather rounded on its sides ; slightly bi-impressed 
on its posterior margin ; elytra broad, almost parallel, very 
slightly striated ; inferior side of the body and legs of a 
dark brown. 

Port Denison. 

Silphomorpha Striata: length 6J'; of an oval, depressed 
form ; black, rather glossy ; thorax much narrower in front 
than behind, bi-impressed on its posterior margin ; elytra 
very strongly striated ; these striae not extending to the base ; 
parts of the mouth, antennas, lower parts of the body and 
legs of a dark brown. 

From the northern parts of New South Wales. 

Silphormorpha Vicina : length 6 \' to 8'; very nearly allied 
to Fallax, but bright and glossy ; the thorax a little shorter 
and broader ; the striae of the elytra a little more strongly 
marked ; the. parts of the mouth of the same dark colour 
as the body ; inferior side and legs of a dark and glossy 
brown. 

Brisbane. 

Silphormorpha Lenisonensis : length 6 J' ; broad, 
depressed, black, rather shiny; head large; thorax large, 
broader than the elytra, with a wide lateral margin ; its 
posterior margin very slightly impressed ; elytra with 
strong striae extending very near to the base ; parts of the 
mouth, antennse, lower side of the body and legs of a dark 
brown. 



Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 115 

I have one single specimen from Port Denison. 

Note. — By its black colour and strongly striated elytra, 
this sort can only be mistaken for Striata, but its head is 
larger, and the thorax much broader, more particularly so 
in its anterior part, with its margin much wider. It is also 
nearly allied to Fallax, but the elytra are more strongly 
striated ; the body is broader and much more glossy. 

Silphomorpha Tasmanica : length 8' ; entirely of a 
reddish brown, and rather shiny ; head without any im- 
pressions ; thorax with its anterior angles considerably 
advanced and pointed ; its margin much broader forward 
than at its posterior part ; it is bi-impressed on its posterior 
margin; elytra strongly striated, except on the base, but 
entirely of the same colour ; lower side of the body and 
legs of a reddish brown. 

This insect is very nearly allied to Fallax, but distinct by 
its striated elytra ; to Mastersii, but of a different form of 
thorax, and without coloured margin to the elytra; to 
Brisbanensis by its different colour, its much broader 
form, &c. 

Silphomorpha Lwvis : length 5J' ; of a glossy dark brown, 
with a reddish lateral margin to the thorax and elytra ; the 
first bi-impressed on its posterior part ; the elytra appear 
smooth to the naked eye, but are very slightly striated ; 
general form broad, compressed, rather short. 

Port Denison. 

Note. — The light colour of the margin distinguishes this 
sort from the preceding, and it is distinguished from Mas- 
tersii of MacLeay, jun., by its almost smooth elytra. 

Silphomorpha JDubia : length 5% ; this insect only 
differs from Mastersii of MacLeay, jun., by its size being 
always at least one-third smaller than the latter. It seems 
to be found rather commonly in New South Wales, and 
Mastersii is abundant in the northern parts of Queensland ; 
they are probably only local varieties of each other. Of 
a dark brown, brilliant, with a lateral margin of a 
lighter and redder colour on the thorax and the elytra, the 
latter rather strongly striated ; lower side of the body, 
mouth, antennae and legs reddish. 

Silphomorpha Semistriata : length 5' ; of an oblong 
form ; dark brown, almost black, glossy ; thorax with two 
impressions on its posterior margin ; elytra marginated at 
the extremity with striae that do not extend on the anterior 



116 Notes on Australian Goleoptera. 

part of the elytra ; mouth, antennae, under side of the body 
and legs of a reddish colour. 

Port Denison. 

Note, — In form this sort is very much like Grandis ; but 
is easily distinguished by its dimensions being so much 
smaller, and by the striae of the elytra. 

Silphomorpha . (Jvalis: length 3J' ; of an oval and 
depressed form ; colour shiny, of a dark brown ; thorax, 
bi-impressed on its posterior margin ; elytra with strong 
striae which do not extend to the base ; mouth, antennae, 
inferior side of the body and legs of a reddish brown. 

Pine Mountains of Queensland. 

Note. — This insect has the form of Mastersii and Duhia^ 
but is much smaller even than the latter ; has no coloured 
margin to the thorax and elytra, and the striae of the latter 
are shorter. 

Silphomorpha Loevigata : length 4 J' ; form oblong, de- 
pressed ; general colour of a light brown, shiny, with the 
lateral margins of the thorax and elytra a little lighter still ; 
head dark, almost black ; elytra entirely smooth, emar- 
ginated at their extremity ; a few strong punctures, forming a 
longitudinal line, near the upper part of the margin ; a feeble 
impression, like a short longitudinal striae near the margin 
on the posterior part of the elytra ; mouth, antennae, under 
side of the body and legs of a light reddish brown ; 
abdomen a little darker. 

Victoria ; rare. 

Note. — 1 have to say a few words on the geographical 
distribution of the described sorts known to me. Fallax 
(Orychtochiloicles) Hope, inhabits Victoria, South Australia, 
and New South Wales; Colymbetoides, Victoria and New South 
Wales ; Decipiens, Victoria, New South Wales, and Port 
Denison, Queensland ; Suturalis, common in South Aus- 
tralia, is also found in New South Wales, as I have received 
specimens from the Clarence River ; Guttiger, in Victoria and 
New South Wales ; Nitiduloides appears common in New 
South Wales, but is scarce near Melbourne ; Hydroporoides 
is not rare in South Australia, nor in Victoria. All are 
found under the bark of trees, and run with great rapidity. 
I have not been able, in Australia, to consult the works 
containing descriptions of the following species, and so they 
may correspond to some of those I have here described : 
Maculata, Albopicta (Newmann), and Lo&vissima (West- 
wood). 



Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 117 

Adelotopus. 

Adelotopus Vicinus : length 2 J' ; very nearly allied to 
Hydroboides, but a narrower ; the thorax broader, and its pos- 
terior angles depressing more the base of the elytra; extremity 
of the latter and abdomen of the same shiny black as the 
rest of the body ; palpi and legs of a reddish brown. 

Sydney. 

Adelotopus Paroensis : length 6' ; very nearly allied to 
Hydroboides and Vicinus, but distinct from both by its long, 
cylindrical form ; the thorax is not broader than the elytra ; 
the body is entirely covered with fine punctures, and its 
colour is of a shiny black ; the parts of the mouth and the 
extreme terminal margin of the elytra and legs are of a 
brownish red. 

From the Paroo and Darling rivers, in the central parts of 
New Holland. 

Adelotopus Occidentalis : length 2 J' ; of a shiny black, 
covered with fine punctures ; thorax narrower than the 
elytra; the mouth, antennas, under side of the body, and 
legs of a brownish red. 

This sort is very nearly allied to Vicinus, but is of a more 
elongate form, with the thorax narrower. 

Swan River. 

Adelotopus Politus : length 3' ; of a polished black ; body 
rather depressed ; thorax broader than long ; marginated 
laterally, with its sides rather rounded ; elytra rather nar- 
rower backwards than at their anterior part ; their posterior 
angles rounded ; in some specimens a faint transverse line 
near the base ; under side of the body, mouth, and legs, of a 
dark reddish brown. 

From Brisbane and the Clarence River. 

Note. — In some specimens, the lateral margins of the 
thorax have a bluish tinge. 

Adelotopus Punctatus : length 2 J' ; of a dark brown, rather 
glossy; entirely covered with a dense puncturation; body rather 
depressed ; thorax transverse, with its lateral margins broad 
and of a reddish brown ; a very faint transverse impression 
at its posterior part ; elytra almost parallel, with a brown 
margin ; a very feeble sutural stria ; under side of the 
body brown ; parts of the mouth and legs of a dark red. 

From the Clarence River, in Dr. Howitt's collection. 

Adelotopus Cornutus : length 3' ; body long, cylindrical, of 
a glossy dark brown ; head with two tubercles on the fore- 



118 Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 

head, forming two short horns, diverging one from the 
other ; thorax with a very faint posterior and transverse 
impression ; its sides marginated and almost straight ; very- 
little broader behind than in its anterior part ; elytra 
parallel, with their posterior margin reddish ; inferior parts 
of the body, parts of the month and legs of a dark red. 

From Arnheim's Land. Sent by Mr. Waterhouse to Dr. 
Howitt. 

Note. — This insect has a remarkable likeness to some of 
the Diaperidce, of the genus Oplocephala. 

Adelotopus Fasciaius : length 2' ; black, glossy; long, nar- 
row, cylindrical ; thorax almost square, nearly as wide 
foremost as backwards, not broader than the elytra ; these 
with faint longitudinal puncturated striae, and a broad red 
transverse band, covering nearly the two first thirds of the 
elytra; this band does not entirely extend to the base, 
neither to the external margin, and is cut obliquely behind 
the scutellum; lower side of the abdomen red, thorax brown, 
legs reddish ; parts of the mouth and antennas black. 

Sydney. 

Note. — In some specimens the red colour on the posterior 
margin of the elytra extends considerably, and forms a trans- 
verse band. 

Adelotopus Affinis : length 2 J'; very nearly allied to the 
preceding, but larger and much broader ; thorax wider than 
the elytra ; the transverse red band of the last shorter, and 
not extending to one-half of the length ; parts of the mouth, 
antennas, abdomen, and legs red. 

Sydney. 

Adelotopus Zonatus : length 2 J'; black, glossy; long, nar- 
row, almost cylindrical; thorax rather broader than the 
elytra at its posterior part, considerably narrower forward ; 
it has a feeble transverse impression, two other impressions 
near its posterior margin, and a very feeble sulcate on its 
middle, generally only visible at its posterior part ; elytra 
rather unequal when seen through a lense, with a transver- 
sal band near the base, and another covering the extremity 
red; the first of these bands is much narrower than in 
the two preceding sorts ; it is sinuous on its sides, narrower 
towards the suture, but does not extend to the external 
margin ; on its surface one can see vestiges of longitudinal 
striae; beneath black, with parts of the mouth, antennae, 
abdomen, and legs brown. 

Melbourne. 



Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 119 

Note. — These three sorts are nearly allied to Bimaculatus, 
of McLeay, jun. (" Trans. Ent. Society of New South Wales," 
Part II.), from Port Denison, but are very distinct by their 
much smaller size, more elongate form, the disposition of 
the coloured band of the elytra, &c. 

Adelotopus Brunneus : length 2 -J' ; entirely of a rather 
dark brown, rather opaque ; body not very elongate, but 
with its sides parallel ; head in great part enclosed in the 
thorax ; this latter broader behind than in front, its sides 
equally marginated aud rounded, a very faint transversal 
impression near its posterior margin ; elytra darker at that 
end, marginated laterally, with a very faint, longitudinal, 
depressed line near the sutura ; inferior part of the body and 
legs brown, but rather lighter than the upper surface. 

Swan River. 

Adelotopus Castaneus : length 2 J'; more elongate and 
cylindrical than the preceding ; of a lighter and more bril- 
liant brown ; head more free from the thorax, with its sides 
marginated but straight and oblique ; a transverse impression 
backwards ; elytra entirely of the same colour, with very 
faint longitudinal strise, when seen through the lens. 

Swan River. 

Note. — Brunneus and Castaneus are nearly allied to 
Aphodioides, but easily distinguished by their smaller 
size, &c. ; this latter I have from South Australia, Victoria, 
New South Wales, the Paroo River, and Port Denison ; some 
of the latter specimens are narrower than the others ; this 
may be a sexual character. 

Adelotopus Filiformis : length 2f; long, filiform, cylin- 
dric ; of a shiny brownish black, with the posterior third of the 
elytra red; head rather small for the genus; thorax longer 
than broad, marginated and straight on its lateral sides; 
bi-impressed backwards; elytra smooth, with a faint longitu- 
dinal depressed line near the sutura ; inferior parts of the 
body, mouth, aud legs of a brilliant brown ; abdomen and 
tarsi red. 

Adelaide. 

Variety. — The red colour covering more than the poste- 
rior half of the elytra. 

Melbourne. 

All the sorts we have seen are brilliant and shiny, the 
following are more or less rugose ; in this division comes 
Cylindricus (Chaudoir), which is not from Melbourne, as 
stated by that author, but from Adelaide. 



120 Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 

Adelotopus Obscurus : length 2}' ; brown, obscure, en- 
tirely covered with rugosities ; very much like Ipsoides, but 
shorter, the rugosities much stronger and extending over the 
axillary angle and the basis of the elytra ; the longitudinal 
strise of the latter much less marked : the under side 
of the body, mouth, antennas and legs of a brilliant reddish 
brown. 

Sydney. 

Yariety ; elytra of a light brown with a dark-coloured 
margin. 

Sydney. 

A delotopus Bicolor : length 2 Y ', entirely covered with a 
fine granulation ; body moderately elongate, rather broad, 
with its sides parallel ; thorax broad and transversal, with a 
rather wide lateral margin obliquely truncated at its 
anterior angles ; a very slight transversal depression near 
its posterior margin ; elytra covered with punctures, rather 
glossy and showing very faint longitudinal strise ; their 
colour is of a light yellowish brown, with their posterior part 
and their lateral margin almost black ; mouth and inferior 
parts of the body of a light yellowish brown. 

From the Loddon River, Yictoria. 

Ozenidce. 

This family is almost wanting in Australia, being only 
represented by Mysbropomus, of which one single species 
has been described. A second one figures in my collection. 

Mystropomus ChaMdoiri: length 5'; the form is like 
Subcostatus, but much smaller ; the thorax is narrower in 
its posterior part ; the elytra shorter, with a faint longitu- 
dinal costa between the four larger ones ; this insect is 
black, with the lower side of the body, the parts of the 
mouth, antennae, and legs, of a dark reddish brown. 

From the Clarence River. 

Ditomidw. 

The only Australian representative of this group, so 
numerous in Europe, belongs to the little genus .Apotomus, 
which had been considered as entirely confined to the Euro- 
pean and African shores of the Mediterranean, but I have 
found a sort at Bangkok (Siam), and another from Madras 
is in my collection. 

Mr. McLeay, jun., mentions that a sort of Apotomus has 
been found at Picton, but he has not described it, and so I 
cannot say if it is the same as the following — 



Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 121 

Apotomus Australis: length If; a little smaller than 
JRufus, but very much of the same form, a little less 
elongated ; the sulcate on the thorax perhaps rather deeper ; 
of a reddish brown, with the elytra of a dark colour, often 
almost black ; they are very strongly punctato-striated and 
pubescent ; parts of the mouth, antennae and legs of a yellow 
brownish colour. 

Rather common round Melbourne. 

Note. — In some specimens the base of the elytra is of a 
lighter colour. 

I have received from Rockhampton several specimens of 
this same insect. 

Apotomus Novce Hollandiw : length If ; very much like 
the precedent, but much more elongated ; elytra longer ; 
the entire insect is of a light brown with the legs yellow. 
The punctures of the stria? on the elytra not so deep. 

Rockhampton. 

Morionidce. 

This family seems to be extensively represented in Aus- 
tralia. I cannot help thinking that Mazareus, for all it has 
not the antennas of Morionidm, would be better placed here 
than anywhere else. 

HYPERION. 

The gigantic insect, which alone constitutes till this day 
this genus, was first described by Schrebers in the " Trans- 
actions of the Linnean Society " under the name of Scarites 
Schrceberi. Mr. Boisduval proposed most properly to separate 
it from the latter genus, and gave this new generic 
division the name of Heteroscelis ; but this designation having 
already been applied to a genus of Hemiptera, I proposed 
(" Natural History of the Articulated Animals ") to change 
it to Hyperion. Since then Mr. Westwood, in his " Arcana 
Entom.," has proposed the name of Campylocnemis. 

Mr. Lacordaire, in his genera, has adopted this last name, 
Hyperion being, he says, too near Hyphozreon — a name 
given by MacLeay to a genus of Carabida3, that nobody 
knows anything about. It is evident that a name can- 
not be altered because it looks rather like another (for all it 
is pronounced quite differently), and so my name being the 
oldest has to be maintained. 

This magnificent insect is very rarely met with ; it lives 
in families of twelve to fifteen individuals. One of these 



122 Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 

groups was found a few years ago in Victoria under a fallen 
tree, and another more recently in New South Wales. 

MOEIO. 

Morio Australis : length 7' ; of a glossy black ; form 
elongated ; head decreasing behind the eyes, but not in an 
abrupt way ; thorax a little longer than broad, narrower 
behind with its anterior angles acute ; it is marginated 
laterally, sulcated longitudinally on its centre, and bi- 
impressed on its posterior part ; its surface presents faint 
and irregular transverse striae ; elytra long, parallel, strongly 
striated ; parts of the mouth, antennas, and legs, of a dark 
red ; the antennae are hirsute, except on their basilar 
articles. 

Variety. — Of a reddish brown, legs of a lighter colour. 

From New South Wales. 

Note. — The sort most nearly allied to this is Monilicornis, 
from America. 

Morio JS T ovo3 Hollandice : length 5' ; very nearly allied to 
the precedent, but much smaller, still more elongate and 
parallel ; elytra more strongly striated. 

Brisbane, Queensland. 

Morio Piceus : length 5 J' ; of a glossy brown ; thorax 
rather broader than long ; marginated laterally, narrowed 
behind, with the anterior angles rather rounded ; a longi- 
tudinal sulcate on the centre ; a transversal impression in 
front and another behind ; the latter has a deep impression 
at each of its extremities ; elytra with strong punctated 
striae. 

Victoria (Mount Macedon). In Dr. Howitt's collection. 

Note. — This sort is nearly allied to Morio Senegalensis, 

Morio Victories : length 8 J' ; this Morio is very nearly 
allied to Australis, and it is only with hesitation that I 
separate them. It is of a larger size ; the head is larger, the 
thorax a little broader, principally behind ; the elytra are 
more deeply striated, and their margin is broader. 

One single specimen from Victoria, in the collection of 
Dr. Howitt. 

CELANIDA. 

Mentum largely emarginated, with its centre forming a 
large, broad, rounded tooth, the lateral wings very large, pro- 
longated, arched, and rounded at their extremity ; antennae 



Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 123 

rather short, thick, not longer than the thorax, with the 
first article moderately large, the second short, the third a 
little longer than the following, which are short, almost 
square, compressed, and become broader towards the extre- 
mity of the antennae ; the terminal article of an oval form ; 
palpi of both pairs having their terminal article the longest, 
and of an oval for in, rounded at its extremity ; mandibulae 
rather short, very strong, arched and pointed ; labrum very 
strongly emarginated ; legs strong ; thighs rather dilated ; 
anterior tibiae straight, strongly emarginated at their 
anterior side ; tarsi strong, hirsute, the anterior pair having 
their four first articles triangular, the first being a little 
larger than the others ; head of a triangular form, nar- 
rowed behind the eyes in form of a neck ; thorax large, 
rather cordiform ; elytra rather depressed, and of an oblong, 
oval form. 

Gelanida Montana : length 8' ; of a dark, glossy brown ; 
thorax large, cordiform, marginated laterally, with the ante- 
rior angles rounded ; it has a longitudinal sulcate on the 
middle, a strong impression on each side near the posterior 
angle, and all its surface is covered with transversal striae ; 
elytra striated with a faint marginal line of points ; antennae 
hirsute, except on their first four articles. 

From the mountains of Victoria. 

Note. — It is not impossible that this genus may corre- 
pond to Mr. Westwood's Melissadera. It must be in all 
cases nearly allied to it, and my only reason for keeping it 
apart is that Mr. Lacordaire gives it as a principal character 
not to have the posterior part of the head prolongated in 
form of a neck, which Celanida has. 

MORIOMOEPHA. 

The insect on which I propose establishing this new 
genus is most interesting, as forming an intimate link 
between the gigantic Hyperion and Morio. Its characters 
are as follows : — 

Mentum deeply emarginated, with its central part rounded 
and convex ; the lateral wings large, pointed, cut obliquely 
on the interior side, and rounded on the external ; antennae 
at least as long as the head and thorax united ; the 
first article large, the second very small, the third the 
longest, the next conical, the others strongly moniliform, 
rather distant one from the other ; the last compressed, oval 
form, and very pointed ; palpi of both pairs with their ter- 

k 2 



124 Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 

minal article long, oval, and rounded at the extremity ; man- 
dibular strong and arched ; labrum transverse and emargi- 
nated in front ; head rounded, terminated behind by a neck ; 
thorax almost square, rather broader than long ; elytra 
rather depressed, long, and parallel ; legs strong ; thighs 
rather dilated ; anterior tibiae curved in their lower part ; 
tarsi of the same pair rather dilated, with their first four 
articles triangular. This genus is distinct from Morio by 
the form of the anterior legs, and from Hyperion by the 
labial palpi, the antennae, &c. It has almost entirely the 
fascies of Morio. 

Moriomorpha Victoria? : length 5 \' ; entirely of a light red- 
dish brown ; thorax a little narrower behind than in front, 
with a longitudinal sulcate on the middle, and two strong 
impressions behind ; elytra striated. 

From the Dandenong Ranges ; one single specimen in 
Dr. Howitt's collection. 

Moriomorpha Adelaides: length 4 J' ; entirely of a dark, 
glossy brown ; thorax more cordiform than in the preceding, 
much narrower behind ; elytra very strongly striated. 

I received this insect from Adelaide ; it was sent to me 
by Mr. Odewahn. 

MORIODEMA. 

Mentum deeply emarginated, without any appearance 
of a tooth ; the lateral wings large, straight inter- 
nally, rounded on their external side, and terminated by an 
acute angle ; antennae rather long, nearly the length of 
the head and thorax united ; the first article the strongest, 
the second small, the third the longest, the fourth conical, 
the others thicker but shorter, increasing in size, the eleventh 
oval and pointed ; palpi, with their last article in both 
pairs, longer than the others, elongated and oval ; man- 
dibular rather short, arched and acute at the extremity ; 
labrum transverse and lightly marginated in front ; 
head rounded, terminated posteriorly by a neck ; thorax 
almost square, rather transverse ; elytra rather depressed, 
long and parallel ; legs strong, thighs rather dilated ; ante- 
rior tibiae arched, strongly emarginated inside ; tarsi of the 
anterior pair dilated, with their first four articles short and 
triangular. 

This genus has almost entirely the appearance of Morio, 
but is immediately distinguished by its antennae longer and 
increasing in thickness towards their extremity ; the form 
of the anterior legs and the mentum without a tooth are 



Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 125 

more than sufficient for its separation from it ; it is also 
different from Moriomorpha by the form of its mentum. 

Moriodema M'Goyei : length 5J' ; of a glossy reddish 
brown ; anterior part of the head black ; thorax almost 
square, rather transverse, nearly as broad behind as before, 
bordered laterally, with a transversal impression forward 
and behind, and two strong impressions behind the posterior 
angles ; elytra striated ; tarsi with long yellow hair. 

Melbourne ; very rare. 

I have much pleasure in dedicating this curious insect to 
the learned Professor M'Coy, of the Melbourne University. 
My collection contains a most curious specimen, in which the 
antennae have their last article sh ort, square and emarginated, 
and the two pairs of palpi ended by a short, square and 
truncated article. For all these organs are similar on both 
sides, I suppose their anormal form is only accidental. 

Moriodema Paramattensis : length 5' ; absolutely similar 
to the preceding, but the thorax much narrower and more 
cordiform behind than in its anterior part. 

One single specimen from Paramatta, in Dr. Howitt's 
collection. 

VERADIA. 
Mentum broad, transverse, short ; strongly emarginated, 
with the centre of the emargination rounded convexly ; 
wings broad, arched externally, truncated in side, rounded 
at the apex. Palpi, maxillary, with the first article short ; 
the second long, broad, compressed ; the third conical ; the 
fourth long, conical and very pointed. The last article of 
the labial of the same form. Labrum transverse, not emar- 
ginated ; mandibular rather strong, arched, carinated, pointed 
at the apex ; antennae rather short ; the first article large, the 
second conical, the third of the same form but longer, the 
others thicker and shorter, the last oval. Tarsi slender, with 
first article longer than the others ; those of the anterior 
pair dilated in the male, having their first article very 
small, the three following broad, triangular, furnished below 
with squamulae, the last article slender ; the head is small, 
triangular, narrowed behind in form of a neck ; thorax 
large, broad, transverse, rounded laterally, broader behind 
than in front ; elytra oval, rather large ; thighs rather thick ; 
tibiae straight, slender, armed externally with a line of 
spiniform hair ; anterior tibiae straight, very strongly emar- 
ginated inside ; a long and slender spine on the upper edge 
of the emargination ; body thick. 



126 Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 

Veradia Brisbanensis : length 3^' ; of a dark brown, 
rather brilliant ; head with two punctiform impressions in 
front ; thorax with a longitudinal sulcate and two broad 
impressions behind ; elytra strongly striated with the margin 
impressed, particularly on its posterior half ; legs, parts of the 
mouth and antennae brown. 

Brisbane. 

SETALIS. 

Mentum very short, transversal, three times broader than 
long, emarginated, with the centre convex and rounded ; the 
wings of the mentum small, very little advanced, rounded 
externally and rather pointed at the extremity on their 
inner side ; labrum transverse, emarginated in front ; 
palpi long ; maxillary, with their second article long 
and rather arched, the third conical, and the terminal oval 
and truncated at the extremity ; this same article of the 
labial broader, more largely truncated, scutiform ; antennae 
rather long but shorter than the head and thorax united ; 
the first article large, the three following conical and 
almost equal in length ; the others oval, granuliform ; 
the last large and rounded at the extremity ; body oblong, 
parallel, depressed ; head triangular, connected with the 
thorax by a neck ; thorax large, depressed ; broader behind 
than in front, rounded on the anterior part of the lateral 
margins ; scutellum triangular, short and transverse ; elytra 
rather depressed, of the breadth of the thorax, oval behind ; 
legs strong, thighs dilated ; anterior tibiae very strong, 
inflated in their inferior part, having a row of very minute 
spines on their external side and on the internal a narrow 
but very deep split ; tarsi thick, the anterior with their four 
first articles triangular ; all the tarsi ciliated below. 

Setalis Niger: length 5' ; black, glossy; parts of the 
mouth, antennae and tarsi brown ; thorax marginated 
laterally and in front, having a longitudinal sulcate in the 
middle and two strong longitudinal impressions on each side 
at its posterior part ; the external much shorter than the 
other ; its surface presents faint transverse sfcriolae ; elytra 
covered with very deep simple striae, and a line of puncti- 
form rugosities round the margin ; abdomen having a deep 
punctiform impression on each side of its segments. 

Found round Brisbane and on the Clarence River. 



Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 127 



SILTOPIA. 

Men turn deeply emarginated, without any tooth ; its wings 
elongated and acute ; antennas thick, longer than the head 
and thorax united, with their first article rather large, the 
two following small and almost equal ; the others increasing 
in size, rather compressed and almost quadrangular ; the last 
thick at its base and pointed at the extremity ; labrum 
almost square, rather transverse and strongly emarginated 
in front ; palpi with their second article the longest and 
arched, the third shorter and rather scutiform, the fourth 
sunk at the base in the preceding, subulated and obtusely 
pointed at its end ; mandibulaB large, strong, advanced, 
strongly arched and very pointed at the extremity ; legs 
rather strong ; anterior tibiae straight, but strongly emarginated 
on their interior side ; anterior tarsi not dilated, with their 
first four articles triangular ; body depressed ; head triangular, 
connected with the body by a very short neck ; thorax 
rather cordiform, narrower behind than in front ; elytra 
parallel, rounded at the humeral angle, shorter than the 
abdomen. 

Siltopia Tricolor : length 3 Y ; general colour of a light 
brown ; head black, and elytra yellow ; thorax marginated 
laterally, having a longitudinal sulcate in the middle, a 
faint transverse impression in front, and two strong rounded 
ones behind ; elytra feebly striated ; antennae of a rather 
dark brown. 

I have one specimen from the Clarence River, and Dr. 
Howitt has another from Paramatta. 

TERAPHIS. 

Mentum deeply emarginated, with its centre advanced 
and forming a sort of broad rounded tooth ; the 
wings large, protruding, arched and rounded at their 
extremity ; labrum transversal and emarginated in front ; 
palpi rather long, with the second article long, strong and 
rather dilated ; the third short and conic ; the last oval, 
rather inflated and pointed ; antennae strong, about as long as 
the head and thorax united ; with the first article long and 
thick, the second short, the third the longest and conical, 
the others increasing in thickness till the last ; they are 
granuliform and oblong, the last rounded at the extremity ; 
head oblong, narrowed behind the eyes • thorax large, 
broad, rounded laterally ; elytra rather broad, oval ; legs 



128 Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 

strong, thighs thick ; anterior tibise straight, but strongly 
emarginated inside ; tarsi with their four first articles tri- 
angular ; those of the anterior pair rather thicker than those 
of the others, but not dilated. 

Teraphis Melbournensis : length 3-J-' ; of a dark glossy- 
brown ; thorax rounded and marginated on the sides with a 
longitudinal sulcate on the middle, and impressed trans- 
versely in front and behind ; two strong, broad and deep 
impressions near the posterior margin ; elytra of an oval 
form, covered with punctated striae ; legs and parts of the 
mouth of a dark red ; antennae hirsute except at their 
basilar articles. 

From the Dandenong Mountains, near Melbourne. 

Teraphis Argutoroides : length 3§ ' ; of a dark glossy 
brown ; generally of a longer form than the precedent ; 
thorax a little longer ; elytra almost parallel, laterally rounded 
behind. 

Kiama, New South Wales. 

Teraphis Elongata : length 3 J' ; of a rather dark reddish 
brown, glossy ; of a much more elongated form than the two 
precedent ; thorax as long as broad, with its sides rounded 
in front, but straight at its posterior part ; a longitudinal 
sulcate in the middle, and on each side behind a very deep 
impression, which externally runs in an oblique direction 
towards the posterior angle ; elytra strongly striato-punc- 
tated ; legs of a dark orange-red. 

From the Mountains of Victoria (Yankee Jim). 

Scaritida3. 

This group is almost restricted to the warm parts of the 
globe, few of its genera extending further north in Europe 
than the shores of the Mediterranean ; its centre of habita- 
tion lies between the tropics. Till lately it had been thought 
almost wanting in Australia, and for a considerable period one 
single Carenum seemed to be its only representative on this 
continent. Mr. West wood, however, extended our know- 
ledge of these insects, and brought their number to nearly 
twenty sorts. Lately Mr. MacLeay, jun., in a series of able 
papers, published in the " Transactions of the Entomological 
Society of New South Wales," has described a vast number 
of new species, and carried the Dumber of the entire group to 
seventy-eight. I describe here twenty-two new species, and 
I do not doubt that in a short time the number actually 
known will be doubled. 



Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 129 

Scarites is also found in Australia, and I believe the 
number of species will be soon found to equal in quantity 
those of India or tropical Africa. 

The Clivinidw are also very numerous, but a learned 
entomologist, Mr. Putzeis, is perhaps, by his long study of 
them, alone able to make them well known ; and I have 
sent him my collection of these insects. 

SCAEAPHITES. 

This form has been separated from Carenum by West- 
wood, and lately Mr. MacLeay, jun. (" Trans. Ent. Soc. of 
New South Wales ") has proposed to divide it in two, leaving 
under it the sorts having their elytra rounded at the base, and 
giving the name of Euryscaphus to those which have those 
parts broadly emarginated. This character would in no case 
be generic, even if it was constant ; but the following sort 
forms an insensible passage between the two, and so all that 
can be done at the utmost is to form two sections in the 
genus. 

Scaraphites Heros : length 20' ; of a rather glossy black ; 
head square, with the subocular prominences large and pro- 
jecting ; the back part of the head is smooth, but the ante- 
rior part is covered with longitudinal little striolse ; there 
is a transverse impression forward, and two transverse ones 
between the eyes ; thorax large, broad, marginated, rounded 
behind, and rather sinuous at its posterior angles ; the ante- 
rior angles are advanced and rounded, and the anterior 
margin rather sinuous ; on the whole the thorax has the 
form of a half moon ; it has a strong longitudinal sulcate in 
the middle, a rather faint transverse impression backwards, 
and. two others rounded towards the posterior angles ; on its 
posterior part it is marked with short transverse striolaa ; 
elytra large, rather depressed, oval, broader than the thorax, 
rounded at the humeral angles, subtruncated at the base ; 
their surface is marked by very feeble longitudinal striae ; a 
row of points border the margin, and a series of stronger but 
distant ones follow the entire length of the elytra at some 
distance from the latter ; on the posterior part of the elytra 
there is also a short longitudinal line of four points at no 
great distance from the sutura. The anterior tibiae have a 
line of very strong points, and their exterior margin pre- 
sents three strong teeth. 

This beautiful insect was found by Dr. Martin at Champion 
Bay, West Australia. 



130 Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 

Scaraphites Howittii : length 18 J' ; of a shiny black ; 
head square, with subocular advances moderately pro- 
minent ; two deep longitudinal impressions between the 
eyes, diverging in front toward the anterior angles : on the 
space left laterally between these impressions and the base 
of the labrum there is on each side a deep puncture ; the head 
is smooth with a few longitudinal striola? near the impres- 
sions ; thorax of a semilunar form, transversal, with a broad 
lateral margin ; the anterior angles prominent ; in front it is 
rather sinuous ; on its centre is a longitudinal sulcate, and 
a very feeble depression is seen over the posterior angles ; 
the entire surface is covered with feeble transverse striola? ; 
elytra large, broader than the thorax, rounded, and convex ; 
truncated anteriorly ; covered with numerous longitudinal 
lines, the intervals of which are rather elevated ; a marginal 
line of punctures ; a line of deep points on the anterior tibia?, 
and their external sides armed with three teeth, the upper 
much smaller than the lower, and surmounted by one or two 
others very minute ; the tibia? and tarsi covered with brown 
hair ; the elytra? have a rather purple tinge on their 
margin. 

From Port Augusta, South Australia. Dr. Howitt's col- 
lection. 

Scaraphites Affunis : length 12 J' ; very nearly allied to the 
precedent but smaller; thorax broader in its posterior portion, 
which is the widest ; elytra not so broad, more oval form, 
and strongly striated, particularly on their posterior parts, 
where they are distinctly punctured ; the marginal row of 
punctures only extend to the first half of the elytra. 

Found by Mr. A. W. Howitt at Cooper's Greek. Dr. 
Howitt's collection. 

Scaraphites Garbonarius : length 15 J' ; of a deep black, 
with a light shiny tinge ; head large, square ; the subocular 
prominences small ; between the eyes are two longitudinal 
impressions, which diverge forwards towards the anterior 
angles ; a deep point on each side between these impressions 
and the base of the labrum ; thorax transversal, marginated, 
rather semilunar, but having the posterior angles slightly 
marked ; the anterior angles advanced ; a longitudinal sul- 
cate extends on the centre, and a very slight transverse 
impression appears backwards ; faint transverse striolse are 
seen on the surface of the thorax, and a few longitudinal 
ones on its anterior part ; elytra truncated at the base, oval 
form in the remaining, about as broad as the thorax at the 



Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 131 

anterior part, and growing narrower towards their extremity ; 
they have a lateral margin, and their axillary angles are 
carinated ; a feeble marginal row of points extends to this 
extremity. To the naked eye they appear smooth, but not 
brilliant, and with a lens very faint punctured striae are 
seen more visible on the sides ; anterior legs rather slender, 
with two strong teeth on their external side, surmounted by 
three other very minute ones. 

From Cooper's Creek. In Dr. Howitt's collection. 

This sort -is very nearly allied to Scaraphites Lucidus of 
Baron Chaudoir (" Magas. de Zoologie "), but the elytra of 
Carbonarius are more elongate, and not inflated in the 
middle. 

The group to which Mr. MacLeay, jun., gives the name of 
Euryscaphus includes at this moment the following spe- 
cies : — Angulatus, Dilatatus, Minor, Bipunctatus, Water- 
housei, and Obesus (MacLeay, jun.), Lucidus (Chaudoir), 
Howittii, Affinis, Hopei, and Carbonarius, here described ; 
in all eleven species. Lucidus is erroneously stated by 
Chaudoir to be found near Melbourne ; it is from the 
Murray. Two specimens are in my collection from that 
locality. I have also obtained lately a specimen of Water- 
housei from Nickol Bay on the western coast of Australia. 
Mr. Waterhouse had found the one, which has been described 
by Mr. MacLeay, in the centre of the continent. This mag- 
nificent insect bears a remarkable resemblance to the African 
Manticora. 

As I have already stated, Sc. Heros forms a passage 
between the two groups. It comes also near to Carenum 
Tuberculatum of MacLeay, jun. 

Scaraphites Hopei : length 1 4J' ; the smooth elytra of 
this insect, and the impression of the head without striolsc, 
only allows it to be taken for Lucidus or Minutus, but in 
both of the latter the elytra are nearly circular ; while in 
Hopei they are oblong and rather prolongated behind ; the 
mandibular are very acute ; the thorax rounded behind ; the 
humeral angles rounded, and not advanced ; the elytra when 
seen with a magnifying power show four very faint striae 
towards the sutura. The colour of the only specimen I have 
seen is of a light brown, probably from not being mature. 

It was found by Mr. Waterhouse in the centre of New 
Holland, and sent to me by that gentleman. 

Scaraphites Humeralis : length 15' to 18'; black, gene- 
rally very brilliant ; head large, square, with two large 



132 Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 

impressions between the eyes ; these impressions expand 
considerably at their anterior part ; the protuberances below 
the eyes not very considerable ; the thorax transverse, mar- 
ginated laterally, with the anterior angles rounded ; the pos- 
terior part much narrower, with the sides rather sinuous, 
which gives it a cordiform appearance ; it has a longitudinal 
striae in the centre, a transverse impression forward, and 
another backward ; on the latter are two longitudinal im- 
pressions ; elytra oval, oblong ; the lateral margin forming 
a sort of carina at the humeral angles ; a line of impressed 
points follow the margin in almost all its length ; the surface 
presents very faint longitudinal lines, rather elevated ; in 
some specimens fine isolated straight brown hair are dis- 
persed on the posterior part of the elytra ; the anterior legs 
are tridentated ; the first of the teeth only rudimentary ; the 
other tibiae having long brown hair ; the intermediate pair 
with two teeth on their external side ; they appear long, 
thick, and very acute ; the largest of the inner ones long, 
slender, and curved. 

This insect inhabits Swan River. 
The following sorts are real Scaraphites : — 
Scaraphites Gig as : length 23' ; entirely black and rather 
glossy ; labrum and anterior part of the head covered with 
short longitudinal rugosities ; a transverse impression in front 
of the eyes, and two longitudinal ones between them ; a 
strong protuberance on each side of the head below those 
organs ; thorax transverse, emarginated in front ; the lateral 
sides marginated, narrowing in their posterior part, and pre- 
senting a strong sinuosity behind the posterior angles ; 
anterior angles advanced and rounded; the surface is covered 
with faint lines, which are longitudinal towards the anterior 
margin, but transverse and sinuous behind ; these markings are 
stronger on the sides than towards the centre ; on the middle 
of the thorax extends a rather deep longitudinal sulcate ; 
elytra oblong, rather narrower than the thorax ; their 
humeral angles rounded, their sides almost parallel ; they 
have a broad and deep margin on their anterior part, but 
which is very faint towards the posterior part of the elytra, 
and is bordered interiorly by a row of impressed points ; 
the entire surface is covered with rugosities, and marked 
with several feeble longitudinal punctated strise ; the under 
side is glossy, but covered with fine impressions ; the 
anterior tibise have three very strong teeth on their exterior 
side. 



Notes on Australian Goleoptera. 133 

From Nickol Bay, on the north-west coast of New- 
Holland. 

Note. — This insect by its great size can only be taken for 
Bacchus (which is unknown to me), but is very distinct by 
the form of the elytra, &c. 

Scaraphites Martinii : length 14'; in general form 
it resembles very much Rotundipennis, but the thorax 
is broader and more rounded backwards, it has a 
broader lateral margin, and two strong impressions are 
seen on the posterior angles ; the entire body is more 
smooth ; the colour is black, but not very brilliant ; elytra 
marked with very faint longitudinal striae ; on their margin 
extends a line of punctures, and behind it a series of seven or 
eight points much larger, and disposed on a longitudinal line 
beginning behind the humeral angle ; on the posterior part 
of the elytra, and towards the middle of their breadth, are 
on each two punctiform impressions situated one below the 
other ; the anterior tibise have three very strong teeth ; the 
tibize and tarsi covered with reddish hair. 

Found by Dr. Martin at Champion Bay. 

Note. — Scaraphites MacLeayi, of Westwood, seems to me 
to be identical with Rotundipennis, of Dejean. Dr. Howitt has 
in his collection a specimen, given to him by Mr. MacLeayJun., 
which presents no differential characters. The one given by 
that entomologist himself, and based on the number of the 
points extending along the margin, is entirely without value. 
Rotundipennis presenting in some instances from eight to 
nineteen of these impressions ; much more, the numbers on 
the two sides of the elytra are often different, and so I find 
13 and 14, 8 and 9, 10 and 11, 14 and 10 ; and the typical 
specimen of MacLeayi, I have just mentioned, presents a 
similar case, having nine on one side and ten on the other. 
Intermedins of the same author seems, from his description, 
only to be founded on a similar character, and in that case 
ought also to be united with Rotundipennis ; the strong 
rugosities of the front part of the head, and the glossy appear- 
ance of the body being frequently observed in specimens of 
the common sort of Melbourne Rotundipennis. 

CAHENUM. 

The following sorts appear different from all those described 
by Mr. MacLeay : — 

Carenum Brisbanensis : length 8 J" ; black, not very bril- 
liant, having more or less a bronzed tinge ; head having 



134 Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 

between the eyes two arched grooves, united posteriorly by a 
curved and transverse impression, all the space between 
these lines being elevated ; thorax rather square, a little 
broader than long, slightly marginated laterally, with the 
sides almost straight ; the posterior angles rounded ; the 
surface of the thorax presents transversal striolse, and it is 
marked in the middle by a longitudinal sulcate, and at 
its anterior and posterior sides by two faint transversal 
impressions ; elytra oval, with the axillary angles rounded ; 
they are slightly marginated laterally, and present each two 
strong punctiform impressions on the middle of the breadth, 
one towards the fourth of the length, and the other at its three- 
fourths ; faint marks of longitudinal strise can be seen, with 
a magnifying power, on the surface ; anterior tibiae with two 
strong teeth on their external side. 

Several specimens were found by Dr. Howitt near Bris- 
bane ; one was kindly placed by him in my collection. 

Carenum Ebeninum : length 9J ; ; of a rather dull black ; 
head with two longitudinal grooves curving transversely 
behind the eyes ; thorax transversal, rounded behind, rather 
sinuous at the place of the posterior angles ; marginated all 
round, with a deep longitudinal sulcate in the middle, and 
two transverse impressions, one in front and the other 
behind ; elytra of an oval form, not broader than the thorax, 
having marks of very faint longitudinal puncturated lines, and 
presenting two rather deep punctiform impressions on each 
elytron, one at some distance behind the axillary angle and a 
little nearer the margin than the sutura, and the other a 
little past the two-thirds of the whole length ; anterior legs 
with two large teeth, surmounted by three others very 
small. 

I received one specimen from Mr. Odewahn, of South Aus- 
tralia, found near Gawler. 

Carenum Carbonarium: length IT; of a rather dull black ; 
head large, with two deep sulcates between the eyes, they 
run rather obliquely, and diverge in front towards the ante- 
rior angles of the head ; thorax broad, transverse, semilunar, 
rather sinuous behind, marginated, and presents a strong 
longitudinal sulcate in its middle, and a rather faint trans- 
versal impression in front ; elytra not quite as broad as the 
thorax, marginated, of an oval form, with the axillary angles 
pretty well marked ; their surface is covered with very faint 
longitudinal lines too feeble to be called strise, and they 
present towards their posterior part a very feeble punctiform 



Notes on Australian Goleoptera. 135 

impression ; the anterior tibiae are armed with two strong 
teeth, surmounted by two others very minute. 

From Esperanza Bay, on the south coast of Western 
Australia. 

Carenun Superbum: length 15 ' ; of a dark bronzed and 
glossy black, with the sides of the thorax and elytra of a 
beautiful metallic green ; head large and rounded, with two 
deep oblique and rather sinuous impressions between the 
eyes ; they diverge in front towards the anterior angles of 
the head ; on the space left between these and the base of 
the mandibulae there is on each side a punctiform impres- 
sion ; thorax almost round, emarginated in front ; it is mar- 
ginated laterally and behind, it has a longitudinal sulcate, a 
transverse impression in front, and two elongated ones at 
the plane of the posterior angles ; elytra oval, rather broad 
at the base, and narrowing constantly towards the extremity ; 
they are rather depressed, and covered with longitudinal 
striae formed A^ith large punctures ; these punctiform impres- 
sions more numerous and irregular towards the sutura ; 
anterior tibiae armed with two strong teeth on their exterior 
side ; underside of the body black ; tibiae and tarsi rather 
brown. 

This beautiful insect, from the Lachlan, is in Dr. Howitt's 
collection. 

Note. — This insect has almost entirely the form of Care- 
num Gagatinum. 

Carenum Amabile : lengths'; so much like Superbum 
that it might be taken for it, but smaller ; elytra a little 
more cylindric, and not so broad at the base ; on the elytra 
longitudinal lines rather elevated, but without punctures ; 
two punctiform impressions on each elytra, one behind the 
humeral angle, and the other on the posterior part ; legs and 
antennae of a brownish red. 

Also from the Lachlan. and in Dr. Howitt's collection. 

Carenum Multiimpressum : length T ; of a shiny black ; 
general form elongate ; head with a deep transversal impres- 
sion behind the eyes, and two longitudinal ones between 
them, these latter diverge in front towards the anterior angles 
of the head ; the intervals between these lines are elevated ; 
thorax rather broader than long, the anterior angles pro- 
truding and pointed, the sides parallel, rounded, marginated, 
and sinuated behind the place of the posterior angles ; the 
posterior margin truncated ; there is a deep longitudinal 
sulcate on the centre, and a strong and deep impression at 



136 Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 

each of the four angles, the two anterior ones rather oblique ; 
the elytra long, rather parallel, not broader than the thorax, 
rather convex, marginated laterally, with the axillary angles 
pointed ; they are bordered by a puncturated marginal line, 
and they present on the middle of their breadth a longitudi- 
nal series of five large and very deep rounded impressions ; 
these impressions do not appear to be very regular, my 
specimen having on one of its elytra two other similar on 
the posterior part, p]aced between these and the sutura ; the 
front tibiae are armed with three strong teeth. 

Swan River. 

CarenumWestwoodii : length 9J'; this sort is very nearly 
allied to Bonellii, in fact it is only distinguished by the 
elytra being a little narrower and rather strongly punctato- 
striated ; these strise are very strong near the sutura, and 
very feeble towards the external margin ; the coiour is also 
much darker, and almost black on the head, the middle of 
the thorax, and the centre of the elytra. 

From Mount Kosciusko. 

Note. — It is impossible for me to find any difference 
between Bonellii and Viridipenne of Westwood, and I 
believe them to be very slight varieties of the same 
species. 

Carenum Splendens: length 10J-12' ; very nearly allied 
to Coruscum, and of the same form ; body of a beautiful 
blue, with a purple tinge ; thorax and elytra with a fine 
metallic green margin ; thorax with a strong longitudinal 
sulcate in its middle ; elytra with seven very strongly 
punctured longitudinal strise, amongst which appears the 
punctiform impression of the posterior part of the elytra ; 
along the margin are rows of very strong, oblong impres- 
sions ; anterior legs tridentated externally ; inferior parts of 
the body, head, antennae, parts of the mouth, and legs, 
black. 

From Port Denison. 

Note. — In one of my two specimens the elytra have pos- 
teriorly a greenish tinge. This sort can only be taken for 
Coruscwm, but is very distinct by its general colour, the 
much stronger strise of the elytra, &c. 

Carenum Smaragdulum (West. "Arc. Ent.," v. i., p. 84) : 
length 7|' ; of a beautiful metallic green, having a bluish 
tinge ; margin of the thorax and elytra much more brilliant 
and gilt ; a marginal row of large elevated points around 
the elytra. 



Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 137 

From Swan River. 

Garenum Odewahnii: length 10J-13'; this insect has been 
taken by Mr. MacLeay, jun. (" Trans. Ent. Soc. of New South 
Wales ") for Smaragdulum, but it is easily distinguished by 
its much larger size, its elytra still more rounded at the 
humeral angles, and by the punctures of the marginal row of 
the elytra being much smaller, more regular and more 
numerous ; the punctiform impressions of the posterior part 
of the elytra are much less deeply marked ; the teeth of the 
anterior tibise are larger. 

Found by Mr. Odewahn near Gawler, in South Australia. 

Garenum Goruseum (MacLeay, jun., " Trans. Ent. Soc. of 
New South Wales," part ii., p. 141) : specimens of this fine 
insect were brought by Mr. Hubert from the Paroo River, 
and are in the collection of Dr Howitt and in my own. 

Note.-- Garenum Marginatum, Germar (" Linnse. Entom.") 
from Adelaide, is probably G. Lwvigatum (MacLeay, jun.), the 
true Marginatum not being found in South Australia. 

Garenum Schomburgkii : length 8 J' ; this insect is very 
nearly allied to Lazvigatum, and is only distinguished from 
it by its elytra being a little more elongated and covered 
with transverse striolse. It may possibly be a simple 
variety. 

South Australia. 

Garenum Devastator : length 16 J' ; of a rather brilliant 
black ; head large, smooth, with two longitudinal impres- 
sions between the eyes, diverging in front towards the ante- 
rior angles of the head ; on the space left between these im- 
pressions and the base of the mandibulse are two punctiform 
impressions, one on each side ; thorax broader than long, 
emarginated in front, with the anterior angles protuberant ; 
the sides, which are marginated, are almost parallel, rounded 
at the posterior angles, rather sinuous behind them ; it is 
truncated and marginated behind ; it has a longitudinal 
sulcate on its centre, a transverse arched impression in front, 
and two rounded impressions behind ; on its surface are 
seen very faint transverse striolse ; elytra long, oval, of the 
breadth of the thorax, marginated laterally, truncated at the 
base ; the axillary angles are well marginated, and rather 
acute, their surface is smooth, and they present each two 
punctiform impressions, one behind the axillary angle and 
the other backwards ; the general form of the body is elon- 
gated, and the aspect is that of a Scarites. 

From Swan River. 



138 Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 

Carenum Atronitens (MacLeay, jun., " Transactions Ent. 
Soc. of N. S. Wales") : length 11 J' ; of a brownish black ; 
general form long and elongated, with the sides parallel ; 
head with two longitudinal impressions between the eyes ; 
they are sinuous, and diverge in front towards the anterior 
angles of the head ; thorax longer than broad, marginated 
all round, emarginated in front, with the sides parallel ; 
the posterior angles are rounded, and the posterior side is 
rounded and rather sinuous in its centre. There is a longi- 
tudinal sulcate in the centre, and transversal impressions in 
front and behind ; an impression is visible on the anterior 
angles ; elytra long, same breadth as the thorax, sub- 
parallel, marginated laterally ; their base is emarginated, and 
the axillary angles prominent ; their surface is smooth to 
the eye, but presenting a few very faint longitudinal ele- 
vated lines when seen with a magnifying power ; they have each 
two faint punctiform impressions, one behind the axillary 
angle, and the other at their posterior part ; anterior legs 
armed with two very strong teeth. 

This insect comes from Gawler, in South Australia. I 
believe it to be the Atronitens (MacLeay, jun.), but the 
description does not exatly agree with it. 

NEOCARENUM. 

Mentum armed in its centre with a long, acute, and cari- 
nated spiniform tooth ; its wings very long, advanced, 
narrow, arched, and rounded at the end ; palpi— 
the maxillary ended by one article, long, narrow, 
arched, and rounded at its extremity ; the same of the 
labial, rather longer than the preceding, conical, but rather, 
arched ; maxillse rather narrow, arched, and densely hirsute 
internally ; mandibulse strong, arched, pointed at the ex- 
tremity, and armed on their internal side with several strong 
teeth ; labrum short, and having several denticulations ; 
antennae short, strong, getting thicker as they go towards 
their extremity ; the two first articles are strong and 
conical, the third also, but rather shorter, the others almost 
round, not compressed, the last rather pointed ; body 
long, cylindrical, filiform ; head almost square ; thorax longer 
than broad, joined with the body by a pedoncule, on which 
is situated the scutellum ; elytra long, parallel ; legs rather 
short ; thighs inflated ; anterior tibise palated ; those of the 
other pairs crenulated on their internal margin. 

This singular genus, in some respects, unites Carenum with 



Notes on Australian Goleoptera. 139 

Eutoma ; it has the long cylindrical form of the latter, but is 
very distinct from both by the form of the palpi. 

Neocarenum Singularis : length 13' ; of a dull black ; 
longitudinal grooves of the head sinuous and diverging in 
front towards the anterior angles of the head ; thorax 
long, with the sides parallel, rounded behind, rather 
sinuous in front, it is bordered, has a longitudinal 
sulcate in the middle ; there is a faint depression at the 
anterior angles, and a strong one at the posterior ; elytra of 
a very long oval form, almost parallel, tolerably narrower in 
front than at their posterior part ; the humeral angles are 
well margined and pointed ; a line of widely parted points 
follows the internal side of the margin, and a series of very 
large punctiform impressions extends laterally in a longitudi- 
nal line at some distance from this margin ; the anterior 
tibise are bidentated. 

Swan River. 

Neocarenum Kreusleri: length 13 J' ; very much like 
Singularis, but of a brilliant black ; thorax rather broader 
in front than behind ; elytra having the same markings, and 
in addition a strong punctiform impression behind, towards 
the middle of the breadth ; teeth of the anterior tibiae very 
long and acute. 

From Gawler, South Australia. I dedicate it to Mrs. 
Kreusler, a German lady, who devotes her time and great 
abilities to the study of the Entomological Fauna of her 
adopted country. 

EUTOMA. 

This genus of Newmann has not generally been ad- 
mitted, but it appears to be very distinct from Carenum by 
its long linear general form, its palpi very securiform, its 
antennae increasing in thickness from the base to the end ; 
the thorax is always longer than broad ; the anterior thighs 
dilated and like emarginated below. Carenum Violareum of 
MacLeay (" Trans. Ent. Soc. of N.S.W.") must also be placed 
here, as probably also Megacephalum of Westwood. 

Before entering into the description of the new sorts of 
this genus contained in my collection, it is necessary to be 
certain of the sort (Tinctillatum) on which Newmann has 
established his genus Eutoma. This I find very difficult to 
ascertain in insects so nearly allied as are the different 
species. His insect is said to be black, with the sides of the 
elytra blue. This only applies to a specimen I received from 



140 Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 

the Clarence River, and of which I think advisable to give 
here a short description. 

Eutoma Tinctillatum (New., "Ent. Magas." 5, p. 171) : 
length 8' ; shiny black ; head with its longitudinal grooves 
beginning a little hehind the posterior part of the eye, 
running obliquely and curving in front towards the 
anterior angles of the head ; thorax with the sides 
parallel, rounded behind, and marginated ; a longitudinal 
suicate in the middle, a transverse impression in front, 
strongly margined at its extremities ; one punctiform im- 
pression on each posterior angle ; elytra smooth, with the 
sides of a dark blue ; a punctiform impression on their pos- 
terior part, and an irregular impression on the humeral 
ang]e ; underside of the body black ; anterior tibiae with 
two very strong teeth. 

Clarence River. 

Eutoma Episcopalis : length 1 V ; black, brilliant ; thorax, 
and particularly elytra, of the most magnificent purple ; 
longitudinal grooves of the head extending behind the poste- 
rior side of the eyes, they are oblique, and diverge in 
front towards the anterior angles of the head. The space 
between these grooves and the base of the mandibular bears 
on each side a punctiform impression ; thorax long, with 
its sides parallel, rather sinuous, rounded at the posterior 
angles, and a little sinuated behind ; it is marginated on its 
lateral and posterior sides, and has a slight impression on 
each of the anterior angles ; elytra of the breadth of the 
thorax, parallel, marginated, perfectly smooth, with a deep 
punctiform impression backwards, and an irregular one 
on the axillary angle ; tibiae with brown hair, the 
anterior armed with two very strong teeth ; antennas long, 
compressed. 

From the Paroo River, in the central part of the Conti- 
nent. 

Eutoma Newmanni : length 8 J' ; very nearly allied to 
Tinctillatum, but with its head larger ; the fascial grooves 
a little more extended backwards ; the thorax covered with 
transverse striolag, and having no anterior impression ; 
elytra a little broader, of a fine purple, smooth to the eye, 
but when seen through a lense having faint longitudinal 
lines of small transverse impressions ; legs, parts of the 
mouth, and basilar articles of the antennse brown. 

From Port Denison. 

Eutoma Filiforme : length 8J' ; long, linear ; head with 



Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 141 

the two longitudinal grooves extending to its posterior 
part, where they deviate externally behind the eyes ; 
their general direction is oblique ; in front they also devi- 
ate towards the anterior angles of the head ; a puncti- 
form impression is seen on each side behind the eye ; thorax 
longer than broad, a little wider in front than behind, the 
posterior angles rounded ; in its centre extends a longitudi- 
nal sulcate, and an impression is seen behind the four 
angles, its border is very narrow ; elytra long, covered with 
longitudinal lines of transverse points, with a punctiform 
impression behind and an irregular one on the axillary 
angle (the fore tibiae are missing in my only specimen) ; 
the insect is black and shiny ; thorax with a cupreous tinge, 
and elytra of a dark metallic green. 

From the Darling River. 

Eutoma Purpurata : length 9' ; of a beautiful dark 
purple, more brilliant on the elytra ; the longitudinal 
grooves of the head oblique, extending to the height of the 
posterior part of the eyes, diverging in front towards the 
anterior angles of the head ; a small punctiform impression 
just behind the eyes ; thorax longer than broad, with its 
sides parallel, rounded behind ; it is rather bisinuated on 
its posterior margin ; it is covered with faint transverse 
striolae ; it has a longitudinal sulcate on the middle, a 
linear, transverse and oblique impression on the anterior 
angles, and a rounded and very faint one behind on each 
of the posterior angles ; these latter are joined by a 
transverse one ; the thorax has a narrow border on the 
sides and behind ; elytra smooth to the eye, but when 
seen through a magnifying power they show longitudinal 
lines of very faint transverse points ; they are margined 
on their posterior part with a deep punctiform impres- 
sion, and on the axillary angle with an irregular one ; 
their anterior tibiae are armed with two very strong teeth ; 
the antennae are hirsute, except on their first articles ; the 
palpae are purple, with their ends orange. 

Adelaide ; received from Mr. Odewahn. 

Eutoma Lwvis : length 6 J' ; of a brownish purple ; elytra of a 
magnificent bluish purple ; legs red ; parts of the mouth and 
antennae of the same colour; longitudinal grooves of the head 
rather oblique, ending behind the eyes by a short line, which 
extends to the latter ; in front these grooves expand towards 
the anterior angles of the head ; a very faint punctiform 
impression just behind the eyes ; thorax longer than broad, 



142 Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 

with its sides parallel, and the posterior angles rounded ; 
it has a loDgitudinal sulcate in the middle ; it is bordered 
behind, and has an impression on each angle, the front ones 
transversal, and the others joined . by a transverse one ; 
elytra bordered, smooth, with a punctiform impression 
behind, and an irregular one on the humeral angle ; 
legs red ; the anterior tibiae armed with two very strong spini- 
form teeth ; antennae hirsute, except on their first articles ; 
lower part of the body and abdomen of a brownish red ; the 
extremity of the palpi is slightly orange colour. 

From New South Wales, Eastern Creek. 

Note.— This insect is in most Australian collections under 
the name of Tinctillatum of Newmann, but this naturalist's 
description does not agree with it. 

Eutoma Loddonensis : length 8' ; long, narrow, cylindric, 
of a rather dull black, with the sides of the thorax and 
elytra of a beatiful purple ; two sulcates between the eyes, 
diverging behind these organs, as they do also in front 
towards the anterior angles of the head ; a punctiform im- 
pression behind the eye ; clypeus dentated ; thorax long, with 
the sides parallel, but slightly inflexed inside towards their 
middle ; it has a longitudinal sulcate in the middle, a trans- 
verse impression behind, another very faint impression at 
each angle ; the elytra are long, smooth, bordered laterally 
with a punctiform impression behind, and several irregular 
ones on the humera langle ; the thighs are inflated ; anterior 
tibiae strongly bidentated. 

From the Loddon River ; in Dr. Howitt's collection. 

Note. — This sort is nearly allied to Newmanni, but very 
distinct by its more elongated form ; the elytra much longer 
the different form of the thorax, &c. 



SCAKITES. 

I am told that Baron Chaudoir has formed on the Austra- 
lian Scarites a genus Geoscaphus, but 1 don't know its 
characters. His Levissimus would also appear to be Mr. 
MacLeay's Jacksoniensis ? 

The Australian Scarites are very little known, but appear 
to be numerous. Most of them inhabit the central parts 
of the continent. Mr. MacLeay (" Trans. Ent. Soc. of 
N.S.W.") mentions eight sorts, which, with the six here 
described, make the actual number known to be fourteen. 
Of these, twelve are in my collection. 



Notes on Australian Coleoptera, 143 

Scarites Substriatus : length IT ; elongated, of a shiny- 
black ; head having between the eyes two longitudinal 
grooves, which unite together in front; thorax almost square, 
rather transverse ; the posterior angles are rounded ; there 
is a longitudinal sulcata in the middle, a faint transverse 
impression in front, this is only well marked at its exte- 
mities, and two deep punctiform impressions on its posterior 
part, one behind each angle ; on its surface are seen very- 
faint transverse striolse ; elytra rather depressed, with longi- 
tudinal ridges but no distinct striae ; on the posterior part 
of each striae are two punctiform impressions, situated one 
behind the other ; front tibiae armed with three teeth, the 
first much smaller than the others. 

From the Darling River. 

Note. — This sort can only be taken for Subporcatus of 
MacLeay, jun., but is very distinct by the markings of the 
head. 

Scarites Plicatulus: length 12'; of a brilliant black; 
forehead with four longitudinal grooves between the eyes, 
the external extending to the back part of the head by a 
sinuous line, in front /they diverge towards the anterior 
angles of the head ; on the space extending between the 
grooves and the base of the mandibulae is a series of longi- 
tudinal and deep striatulae ; thorax almost square a little 
transverse, rounded behind, marginated all round, having 
a deep longitudinal sulcate in the middle and an impression 
at each angle ; these at the anterior angles being oblique and 
at the posterior longitudinal ; elytra not very convex, almost 
smooth, with very faint longitudinal ridges, and two puncti- 
form impressions on the posterior part, one behind the other ; 
nterior legs tridentated, the upper tooth smaller than the 
others. 

This insect comes from Escape Cliff, in the Northern 
territory, and was given to me by Dr. Mueller. 

Scarites Mitchellii: length 12 J' ; elongated, subcylindrical 
of a rather shiny black; head with two longitudinal im- 
pressions joining in front and of a rather triangular form ; 
thorax almost square, rather transverse, marginated all round 
with a feeble sulcate in the middle and a faint impression at 
each angle; the surface is covered with feeble transverse striolae ; 
elytra covered with weak longitudinal striae formed of punc- 
tiform impressions ; they present a strong puncture behind a 
faint impression on the humeral angle ; anterior tibiae armed 
with three teeth, the first very small. ' 



144 Notes on Australian Goleoptera. 

From the Darling River. Named in honour of the cele- 
brated Australian explorer. 

Scarites Bostochii : length 10 / ; elongated, subcylindrical, 
of a shiny black ; head rather corrugated in front, with two 
longitudinal grooves between the eyes; these grooves diverge 
in front towards the anterior angles of the head ; thorax 
transverse, marginated, rounded at the posterior angles, 
bilobed behind, with a longitudinal sulcate in the middle ; 
a transverse impression in front, and two very faint longitu- 
dinal ones behind ; elytra rather depressed, with very faint 
longitudinal lines on their surface, and two punctiform 
impressions behind, these are situated one behind the other ; 
anterior tibiae armed with three teeth, the upper of which 
is the smallest. 

Received from the Rev. Mr. Bostock. It comes from 
Nickol Bay, on the north-western coast of Australia. 

Scarites Rvficornis : length 10 J' ; of a very brilliant 
black ; head with its front part and labrum dentated ; the 
longitudinal grooves are rather short, and as usual diverge 
in front towards the anterior angles of the head ; thorax 
broader than wide, with the posterior angles rounded ; it 
has a longitudinal sulcate in the middle and an impression 
at each angle, the anterior being transverse ; elytra rather 
short for the genus, smooth (with a strong magnifying 
power a few faint striae are seen, particularly on the posterior 
part), with two punctures on the posterior part of each 
elytra ; anterior tibiae tridentated, the upper tooth smaller 
than the others ; antennas hirsute aud of a brownish red ; 
tarsi of the same colour. 

This insect seems to have an extensive habitat. I have 
specimens from the Manning River, and Mr. Howitt found 
it near Cooper's Creek. In some immature specimens the 
legs are of a brownish red. 

Scarites Bipunctatus : length 9' ; rather subcylindrical, of 
a glossy black ; head with longitudinal striolas in front, and 
having between the eyes two strong longitudinal impres- 
sions, the breadth of which increases in front so as to give 
them a triangular form ; thorax rather transverse, with the 
sides almost parallel ; the posterior angles rounded ; on the 
centre is a longitudinal sulcate, in front a slight transverse 
impression, and on the posterior part two punctiform, 
rounded and deep impressions ; elytra rather long, parallel, 
verv feebly striato-punctated, with a transverse impression 



Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 145 

on the base and two punctiform ones on the posteror part 
of each elytron, one behind the other ; antennae brown. 

From Rockhampton. Sent to me by that indefatigable 
collector Mr. Thouzet. 

GNATHOXYS. 

Of this genus I have only three sorts — all known. 

I must observe that Blissii of MacLeay jun., (described 
in the 5th number of the "New South Wales Entomo- 
logical Transactions ") is almost certainly identical with 
Granularis of Westwood, and that the sort figured by 
Lacordaire under the last name is a very distinct insect, 
being less than one half the size of Westwood's sort. I 
believe it to be Obscurus of Reich. 

All the sorts known to me are from Western Australia. 

Panageidoe. 

This family had been considered till lately as almost 
wanting in Australia ; one single species having been 
described. Mr. Chaudoir has since made known a second, 
and Mr. MacLeay, junr., a third. I have to enumerate 
seven sorts. 

I just mention here than my Brazilian genus Dercylus, 
which Mr. Lacordaire has placed among the chlenidoe, seems 
to come more naturally among the Panageidoe, where I had 
placed it, as to include it among the first, he is obliged to 
isolate it, on account of the structure of its palpi, while these 
organs are of the ordinary form of those of Panageidoe. 

The larger sorts of Eudema, seem to be confined to 
the warmest parts of Africa and India, and it is interest- 
ing to find one, at least, on the north-eastern coast of 
New Holland. 

EUDEMA. 

This genus has, since I formed it many years ago (1840), 
been published by Hope under the name of Graspedophorus. 
Mr. Lacordaire, in his genera, has adopted the latter name, 
in acknowledging that mine is anterior ; his reason for doing 
so is most singular : "because" (he states) vol 1, p. 211, " %f 
we give this name a masculine termination it would have 
an almost absurd meaning." But what right had he to 
alter it at all ? Probably because most of the other names of 
the family are masculine, but that reason is much more 
absurd still, and even in that case, why does he not also, in the 



146 Notes on Australian Goleoptera. 

same family, change Coptia and Loricera. In every family 
there are, in his book, names of the different genders, and so 
in the Scaritidw he has Pasimachus, Garenum, and Glivina. 

The character which separates Eudema from Panagosus 
is to have the anterior tarsi of the male simple and similar 
to those of the female ; all the Australian sorts known to 
me belong to Eudema. 

These insects are (with the exception of Gonvexa and 
Azurea) so much like one another that I shall only attempt 
to give the differences which exist between them. 

1. Eudema Gonvexa, of MacLeay, junr., which I have 
received from Port Denison, is a most distinct insect, having 
entirely the appearance of the large, broad Indian sorts, its 
length is over 9'. 

2. Eudema Australis, of Fabricius : this is the most com- 
mon Australion sort ; its size is about 5J'; it is easily dis- 
tinguished by the orange coloured spots of the elytra, which 
are proportionately small, and of which the humeral are 
almost round. 

I have it from the south of Queensland, the Clarence River, 
Sydney, &c. 

3. Eudema Australasias, of Chaudoir,is of about the same 
size as the preceding, but the spots are of a dark red and 
much larger, the humeral more or less square. 

From Sydney, Melbourne, the Darling River, and South 
Australia. 

4. Eudema A Itemans : this is a new sort, being about 
7' lines long ; it is very much like Australis, but much 
larger, and more elongated ; it has the centre of its head per- 
fectly smooth ; the thorax is of a pentagonical form ; the 
costs© of the elytra are alternately much larger than the 
intermediate. 

From Rockhampton. 

5. Eudema Rockhamptonensis : also a new sort; its length 
is 7' ; it comes very near the preceding, but is smaller 
and broader ; the head strongly impressed, but almost 
without punctures ; thorax broader than in Alternans, and 
the sides more rounded, with the lateral border narrower ; 
elytra shorter, with the costse equal. 

Also from Rockhampton. 

Note. — In the two last sorts the spots of the eJytra are 
rounded and of an orange colour. 

6. Eudema Elongata: length 7 J' ; more elongated than 
the other species ; head covered with very stroog punctures ; 



Notes on Australian Goleoptera. 147 

the spots of the elytra rounded and red ; very nearly allied 
to Australis, but the thorax is a little longer, and strong 
punctures cover the entire head. 

Sydney. 

7. Eudema Azurea: length 5'; general form broad and 
depressed ; head small, impressed on the sides, with the 
middle smooth and shiny ; thorax short, very broad, rounded 
laterally, the widest part being towards the two posterior 
thirds of its length, where it forms an angle and proceeds 
backwards, becoming much narrower, it is very densely 
puncturated, bi-impressed behind, and has a slight longi- 
tudinal sulcate in its middle ; elytra broad, depressed, 
entirely covered with a dense puncturation, and. striated ; 
lower side of the body very densely punctated ; general 
colour of a dark blue, with the legs red ; antennse, palpi, and 
tarsi black ; the entire body is hirsute. 

This is a most distinct species, very remarkable by its 
absence of coloured spots on the elytra. 

From Kockhampton, by Mr. Thouzet ; and from Eastern 
Creek, by Mr. Masters. 

Chloenidw. 

This family presents a very remarkable geographical fact, 
as out of the very small number of its representatives in 
Australia, two are inhabitants of India. 

HOLOLEIUS. 

The only known sort of this genus, H. Nitidulus, Dej . , is found 
in India, and I have myself collected many specimens of it 
at Siam, and in the Malayan Peninsula ; it is also an inhabi- 
tant of Australia, as Mr. Wilcox has lately found it on the 
Clarence River. 

CHLGENIUS. 

The Australian sorts known to me are Australis, Dej. 
from Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, and South 
Australia ; Peregrinus, Chaud., from Queensland and New 
South Wales ; it is also found in New Caledonia, and is the 
Ghl. Viridis of Montrousier ; Grayanus, White, from King 
George's Sound and Swan River. Two others have been 
described by Mr. MacLeay, junr., from Port Denison, but only 
one is known to me. Three sorts seem to be new, but one of 
them is a common insect, and it appears strange that it has not 
yet been described ; this genus presents the rare fact of an 



148 Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 

Indian species spread all over the known parts of the 
Australian continent. 

Chlcenius Marginatus, Dej. species : I see no difference 
whatever between the Australian and the Indian species ; 
this is most extensively spread over Siam, the Malayan Penin- 
sula, Sumatra, and even Japan. I have taken it myself very 
frequently in the three first localities. 

The Australian insect is also common in almost all the 
known parts of New Holland ; I have it from New South 
Wales, the Darling River, South Australia, and Swan River. 

It is of a metallic green, strongly puncturated on the 
thorax ; with the elytra striated and bordered by a yellow 
margin ; palpi, antennae, and legs of the latter colour. 

Chlcenius Subcostatus, MacLeay, junr., " Trans. Ent. Soc, 
New South Wales." I have received from Rockhampton an 
insect which I believe to belong to this species ; it is very 
nearly allied to the preceding, but is of a darker colour, 
almost black, with the intervals of the costae rather cari- 
nated ; the antennae are almost black, except at their three 
first articles. 

ohloenius Darlingensis : length 6' ; this insect is so very 
nearly allied to Marginatus as to be, perhaps, only a variety 
of it. It has the same general colouration, but is broader, 
the thorax shorter, the elytra wider, more depressed, with 
their striae deeper ; the antennae are almost black, with the 
basal articles yellow. 

One single specimen from the Darling River. 

Chlcenius Maculifer : length 7' ; dark copper colour, 
almost black ; covered with a dense and strong punctura- 
tion ; head of a lighter copper colour ; thorax almost cir- 
cular, with a faint longitudinal sulcate in the middle, and 
two very feeble impressions behind ; elytra striated, with a 
bilobed orange spot on the posterior part of the elytra, 
towards the two-thirds of its length ; lower parts of the 
body of a brilliant black ; basa] articles of the antennae, parts 
of the mouth and thighs of an orange yellow ; knees, part of 
the tibiae, tarsi, and remaining part of the antennae of a 
brownish black. 

This insect seems to be common on the Eastern coast. I 
have it from Port Denison, Rockhampton, and various parts 
of New South Wales. It comes very near to several Indian 
and New Caledonian species, and also to Venator of the west 
coast of Africa. 

Chlcenius Maculiger : length 7£' ; this insect is very 



Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 149 

similar to the preceding, but quite distinct ; the general form 
is more elongated ; the head and thorax are of a greenish 
copper colour, the latter strongly puncturated, almost 
square, transverse, with the sides rather rounded; elytra 
black, striated, with a transverse square orange coloured spot 
on the posterior two-thirds of their length ; legs entirely 
black ; antennae and parts of the mouth of a dark brown. 

One single specimen was sent to me from Kockhampton 
by Mr. Thouzet. 

OODES. 

This genus is dispersed all over the globe, but is more par- 
ticularly numerous in the tropical parts of both hemispheres, 
and is well represented in Australia. It is not at all certain 
that it is properly placed among the Ghloenidos ; its natural 
affinities are with Arnara. 

Oodes Australis, Dej., is a common insect in Victoria and 
New South Wales ; it is easily distinguished by its thorax 
having an arched impression on each side, and by its red 
anterior tarsi ; the males are more brilliant than the females. 

I have found round Melbourne an insect of a light red 
brown, whose thorax appears a little broader ; it may be 
only a variety of this species. 

Oodes Modestus : length 4 \' ; body rather elongated ; dull 
black ; thoracic impressions faint ; striae of the elytra rather 
faint ; antennae, buccal parts, and legs black; the first entire 
striae running obliquely towards the sutura ; between it and 
this organ a very faint abbreviated line is sometimes visible 
with a magnifying power. 

Variety, copper colour. 

Melbourne. 

Oodes Waterhousii: length 6' ; size and general appear- 
ance of Australis, body broader, with a copper colour tint 
thorax with four impressions towards the posterior margin 
elytra striated, the first striae near the scutellum very short 
lower side of the body and legs of a dark brown ; all the 
tarsi black ; buccal parts of a rather dark brown. 

From Arnheim's Land; sent to me by Mr. Waterhouse. 

Oodes Oblongus : length 7' ; oblong, of a dull black ; 
thorax with no lateral impressions, and only two elongated 
ones near the posterior margin ; elytra striated ; the first 
striae near the scutellum very short ; lower side of the body 
and legs black ; palpi and tarsi brown ; antennae of the same 
colour, with their three first articles variegated with black. 

Eastern Creek, New South Wales. 



150 Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 

Oodes Paroensis: length T ; oblong, of a dull black; thorax 
with a feeble arched impression, extending from the middle 
of the margin to the back part over the posterior angles, and 
also two faint impressions on the posterior margin ; elytra 
striated, the first striae very short ; lower side of the body of 
a brilliant black ; tarsi, palpi, and antennae brown ; the 
three basal articles of the latter variegated with black. 

From the Paroo river, in the central part of New Holland. 

Note. — By the form of the impressions of the thorax this 
sort comes near Australis, but these impressions are much more 
faint; the size is considerably larger, the form more oblong. 

Oodes Denisonensis : length 7J' ; oblong, depressed, of 
a dark copper colour ; thorax with a light longitudinal sulcate 
and also two faint impressions on each side of the posterior 
margin ; elytra strongly striated, with the first of the striae 
short and formed of punctures ; lower side of the body and 
legs of a brilliant black ; antennas and palpi black. 

From Port Denison. 

Oodes Interioris : length 6' ; of a dark copper colour ; 
body oval, rather broad, depressed; thorax rounded laterally, 
having two impressions on the posterior margin, and one on 
each side which extends obliquely behind the posterior angle ; 
elytra strongly striated, the first striae short ; lower side of 
the body and legs of a shiny black ; palpi brown ; antennae 
black, with the basal articles shiny, and the others 
pubescent. 

From Coopers Creek. 

Oodes Lotus : length 7' ; oval form, broad, depressed, of a 
rather brilliant dark brown; thorax with a faint longitudinal 
sulcate in the middle ; a strong and elongated impression on 
each side of the posterior margin, and a very feeble transverse 
impression on the posterior angles ; elytra with deep striae, 
the first of which is very short ; lower side of the body and 
thighs black ; tibiae, tarsi, parts of the mouth, and antennae 
of a reddish Drown. 

Swan River. 

Oodes Trisulcatus : length 5 J y ; of a shiny black ; head 
with a rounded transverse impression in front ; thorax with 
its posterior margin bisinuated ; its surface is smooth, with 
three light longitudinal sulcates on the middle, the two 
lateral very obsolete ; elytra strongly striated, without any 
short stria near the scutellum ; lower side of the body and 
legs black ; palpi and tarsi of a reddish brown ; antennae 
obscure ; hirsute, except on the three basal articles. 



Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 151 

Port Denison. 

Oodes Proximus : length 5 J' ; very nearly allied to Modes- 
tus, but having the first striae of the elytra oblique round 
the scutellum, the short one being absent as in that species ; 
the palpi and tarsi are red ; the antenna) of a dark brown. 

Paroo River. 

Oodes Inornatus : length 5J'; oblong, elongated, depressed ; 
sides almost parallel ; thorax with two rather strong im- 
pressions behind, and a very faint oblique one on the posterior 
angles ; elytra striated, the first stria running obliquely 
towards the scutellum ; no short stria near this organ ; the 
entire insect is of a glossy black ; tarsi and end of the palpi 
red ; antennae black. 

Swan River. 

Oodes Convexus: length 4 J' ; oval, convex, of a shiny 
black ; thorax with a faint sulcate in the middle, feebly bi- 
impressed on its posterior margin, and having on each side 
a curved impression directed towards the interior part of the 
thorax ; it begins at about the first third of the length of 
the lateral margin, and extends to the posterior part ; elytra 
very convex behind, strongly striated ; near the scutellum a 
very short stria, formed of a few punctures ; tarsi, palpi, and 
antennae red. 

Victoria, King George's Sound, and Swan River. 

Oodes Bostockii: length 5 J' ; of a fine copper colour; body 
oblong, rather broad ; head rather darker than the other 
parts ; thorax smooth, with two feeble impressions on the 
posterior margin and a very faint oblique depression towards 
the posterior angles ; elytra broad, rather convex, striated ; 
a short stria formed of punctures near the scutellum, and 
the first entire stria diverging rather obliquely in that 
part ; lower side of the body, parts of the mouth and 
antennae black ; legs and tarsi of the same colour. 

Nickol Bay, Western Australia. 

Oodes Thoracicus : length 5' ; oval, broad, smooth ; thorax 
with the middle longitudinal line elevated ; it has two very 
faint impressions on the posterior margin, and on each side a 
very deep and broad impression running in a curved and 
oblique way from the anterior angles to the posterior margin 
of the thorax ; elytra broad, curved, strongly striated ; 
all the striae entire, with only one or two small punctures 
between the first and the scutellum ; anterior tarsi still more 
dilated than in the males of the other species ; the entire 



152 Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 

insect is of a light shiny brown, but this colour may alter in 
more mature specimens. 

Swan River. 

Lici/nidce. 

The only Australian form generally included in this 
family is, till this day, the genus Physoloestus, Chaud., which 
is very little known to entomologists, but of which I describe 
here a sort, I believe different from the one on which the 
genus was formed. I also place here the Dicrochile, which have 
till now been put with Anchomenidce ; the total absence of 
cushions below the anterior tarsi of the male does not allow them 
to remain in that family, and the general form, particularly in 
the larger sorts, evidently brings them near to Licinus. It is 
by mistake that Mr. Lacordaire (" Hist. Nat. des Insectes," vol. 
1, page 234) says that Rembus is found in Australia. I also 
place near Dicrochile a new form from New Zealand. 

Physoloestus Suturalis: length 3J'; black, rather brilliant; 
thorax almost square, rather transverse, narrower behind 
than in front, with the sides rounded ; it has a deep, longi- 
tudinal sulcate in the middle, with a strong impression on 
each side near the posterior angles ; elytra striated, with a 
rather broad spot extending all along the sutura, but be- 
coming narrower towards the extremity ; mandibulse and 
labrum black ; palpi, antennae, extreme margin of the thorax, 
legs and lower margin of the elytra yellow. 

From the Paro River. 

DICROCHILE. 

Two species of this genus are known from New Zealand ; 
Baron Chaudoir has described one Australian sort, under 
the name of Brevicollis, and also, in a most proper way, he 
includes in the genus the Rembus Goryi of Boisduval ; 
the last insect has been lately (" Trans. Ent. Society of New 
South Wales ") described again by Mr. MacLeay, under the 
name of Stomatoccelus Licinoides. 

Dicrochile Gigas : length IV ; of a shiny black ; head 
large, almost round, very much depressed in front ; thorax 
short, transverse, very strongly marginated in front, rounded 
with a broad margin laterally ; it has a deep longitudinal 
sulcate in the middle, a strong transverse impression in 
front, and two very deep longitudinal impressions behind ; 
elytra large, compressed, covered with striae, of which the 
sutural one bifurcates towards the scutellum ; a line of 
punctiform impressions on the margin of the elytra, more 
particularly on their posterior part. 



Notes on Australian Goleoptera. 153 

Rockhampton. Brisbane, and Clarence River. 

Note. — The elytra have sometimes an irradiated tinge. 

Dicrochile Punctipennis : length 9' ; very nearly allied to 
Goryi, but head larger, eyes more prominent, thorax more 
cordiform, with posterior angles more prominent ; elytra 
broader, more depressed, with the parts between the striae 
flat ; the interval between the second and third strise bears four 
regular punctiform impressions ; the posterior margin of the 
elytra is very strongly emarginated ; the insect is of a dark 
brown ; the elytra are of a dull colour, without any brilliant 
lustre ; the antennae, parts of the mouth, and legs, are of a 
reddish brown. 

Brisbane. 

Dicrochile Punctato-striata : length 7' ; very nearly allied 
to Brevicollis, but the thorax is much more narrow, and 
almost square, being not much broader than long ; the pos- 
terior angles are sharp and elevated ; elytra a little longer, 
with their striae deeper, with the posterior part very strongly 
punctated, as is also the margin. 

Melbourne. 

Dicrochile Quadricollis : length 8 J' ; this sort is also 
nearly allied to Brevicollis, but is of larger size ; its head is 
broader ; its thorax is almost square, not being much 
broader than long ; the angles are more prominent, the pos- 
terior being elevated ; elytra rather longer, but with similar 
strise ; the impressions of the lateral margin smaller ; an- 
tennae, buccal parts, and legs, rather brown. 

Mountains of Victoria. 

Dicrochile Mantana : length 7J' ; of a brilliant black ; 
head oval, rather broad ; thorax short, transverse, strongly 
emarginated in front, rounded laterally ; it has a strong 
longitudinal sulcate in the middle, a transverse impression 
in front, and towards each posterior angle a longitudinal im- 
pression bifurcating in front, the internal part extending to 
three-fourths of the length of the thorax ; elytra rather 
broad, depressed, with their posterior margin very strongly 
emarginated ; they are covered with striae, the intervals of 
which are rounded ; on the interval between the second and 
third are three punctiform impressions, and another on the 
interval between the third and fourth near the base ; a few 
punctiform impressions are seen on the posterior part of the 
margin ; the sutural stria is bifurcated at the base. 

This insect is from the mountains of Victoria (Yankee 

M 



154 Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 

Jim), its thorax is very similar to the one of Brevicollis, 
but the elytra are much more like those of Punctipennis. 

Dicrochile Minuta: length 5 J' ; black, rather brilliant; 
head oval, thorax small, almost square, very nearly as long 
as broad, rounded laterally, covered with transverse striolse ; 
it has large lateral borders, a longitudinal sulcate in the 
middle, and indistinct transverse impressions in front and 
behind ; elytra broader than the thorax, elongated, striated ; 
the intervals between the striae rather elevated, the one 
between the second and third bearing three small punctiform 
impressions ; a short striae near the scutellum ; a few punc- 
tiform impressions near the lateral margin. 

From Melbourne, the Mountains of Victoria, Tasmania, 
and the Paroo River. 

Note. — Dicrochile Goryi is a most common insect, and 
extends its habitat from the north of Queensland, over New 
South Wales, Victoria, and South Australia, to the southern 
parts of Western Australia ; I have it also from the Darling 
river. Brevicollis is not quite so common ; I have speci- 
mens from Melbourne, New South Wales, and the Darling 
river. 

PEDALOPIA. 

Mentum broad, strongly emarginated, without a tooth ; 
wings of the mentum broad, rather straight externally, pointed 
at the extremity ; palpi with their last article oval ; labrum 
transversal, not emarginated ; mandibulae short, almost 
straight, very broad, obtuse at the apex ; antennae mode- 
rately long, rather slender, with the first article large, the 
second the smallest, the others conical and about equal ; tarsi 
slender, with the first article as long as the two following 
together ; the anterior tarsi are shorter and thicker, with 
the first article strong, the two following short and trian- 
gular, the fourth bilobated ; claws very small, simple ; head 
very large, depressed, round ; eyes small ; thorax short, broad, 
cordiform ; eltrya oval, oblong, depressed ; legs rather 
slender. 

Pedalopia Novcezelandice : length 4' ; of a dark brown ; 
head smooth ; thorax with a front transverse impression, and 
a light longitudinal sulcate on the middle, the lateral 
margins are yellow ; elytra very feebly striated, they are 
of a dark yellow, with the anterior part of the discus brown ; 
lower side of the body black, with the inferior margin of the 
elytra, the legs, antennae, and parts of the mouth of a light 



Notes on Australian Goleoptera. 155 

brown ; the thighs yellow ; this curious insect inhabits New 
Zealand. 

Note. — The form of the head, of the mandibular &c, 
brings this insect among the Licinidce ; the absence of a 
carina to the elytra, and of a tooth to the mentum, and the 
oval form of the palpi, places it next to Rembus, Badister 
and JDicrochile, but it differs from all by the form of its 
lab rum. Its fascies has some resemblance with the one of 
some of the large Cymindis. 

Stomidce, 

This family has till this day appeared to be missing from the 
Australian Fauna, but four genera, all new, seem to belong 
to it ; one, Meonis, most certainly does ; the others, Adetipa, 
Darodilia, and Leiradira, are rather more doubtful. The 
insect on which Meonis is formed is something like a large 
Stomis, but broader, and its elytra are more oval. It is 
distinguished by the triangular form of its palpi. 

Darodilia has much the appearance of a Feronia, but 
with the mandibular of Stomis. 

Adetipa seems to come near Meonis, but the mandibular, 
which are protuberant, are less so than in most Stomidce, 
and I should probably have placed this insect amongst the 
Feronidm if it had not been for the entire absence of a 
tooth to the mentum. 

Leiradira is in the same case ; its anterior tarsi are 
much like those of many Feronidw, but it has no tooth to 
the mentum, and it is easily distinguished by the great 
length of the first article of its antennar, after which these 
organs are bent. In general appearance it has something of 
Cnem,acanihus, but the humeral angles are well formed. 

As it is the case with many other groups of GarabidoB, 
the Stomidw form a very unnatural assemblage of insects. 

MEONIS. 

Mentum transverse, very deeply emarginated convex 
and rounded in the centre ; wings of the mentum 
large, broad, pointed at their extremity, obliquely truncated 
on the inner side ; palpi long, ended by a long triangular 
article, obliquely truncated at the extremity ; labrum trans- 
verse and emarginated in front ; mandibular very long, very 
prominent, carinated, rounded and pointed at the extremity, 
without any tooth ; maxillar very long, very prominent, 
arched and densely hirsute internally; antennse filiform, as 

m 2 



156 Notes on Australian Goleoptera. 

long as the head and thorax united, the first article large, 
rather longer than the two following taken together ; the 
second short, the two following conical, the others elongated 
and hirsute ; head oval, attenuated behind in the form of a 
sort of neck ; eyes prominent ; thorax cordiform, attenuated 
behind, with the sides rounded, the anterior angles rounded ; 
elytra broader than the thorax, oval, rather convex ; legs 
strong; an fcerior thighs rather inflated; tibiae of the same pair 
very deeply emarginated internally; tarsi slightly dilated in 
the male, their first article longer than the others, the three 
following triangular and hirsute. 

Meonis Ater: length 5' ; black, shiny; thorax with a deep 
longitudinal sulcate in the middle, and two strong elongate 
impressions behind; elytra with four deep striae, the 
margin having deep punctiform impressions ; palpi, antennae, 
with the exception of the basal article, and tarsi brown. 

Clarence River (New South Wales) and Brisbane (Queens- 
land). 

Meonis Niger : Length 6' ; differing from the precedent 
by its large size, its broader form, and the striae of the 
elytra, which are Hve in number. As in Ater, there is a 
considerable smooth space between the striae and the lateral 
margin. 

Clarence Eiver. 

ADETIPA. 

Mentum deeply emarginated, without any tooth ; the 
wings of the mentum large, rounded externally, truncated 
inside, and pointed at the extremity ; palpi rather long, 
narrow, the two last articles about equal in length, the 
terminal long, narrow, almost cylindrical, and rather trun- 
cated at its extremity ; labrum quadrangular, transverse, 
and rather indented in front ; mandibulae rather prominent, 
strong, arched towards the end ; antennae rather long, filiform, 
the basal article the largest, the second the shortest, the 
others about equal, subconical, the last oval ; head rather 
large and oval, narrowed in form of a neck behind the eyes ; 
thorax cordiform, about as long as broad ; elytra oblong, 
rather elongated, and a little depressed ; legs rather strong ; 
anterior tibiae strongly emarginated internally, armed 
laterally with a line of spines ; tarsi narrow, furnished below 
with short spines ; the first article much longer than the 
others, the three following triangular, the fifth long ; claws 
moderate. 



Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 157 

Adetipa Punctata : Length 7|'; of a brilliant black ; head 
having two strong longitudinal impressions between the 
eyes, and a transverse one in front, which unites the former ; 
thorax cordiform, with the anterior angles rounded, the 
sides emarginated ; on the centre is a strong longitudinal 
sulcate ; on the anterior part a very feeble transverse 
impression, and behind two very deep longitudinal ones ; 
elytra of a dark purple, having four very deep longitudinal 
striae leaving a broad space between those and the margin ; 
in the interval between the second and third stria are two 
strong punctiform impressions on each elytron, one rather 
before the middle of the length, and the ocher towards the 
two-thirds ; the lateral margin presents a series of very deep 
punctiform impressions, and the striae of the elytra unite 
towards the extremity ; the lower side of the body is of a 
very brilliant black, and the abdominal segments are very 
strongly impressed laterally ; the tarsi are brown, and the 
antennas hirsute, except on the three first articles. 

From the Clarence River. 

DAEODILIA. 

This new genus is nearly allied to Feronia, and the insect 
on which it is formed has the fascies of Omaseus, but it is 
very distinct by its long advanced mandibulae, which are 
strong, arched, pointed at the apex, and carinated at the base ; 
the labrum is very strongly and angularly emarginated. 
The palpi are long and slender, with the terminal article 
long, rather oval, and truncated at the extremity ; the men- 
turn is strongly emarginated, with a tooth in the centre ; its 
wings are very broad, rounded externally, and pointed at the 
extremity; the anterior tarsi are moderately dilated (in the 
only specimen I have), the first article is longer than the 
following, and all are triangular ; the other tarsi are slender, 
with the first article as long as the two others together; on the 
lower side all the tarsi are hirsute, but none have squamulae ; 
the head is oval, attenuated behind in form of a neck ; the 
antennae are rather long, with the first article strong, the 
second short, the third long, the others shorter, about equal 
among themselves, the last oval ; thorax rather rounded ; 
elytra oblong ; legs moderately strong. 

Darodilia Mandibularis : length 6' ; of a brilliant black ; 
head and thorax smooth ; the latter rather longer than broad, 
very much rounded on the sides, a little broader in front 
than behind ; it has the anterior transverse impression feebly 



158 Notes on Australian Goleoptera. 

marked, only a vestige of the longitudinal sulcate and the 
two posterior impressions well marked and elongated; elytra 
having a strong sutural stria, a second abbreviated behind, a 
third still shorter, and only extending to the middle of the 
elytra, the remaining part smooth ; margin with a few im- 
pressions ; tarsi, palpi, and antennse after the third article. 
Lachlan River. 

LEIRADIEA. 

Mentum broad, very strongly emarginated, but having no 
tooth ; the wings are broad, and terminated in an acute point. 
Labrum transverse, angularly emarginated ; antennse bent 
after the first article, which is longer than the three following 
together, they grow thicker as they progress towards the 
extremity ; mandibular strong, arched towards the extremity, 
and very pointed at the apex, having no tooth on 
the inner side, and being slightly carinated at the basis ; 
palpi : the maxillary with the first article short, second 
conical and long, third of the same form but shorter, last large, 
compressed, suboval, truncated ; the labial with the first 
article rather short, the second long and conical, the third 
large, truncated, and rather scutiform ; tarsi slender, having 
the first article long ; they are covered with spiny hair, the 
anterior dilated in the male, the three first articles being 
equal, triangular, and furnished below with a double row of 
squamulse, the fourth small ; claws simple ; in the female 
the anterior tarsi are not dilated, and the first article is much 
longer than the following ; head rather large, oblong, the 
posterior part forming a neck ; thorax oval, rounded laterally; 
elytra oval, with the humeral angles well marked ; legs 
strong ; the anterior tibar strongly emarginated, and having a 
spine at the upper end of the emargination, and another at 
the apex. 

This genus seems to form a passage between the Cnemac- 
anthidw and the Stomida3 ; the mandibular are not as 
elongated as they usually are in this latter group. 

Leiradira Latreillei : length 5' ; of a brilliant black, 
having fine metallic tinges on the sides of the thorax and 
elytra ; the thorax is oblong, with the front transverse im- 
pression almost imperceptible ; the longitudinal sulcate 
light, the two posterior impressions elongated and rather deep ; 
elytra deeply striated, having two punctiform impressions on 
the interval between the second and third, the first a 
little before the middle, and the other towards the two- 



Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 159 

thirds of the length ; a series of punctiform impressions 
extend near the margin ; lower side of the body and legs 
black ; tarsi brown ; antenna? covered after the first article 
with a brown pubescence. 

Mountains of the south of Queensland. 

Leiradira Auricollis : length 5f ' ; black ; thorax of a 
fine gold colour ; elytra purple ; thorax more rounded at its 
anterior part than in the preceding species ; elytra more 
oval ; similar in other respects. 

Clarence River, New South Wales, and Eockhampton, 
Queensland. 

Cnemacanthidee. 

This family is very extensively represented in Australia, 
and on this continent the most southern parts seem almost 
to have its monoply. They can in general be called antartic 
insects, the greatest number being confined to the extreme 
south of America, such as Chili, and the Straits of Magellan ; 
and in Australia, to Victoria, South Australia, Van Dieman's 
Land, and particularly New Zealand. Few extend to the 
north of South Wales, and to the southern parts of Western 
Australia. Those that are found in other regions of the 
world are in general confined to great altitudes. 

The genus Oopterus of Mr. Guerin, which Mr. Lacordaire 
places in this group, belongs manifestly to the Subulipalpi, 
among which the author of this generic division had most 
properly classified it. 

MECODEMA. 

This genus of Mr. Blanchard has been very little known 
till the present ; it is founded on a large insect, Sculptura- 
tum, which is not rare in the mountains of New Zealand, 
near Dunedin. A considerable number of other sorts have 
been found since, but have not yet been described. 

Broscus (Eneus of White, belongs also to this genus, as 
also very probably the Promecoderus Lottinii, Brulle, 
" Hist. Nat. des Insectes," vol. iv. p. 459. As yet no Promeco- 
derus has been found in New Zealand, and if one could 
admit that there has been an error in the locality, that 
insect might be Promecoderus Concolor. 

Mecodema Howittii: length lS'-lG' ; this is the largest 
species known yet ; its colour is of a dark copper ; the fore- 
head is almost smooth, but strong transverse striolse cover 
the anterior parts of the head ; the thorax is broad and cor- 



160 Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 

diform, it is rather smooth, with some transverse irregular 
striolae ; on its anterior margin, the striolae are longitudinal, 
the margins are entire ; elytra oval, rather long, covered with 
longitudinal lines, rather elevated, and with their intervals 
most irregularly, but strongly, punctated and granulated. 

This fine insect has been found near Christchurch, in New 
Zealand ; I owe my specimen to the kindness of Dr. Howitt. 

Note. — The same as in all the other sorts the thorax has 
a longitudinal sulcate in the middle, and two transverse im- 
pressions, one in front and the other behind, with others at 
each angle ; it is useless to repeat this for each species. 

Mecodema Rectolineatum : length 13'; nearly allied to 
Sculputatum, but the thorax more smooth, and the elevated 
lines of the elytra regular, with the bottom of the striae 
strongly punctated ; they are deprived of those irregular 
depressions so remarkable on the typical species ; the general 
form of the elytra is also shorter. 

From the mountains near Dunedin, New Zealand. 

Mecodema Lucidum : length ] 2' ; of a rather dull black, 
smooth ; head with a transverse line of very small points on 
the forehead ; thorax having vestiges of faint transverse 
striolae only on the middle longitudinal sulcate ; elytra with 
punctated striae, almost obliterated near the sutura, but very 
strong on the sides and behind ; they have also a sort of 
longitudinal and smooth costa near the lateral margin, which 
is bordered externally by a few large irregular punctures. 

New Zealand. 

Mecodema Crenicolle : length 13J 7 ; of a dark copper 
colour ; head covered with irregular rugosities ; thorax with 
its sides crenulated, and its surface covered with transverse 
striolae ; elytra oval, long ; covered with very strong and 
large points dispersed in irregular longitudinal lines ; they 
are much deeper and confluent on the sides ; base of an- 
tennae and legs rather reddish. 

This fine insect comes from Auckland (New Zealand). 

Mecodema Simplex: length 13' ; of a rather shiny black, 
having a metallic tinge ; head and thorax covered with 
transverse undulating striolae ; others longitudinal on the 
internal side of the eyes ; elytra regularly striated ; the 
striae with very small punctures near the sutura, but those 
near to the margin formed of large square points ; the inter- 
vals of the striae are nearly carinated ; antennae and legs of 
a dark brown. 

Auckland, New Zealand. 



Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 161 

Mecodema Blagravii : length 10' ; of a shiny brownish 
black ; head smooth, with two longitudinal striae behind 
each eye, and a transverse impression in front of them ; 
thorax cordiform, rather depressed, rounded and marginated 
laterally, with a slight transverse impression on the anterior 
angles and a large and rounded one near the posterior ones ; 
its surface presents transverse striolse ; elytra oval, rather 
strongly striated ; a few very strong punctiform impressions 
on the posterior part of the margin ; lower side of the body 
black ; legs and parts of the mouth red ; basal articles 
of the antennae brown, the others black, and after the third 
hirsute. 

Mountains of Victoria, found by the lamented Mr. Louis 
Blagrave. 

Mecodema Impressum : length 10 J' ; of a dark copper 
colour, rather brilliant ; head smooth in front, and punctured 
on its posterior part ; thorax rather smooth, with faint 
transverse striolse ; the anterior angles covered with a dense 
puncturation ; elytra rather long, covered with striae, which are 
very finely punctured, and with the intervals between them 
smooth toward s the sutura, and formed of very strong punctures 
near the margin; on the interval between the seventh and 
eighth striae are three or four rather large but irregular punc- 
tiform impressions ; a sort of smooth longitudinal carina 
follows near the external margin, and is bordered externally 
by a line of large and distinct punctiform impressions ; the 
posterior part of the elytra is covered with very strong and 
irregular impressions ; legs and antennae black. 

Mountains near Dunedin, New Zealand. 

Mecodema Alternans : length 11 J'; this insect is very 
nearly allied to the preceding, and has the same punctiform 
impressions of the elytra, but they are very different, being 
disposed so as to leave alternatively broad and narrow 
spaces between them ; the broad spaces number four, having 
two puncturated striae between each ; the colour is rather 
darker than in Impressum, and the elytra rather broader 
and of a more oval form. 

This insect was brought from the neighbourhood of Otago, 
New Zealand, and is in Dr. Howitt's collection. 

Note. — The above species have all the same fascies, being 
rather depressed, with the thorax more or less cordiform. 
The following have a different appearance, but the parts of 
the mouth, of which I have made a minute study, being 
similar, 1 have to include them in the same genus. The in- 



162 Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 

sects I mention are long, rather cylindrical, with the thorax 
rather oviform, and very little broader in front than behind ; 
the elytra are elongated, and almost cylindrical. 

Mecodema (Enewm (" White, Voyage of Erebus and Terror, 
Ent.," page 5, pi. 1, fig. 8): length 8' ; this insect is of a dark 
copper colour, with the parts of the mouth and thighs 
brown ; the striae of the elytra are sometimes very feeble. 

Common in the mountains of New Zealand, near Dunedin. 

Mecodema Inmquale : length 7' ; nearly allied to CEneum, 
but shorter and broader ; head large, with longitudinal striolse 
on the inner side of the eyes, and a transverse series of large 
punctiform impressions on the forehead ; thorax cordiform, 
covered with striolse, which are transverse on the disk, and 
longitudinal towards the anterior margin ; a number of long 
straight hairs are dispersed on its surface ; elytra oval, 
covered with strong longitudinal striae, which are very irre- 
gularly interrupted laterally and behind ; inferior side of 
the body, legs, mouth, and antennae black, the latter hirsute, 
except on the basal articles. 

New Zealand, Dunedin. 

Mecodema Elongatum : length 6 J' ; of a brilliant copper 
colour ; general form elongated, with the sides almost 
parallel ; head with two strong impressions in front, and a 
transverse band of small punctures behind the eyes ; thorax 
rather cordiform, larger than broad, narrower behind, with a 
transverse impression on each of the anterior angles, and a 
deep elongated one on the posterior ; the surface presents 
faint transverse striolse, and its posterior part is sometimes 
rather ruguous ; elytra long, covered by striae formed of 
strong punctures; near the lateral margin is a smooth space, 
on the inner side of which extends a longitudinal row of deep 
punctiform impressions ; lower side of the body, legs, and 
mouth black ; the end of the palpi red ; some long straight 
hairs are dispersed on the elytra, and still more on the thorax. 

New Zealand. 

Note. — Some specimens in Dr. Howitt's collection are a 
little narrower than the others ; I believe this difference to 
be sexual. 

Note. — A third form now appears, which is easily distin- 
guished by a very large head, and the body considerably 
depressed ; the thorax very cordiform ; the elytra oval. 
These insects are very much like Percus, and partake also 
of Siagona, but are not so depressed ; the labrum is emargi- 



Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 163 

nated, and the tooth of the mentum strongly bifurcated, 
much more so than in the other sorts. 

Mecodema Percoides : length ]2'-15' ; of a brilliant black ; 
head and thorax furnished with long brown hair, dis- 
persed round their margin ; elytra smooth, with very faint 
longitudinal striae, visible only laterally, and on their pos- 
terior portion ; a series of seven or eight deep punctiform im- 
pressions form a longitudinal line on each elytra, at some 
distance from the lateral margin ; end of the palpi and 
trochanters brown. Some specimens have the head much 
smaller. I believe them to be females. 

Mountains of Tasmania. 

Mecodema Montanum : length 11'; black, brilliant ; general 
form rather long and narrow ; thorax rather cordiform, 
truncated in front and behind, with the sides rounded 
and becoming narrower toward the back part; an im- 
pression is seen near each of the anterior angles, and a 
few transverse striolae on the surface ; elytra oval, rather long, 
covered with feeble longitudinal striae ; a line of deep punc- 
tiform impressions follow the margins ; these impressions 
are more numerous on their posterior part ; parts of the 
mouth, legs, and base of the antennae rather brown ; the 
remaining part of the latter hirsute ; a few long brown 
straight hairs are dispersed on the sides of the head and 
thorax. 

From the mountains of Victoria. 

MAORIA. 

This new genus is distinguished from Mecodema by its 
palpi, which, instead of being more or less securiform, are 
terminated by an oval article ; the tooth of the mentum is 
simple and not bilobed ; the legs are stronger, the thighs in- 
flated ; the front tibiae are more strongly palmated, and 
those of the other two pair are dilated at their extremity, 
and protrude in the form of a strong point ; the tibiae are 
all straight, the anterior armed with two very long spurs on 
the inner side ; the mandibulae are strong ; all the sorts 
known are from New Zealand. 

Maoria Tibialis : length 9|' ; black, with a rather brown 
tinge ; head smooth, with a transverse depression behind the 
e}^es ; thorax rather cordiform, rounded and marginated 
laterally, with the anterior angles rounded and impressed, a 
very deep punctiform impression on each of the posterior 
angles ; elytra oval, very strongly striato-punctated ; a longi- 



164 Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 

tudinal series of deep punctiform impressions on the intervals 
between the sixth and seventh striae ; the lower part of the 
margin covered with irregular deep impressions, which cover 
also the posterior part of the elytra ; some long, straight brown 
hairs are scattered over the elytra, and on the margins of the 
thorax ; thighs, base of the antennae, and mouth, of a reddish 
brown. 

Common in the mountains which border the Molyneux 
River in New Zealand. 

Maoria Punctata : length 8 ' ; of a brownish black ; general 
form long and rather depressed, the sides almost parallel ; 
head with a few longitudinal striolae on the inner side oi 
the eyes, and a transverse line of small punctures on the 
forehead ; thorax rather cordiform, almost straight laterally, 
with the anterior angles rounded and impressed ; the pos- 
terior angles very rounded, sinuous, and having a deep 
punctiform impression ; the surface presents transverse 
striolae, and others longitudinal on the posterior margin ; 
elytra rather long, parallel, covered with longitudinal striae, 
formed of oblong points, rather distant one from the other ; 
they have a smooth longitudinal space near the margin ; 
lower side of the body and antennae black ; palpi brown. 

Mountains of Dunedin (New Zealand). 

Maoria Morio : length 6J'; very much like the precedent, 
but smaller, and of a brilliant dark copper colour ; the elytra 
are more regularly punctato-striated ; the general form is 
rather more convex and less depressed. 

Otago (New Zealand). 

Maoria Glivinoides: length 6 J' ; of a dark brilliant brown ; 
elongated ; head oval, with a strong transverse impression 
behind the eyes ; thorax cordiform, rather longer than broad, 
narrower behind, with the sides rounded and marginated ; a 
very deep impression at each posterior angle, and a trans- 
verse one uniting them ; elytra oval, rather convex, covered 
with deep striae, of which those near the sutura are rather 
punctated ; a smooth space extends near the margin, and 
bears a row of deep punctiform impressions ; antennae, 
mouth, and tarsi of a brownish red. 

This insect has rather the appearance of a large Clivina ; 
it was found round Wellington (New Zealand), and was 
given to me by Dr. Howitt. 

Maoria Dyschirioides : length 6 J' ; of a brownish black, 
rather brilliant ; head small and oval, with a longitudinal 
impression near the inside of each eye, and a very strong 



Notes on Australian Goleoptera. 165 

transverse impression on the posterior part ; thorax con- 
siderably broader than wide ; its greatest breadth being past 
one half of its length ; it is rounded and marginated laterally, 
with the anterior angles rather rounded, and the posterior 
broadly so ; behind those angles the thorax is rather prolongated 
forward with a strong sinuosity on each side ; there is a light 
transverse impression on the anterior angles, and a strong 
rounded one behind ; elytra oval, rather depressed, covered 
with striae, very strong near the sutura, and disappearing 
almost entirely as they go near to the lateral margin ; legs 
and parts of the mouth red ; antennae black and hirsute, 
except the basal articles, which are brown. 

This insect has something of the form of a large Dyschi- 
rius ; it is from the Crooked Kiver, in New Zealand. 

BRULLEA. 

Mentum broad, very deeply emarginated, with a small 
bilobated tooth in the centre of the emarginated part ; the 
wings very large, broad and curved on the external side, 
obliquely truncated at their extremity ; palpi with their 
anti-penultimate articles very long and slender; the terminal 
long, slender, fusiform, and curved, rounded at its end; 
labrum very transversal; mandibulse large, strong, carinated, 
very prominent, almost straight on their inner side, and 
arched externally ; legs short, very strong ; thighs largely 
inflated, particularly the posterior ; tibiae strongly curved in- 
ternally, particularly the posterior ; they are very much dilated, 
and almost triangular, very rugose, and having externally a 
sharp edge ; tarsi (the anterior missing in my specimen) 
having their four first articles triangular, the first longer 
than the others ; their inferior side covered with long 
straight hair ; antennae short, thick, with the basal article 
the largest, the second narrower and a little shorter, the 
others granular and hirsute, the last oval ; body thick ; 
head almost square, transversal, much broader than the 
mandibular ; thorax cordiform, rather depressed, separated 
from the body by a pedunculi ; elytra oval, broader behind 
than in front ; posterior trochanters very large, oval, arched, 
and pointed. 

This genus, which I dedicate to my friend Aug. Brulle, 
a well-known naturalist, comes very near his genus Glyp- 
tus, but is distinct by its labrum not being emar- 
ginated, and its curved tibia?. Its place is evidently near 
Mecodenia and Maoria, forming the link between them. 



166 Notes on Australian Coleoptera 

Brullea Antarctica : length 12 J' ; of a dark brown, rather 
shiny, smooth ; thorax cordiform, rounded laterally ; it 
presents a longitudinal sulcate in the middle, and a strong 
punctiform one on each of the posterior angles ; elytra 
covered with strong longitudinal striae ; those nearer to the 
margin very strongly punctated ; posterior part of elytra 
rugose ; on the margin a longitudinal row of very large and 
strong punctiform impressions, and another of four similar 
ones on the seventh striae ; lower side of the body, legs, and 
antennae of a reddish brown. 

New Zealand, Auckland. 

PROMECODERUS. 

This form is up to the present entirely particular to 
Australia; no sorts having been found even in New Zealand. 

Promecoderus Tasmanicus : length 5' ; subdepressed ; 
black, with a slight brilliant tinge ; head smooth ; thorax 
rounded, truncated in front, almost plain, with the lateral 
margins rather erected ; it is rather longer than broad, with 
the anterior prominent ; it has no longitudinal sulcate in 
the middle, but a very faint transverse impression is seen in 
front, and another behind ; elytra smooth, with rather faint 
longitudinal strise, which, seen through a magnifying power, 
appear punctated ; antennae, palpi, and tarsi of a reddish 
brown. 

Tasmania. 

Note. — Some specimens have the thorax much broader 
than others. I suppose this is a sexual character ; this sort 
is very distinct from Ovicollis by its depressed thorax, and 
the absence of the longitudinal sulcate on it. 

Promecoderus Bassii : length 7' ; of a brilliant black ; 
head and thorax generally of a dark metallic green ; head 
with a feeble transverse impression behind the eyes, and two 
very faint longitudinal ones between them (the latter some- 
times obliterated) ; thorax a little broader than wide, convex, 
of an oval form, with the anterior part truncated ; it has 
a longitudinal sulcate in the middle, a very faint transverse 
impression in front, and a stronger one behind ; elytra oval, 
rather convex, covered with striae, in which faint punc- 
tures may be seen ; three very deep impressions on the 
posterior part of the margin ; lower side of the body black ; 
antennae, parts of the mouth and tarsi brown. 

From King's Island, in Bass's Straits. 



Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 167 

Promecoderus Pygmceus: length 3f; elongate, of a brilliant 
copper colour ; head with two strong rounded impressions in 
front, and a transverse one behind the eyes ; thorax nearly 
as long as broad, oval, truncated in front, having a faint 
longitudinal sulcate in the middle, and transverse 
impressions in front and behind ; elytra long, striated, 
with a few deep impressions on the posterior part of the 
margin ; lower side of the body of a brilliant copper colour ; 
legs, tarsi, buccal parts, and the three basal articles of the 
antennae of a dark brown ; the remaining part of the 
antennae black and hirsute ; the thighs black. 

From the mountains of Yictoria. 

Promecoderus Minutus : length 4/ ; very much like 
Pygmwus, but broader; thorax more globular, elytra 
much more^oval, parts of the mouth, antennae and legs of a 
light brown, middle of the thighs black ; the lateral im- 
pressions of the elytra generally faint ; the general colour 
seems to be subject to considerable variations, from light 
copper colour to nearly black. 

Swan River. 

Promecoderus Nigricornis : length 7' ; black, brilliant ; 
head and thorax of a dark copper colour ; head smooth, 
with two punctures in front, and a very faint transverse 
impression behind the eyes; thorax cordiform, con vexed, 
impressed transversally in front and behind with a deep 
longitudinal sulcate in the middle ; on the sides of the 
sulcate are faint transverse striolae ; elytra oval, convex 
covered with faint longitudinal striae ; their posterior part is 
rather corrugated ; their margin has no punctiform im- 
pressions, but a short longitudinal sulcate ; the palpi are 
brown ; the antennae black, with the external base of the 
first three articles of a rather dark brown ; the tarsi have 
some long brown hair ; palpi of a dark brown. 

Mountains of Victoria. 

Promecoderus Maritimus : length 6 J' ; of a brilliant 
black ; head large, with several very faint irregular im- 
pressions in front and between the eyes ; a feeble trans- 
verse impression behind these organs ; thorax oblong, 
globular, sub-cordiform, with feeble transverse impressions 
in front and behind, and a longitudinal sulcate in the 
middle ; elytra oval, oblong, convex, covered with rather 
faint punctated strife ; the posterior part of the margin has 
a few faint punctiform impressions, and a short longitudinal 
sulcate ; some brown hair on the tarsi ; antennae black, with 



168 Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 

the base of the first articles of a dark brown ; the palpi of 
the latter colour. 

On the Sea shore of Cape Schanck (Victoria). 

Promecoderus Striato-punctatus : length 7J' ; very 
nearly allied to the preceding, but head smaller ; elytra 
more parallel and cylindrical ; the first article of the 
antennae is of a dark brown, the following black, and the 
four last of a dark reddish brown ; the general colour is 
dark but brilliant, and more or less metallic. 

I have one specimen from the mountains of Victoria, 
and another from the Darling Kiver. 

Promecoderus Semistriatus : length 6 J' ; of a dark 
metallic colour, almost black ; head with two slight im- 
pressions in front, and a strong transverse ope behind ; 
thorax longer than broad, rather cordiform, considerably 
narrowed behind ; it has a strong transverse impression 
in front, another behind, and a deep longitudinal sulcate in 
the middle ; elytra oval, with strong longitudinal striae near 
the sutura, but growing fainter as they are more remote 
from it ; they entirely disappear before they reach the 
margin ; a punctiform impression and a short sulcate on the 
posterior part of the margin ; the inferior side of the 
abdomen presents a punctiform impression on each side 
of its segments ; antennae, palpi, and tarsi, of a reddish 
brown. 

From Eastern Creek, New South Wales. 

Note. — A specimen from Clarence Kiver has the striae 
of the elytra more feeble. 

Promecoderus A Ibaniensis : length 5' ; black, with a 
copper tinge ; head with a transverse impression in front, 
and another behind the eyes ; thorax sub-cordiform, with a 
longitudinal sulcate in the middle, and two transverse 
impressions, one near the anterior margin, and the other 
behind ; elytra oval, with feeble longitudinal striae, which 
disappear towards the sides ; a punctiform impression and a 
short sulcate on the posterior part of the margin ; the 
lower side of the body is of a glossy black ; the segments of 
the abdomen have a deep punctiform impression on each 
side ; labrum black ; antennae, palpi, and tarsi of a dark 
brown ; the basal articles of the antennae generally black or 
dark. 

Variety of a copper colour. 

Common at King George's Sound. 



Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 169 

Promecoderus Scauroides : length 4-5' ; black, brilliant ; 
head smooth, with a most feeble transverse impression 
behind the eyes ; thorax semicircular, truncated in front, 
globular, having two transverse impressions, one in front 
and the other behind, and a longitudinal sulcate in the 
middle, extending to the posterior margin ; elytra oval, with 
longitudinal striae, not extending to the lateral margin ; a 
punctiform impression, and a short longitudinal sulcate on 
the posterior part of the margin ; lower side of the body of 
a shiny brown ; segments of the abdomen having on each 
side a punctiform impression, which extends in the form of 
a short oblique sulcate towards the centre ; labrum black, 
palpi, mandibular, and antennae, brown ; thighs black, with 
the tibiae generally brown ; tarsi reddish. 

Swan River. 

Promecoderus Elegans : length 5 J' ; of a brilliant copper 
colour ; head with two punctures in front, and a transverse 
impression behind the eyes ; thorax cordiform, longer than 
broad, strongly sulcated longitudinally in the middle, trans- 
versally impressed in front and behind ; elytra oval, rather 
broad, sub-depressed ; they are covered with strong lon- 
gitudinal striae, which do not extend to the margin ; 
on the lower part of this margin are one or two 
punctures, and a short longitudinal sulcate ; lower side of 
the body of a green copper colour ; segments of the abdomen 
with a punctiform impression on each side ; antennae with 
their six first articles of a dark brown, the others of a lighter 
colour, and hirsute ; thighs black ; parts of the mouth and 
tarsi of a light reddish brown. 

From Melbourne. 

This insect comes near Oibbus, but is quite different, on 
account of its light elegant form, and the elytra much more 
oval. 

Promecoderus Oblongus : length 6 J' ; elongated, with the 
sides nearly parallel ; of a metallic green ; head with two 
longitudinal impressions in front, and a transverse one 
behind the eyes ; thorax with a strong transverse impression 
in front, another behind, and a deep longitudinal sulcate 
on the posterior part ; the surface is entirely covered with 
transverse and sinuous striolae ; elytra oblong, convex, almost 
parallel laterally, covered with rather faint longitudinal eleva- 
tions on the posterior part of the margin a punctiform 
impression and a short longitudinal sulcate ; lower side of the 
body, labrum, mandibular, and legs black ; tarsi and antennae 

N 



170 Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 

brown ; the basal article of the last red ; a punctiform 
impression on each side of the abdominal segments. 

Melbourne. 

Promecoderus Modestus : length 6'; elongated; black; head 
smooth, with a light transverse impression in front, and three 
punctiform impressions on the more advanced part ; a very 
feeble transverse impression behind the eyes ; thorax cordi- 
form, much longer than broad, with a deep longitudinal 
sulcate in the middle, and two very feeble transverse 
impressions, one in front and the other behind ; elytra 
oblong, elongated, with longitudinal striae which do not ex- 
tend to the lateral margin ; on the posterior part of the 
latter a puncture and a short oblique sulcate ; lower side of the 
body of a copper colour ; a deep punctiform impression on each 
side of the abdominal segments ; legs, labrum, and mandi- 
bulae black ; antennae and tarsi brown. 

Tasmania. 

Promecoderus Neglectus : length 6' ; elongated, of a shiny 
black ; head with two feeble impressions between the eyes, 
and a transverse one behind them ; thorax longer than 
broad, globular, with a strong longitudinal sulcate in the 
middle, and a transverse impression in front and behind ; 
elytra elongated, oval, and rather strongly striated ; the striae 
becoming feeble towards the lateral margin, but extending 
to them, the posterior part of this margin having a punctiform 
and a longitudinal impression ; the sides of the elytra are 
slightly reticulated ; abdominal segments impressed on each 
side ; labrum and mandibular black ; palpi, tarsi, and four 
first articles of the antennae of a dark brown, the remaining 
part of the antennae black. 

Mountains of Victoria. 

Promecoderus Suturalis : length 7' ; very elongated ; of a 
brilliant black, having on the elytra a metallic tinge ; head 
smooth, very feebly impressed in front, and with a very 
faint transverse impression behind the eyes; thorax longer 
than broad, cordiform, globular^ covered with transverse 
striolae, having a strong longitudinal sulcate in the middle, 
and a rather deep transverse impression in front and 
behind ; elytra long, oblong, convex, attenuated behind, 
very smooth, with a rather strong sutural striae, and several 
short longitudinal impressions on the basis ; on the posterior 
part of the margin are three rather deep impressions ; 
abdomen with a strong punctiform impression on each side 
of the segments ; labrum and mandibular black ; palpi 



Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 171 

and antennas brown ; the first article of the latter of a 
lighter colour ; tarsi brown. 

Adelaide. 

Note. — This sort has entirely the form of Gracilis, but 
is distinct by its much larger size and its black legs. - 

Promecoderus Howittii : length 7' ; very nearly allied to 
Brunicomis, having the same form, but the elytra are 
smooth, and have only a sutural stria. This sort is common 
round Melbourne. I have preserved the name given to it 
by the late Mr. MacLeay in his collection. It is distin- 
guished from Goncolor by the presence of the sutural striae, 
and from Suturalis by the color, which is generally dull, by 
its form, much thicker, and the elytra more rounded behind. 

From Melbourne. 

Promecoderus Wilcoxii: length 11 6J'; copper colour ; head 
with two large rounded impressions in front and two punc- 
tiform ones between the eyes ; thorax globular, with a 
strong longitudinal sulcate in the middle, and two feeble 
transverse impressions, one in front and the other behind ; 
elytra oval, with strong striae, which become very weak 
towards the margin ; these striae appear punctated when 
seen through a magnifying power ; on the posterior part of 
the margin are three impressions, two being punctiform, and 
one linear ; lower side of the body of a green copper colour ; 
segments of the abdomen with a punctiform impression on 
each side ; legs of a dark brown, antennae, tarsi, and buccal 
parts of a light reddish brown. 

Sent by Mr. Wilcox from the Clarence River. 

Promecoderus Lucidicollis : length 5 \' ; of a shiny black ; 
head and thorax of a brilliant copper colour, the latter rather 
short and globiform, with the longitudinal sulcate, and the 
anterior and posterior transverse impressions strong ; elytra 
oval, smooth, with three large impressions on the posterior 
part of the margin ; sides of the abdominal segments very 
strongly impressed ; legs, antennae, and parts of the mouth 
of a reddish brown. 

Melbourne. 

This insect, by the absence of all strise on the elytra can 
only be mistaken for Goncolor or Gracilis. It is distinct 
from the first by its much smaller size, its thorax shorter 
and more gibbous, the colour of its legs, &c; and from 
the second by the oval form of its elytra, which are oblong, 
and rather parallel in Gracilis. In form it resembles 
Bassii. 

* n 2 



* 



** 



172 Notes on Australian Goleoptera. 

The sorts of Promecoderus are so nearly allied to one 
another, that I think it will be useful to give here a few 
distinctive characters of the sorts that I have in my 
collection. Some of these characteristic distinctions are 
light and even variable, but the general fascies makes it 
impossible not to separate the species ; in all cases the 
following notes will always considerably help the entomo- 
logist : — 

A. Thorax without a longitudinal sulcate (Tasmanicus). 

B. Thorax with a longitudinal sulcate in the middle. 

a. Elytra striated. 

The striae punctated. 

Head large, elytra oval (Maritimus). 

Head ordinary, elytra oblong (Striato-punctatus). 

Head ordinary, elytra oval, body black (Bassii). 

Head ordinary, elytra oval, body copper colour 

(Wilcoxi'i). 
The Striae not punctated. 
c. Basal article of the antennae black or dark. 

Ordinary size ; elytra oval, with faint striae on 

the entire surface (Nigricomis). 
Ordinary size, elytra oval, with moderate striae on 

the entire surface (Albanensis). 
Ordinary size, elytra oval, striae strong, but only 
on the sutural half of the elytra (Semistri- 
atus). 
Ordinary size, elytra oval, striae strong, extending 

nearly to the margin (JElegans). 
Ordinary size, elytra oblong, strongly striated 
(Neglectus). 
* Small size, elytra oval (Pygmceus). 

Small size, elytra very oblong (Minutus). 
cc. Basal articles of the antennae of a light colour. 

Elytra oblong, striae all over the elytra (Oblongus). 
Elytra oblong, striae only towards the sutura 

(Modestus). 
Elytra oval, thorax cordiform, globular, striae of 

the elytra strong (Gibbus). 
Elytra oval, thorax cordiform, globular, striae of 
the elytra very faint, colour black (Scauroides). 
Elytra oval, thorax cordiform, globular, striae of 
the elytra very faint, colour metallic (Brunni- 
cornis). 



Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 173 

Elytra oval, thorax cordiform (Ovicollis). 

Elytra oval, thorax and elytra depressed (Subde- 

pressus). 
aa. Elytra smooth. 

Elytra without striae, thighs red — 

Elytra oval (Lucidicollis). 

Elytra oblong (Gracilis). 
Elytra without striae, thighs black (Concolor). 
Elytra with a sutural striae, their form attenuated 

behind (Sutwalis). 
Elytra with a sutural striae, their form rounded 

behind (Howittii). 

PARROA. 

Mentum with a very large, deep, broad, and almost square 
excavation, without any tooth, its wings large, broad, 
rounded externally, pointed at their extremity, straight at 
their internal side. Palpi thick, the maxillary having the 
first article short, the second long, and rather arched, the 
third short and conic, the last being the longest, oval form, 
and truncated at its extremity, the labial having a rather 
short basal article, the second long, the third of the same 
length, thicker, oval, and truncated at the end. Mandibulae 
short, thick, arched, and pointed, in great part covered by 
the labrum ; the right one has several large teeth, the other 
is simple. Labrum large, broad, denticulated in front. 
Antennas with their first article large, the second short, the 
third the longest and conical, the following of the same form ; 
the others almost oval form, short, rather rounded, and the 
last oval and pointed. Tarsi strong, the anterior having 
their four first articles triangular, the basal being the 
largest ; those of the male more dilated ; all having below 
long and strong hair. Head rather large, oval ; eyes 
round ; thorax rounded laterally, almost globular ; elytra 
oval ; legs strong. 

These insects are nearly allied to Promecoderus, but very 
distinct by the absence of the tooth to the mentum ; their 
size is much larger. 

Parroa Howittii: length -12'; of a brilliant black; thorax 
globular, rather cordiform, and prolongated behind, with 
the anterior angles advanced and pointed ; it has a longitu-. 
dinal sulcate in the middle, a strong transverse impression 
behind, and a very slight one in front ; the sutura has trans- 



174) Notes on Australian Goleoptera. 

verse striolse ; the sides are very strongly marginated ; 
elytra long, smooth, oval ; antennae and tarsi rather brown. 

From the Paroo River, in the central parts of New 
Holland. 

Parroa Grandis : length 13'; black, not very brilliant; 
thorax almost round, globular, with the anterior angles 
rather advanced ; the lateral margins very narrow ; it has a 
longitudinal sulcate on the middle, a rather strong transverse 
impression behind, and a very faint one in front ; elytra oval, 
with their posterior part rather rugous, and (when seen 
through a magnifying power) covered with irregular inequa- 
lities. 

Swan River. 

Parroa Violacea: length 10 J' ; black, not very brilliant, 
with a purple tinge, becoming on the elytra of a beautiful 
purple ; thorax rounded, globular, with the lateral margins 
narrow, and the anterior angles a little advanced ; it has a 
longitudinal sulcate in the middle, and a transverse impres- 
sion in front and behind ; its surface is marked with trans- 
verse striolse, and its posterior margin with longitudinal 
ones ; elytra having their posterior part rather rugous ; 
inferior part of the body of a rather brilliant black. 

Swan River. 

Parroa Carbonaria : length 8' ; black, brilliant ; very much 
like Grandis, but much smaller ; elytra smooth, their 
surface having a few irregular rugosities only on their terminal 
part ; antennae and legs rather reddish. 

Swan River. 

Parroa Bicolor : length 7' ; brilliant, of a fine purple, 
with the elytra green ; thorax globular, with the margin 
oreen ; elytra smooth, with a few granulations on the poste- 
rior part of the margin ; antennae, mouth and legs black, the 
latter with rugous hair. 

From the Paroo River ; in Dr. Howitt's collection. 

ADOTELA. 

The insects on which this new genus is formed, have en- 
tirely the form and characters of Parroa, with the exception 
of the palpi, which are all terminated by a large triangular 
article, having the form of a hatchet ; the last of the labial 
is still 'larger, and more securiform than the one of the max- 
illary. The three first articles of the anterior tarsi have 
below small spongious brushes. 



Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 175 

Adotela Concolor : length 11 J'; entirely of a rather 
brilliant black ; thorax globular, but with the sides rather 
parallel ; it has a longitudinal sulcate in the middle, a trans- 
verse impression in front and behind, and its surface is 
covered with small transverse striolae ; elytra oval, smooth, 
except on their extremity, which is rather rugous ; a few 
deep punctiform impressions are seen on the external 
margin. 

Swan River. 

Adotela Esmeralda : length 9' ; same form as the preced- 
ing; of a fine emerald green ; head and thorax rather darker; 
elytra rather rugous on their posterior part ; when seen 
through a lense, their surface is seen covered with irregular 
but longitudinal inequalities; thighs covered with trans- 
verse striolae ; lower side of the body almost black ; parts of 
the mouth, antennae, and legs of a brownish black. 

Swan River ; received from the Rev. Mr. Bostock. 

CEROTALIS. 

The insects forming this genus have entirely the general ap- 
pearance of Promecoderus, but have no tooth to the men- 
tum, and their anterior tarsi are furnished with spongious 
cushions below their four first articles. 

This latter character separates them from Parroa, and 
their palpi ended by an oval subtruncated article, makes 
them easily distinguished from Adotela. 

Mr. Lacordaire, in the first volume of his genera, had 
already mentioned the necessity of establishing this generic 
division for P. Degener. 

Cerotalis Semiviolacea : length 8 J' ; of a dark copper 
colour on the upper side, and of a fine deep purple below ; 
elytra smooth, with a few large, irregular, and punctiform 
impressions on the posterior part, near the margin ; legs 
black ; palpi brown ; antennae and tarsi with hair of the 
same colour. 

Port Lincoln, South Australia. 

Cerotalis Substriata : length 7 J' ; same colour as preced- 
ing ; elytra covered with rather faint longitudinal ridges, 
forming irregular striae ; the punctiform marginal impressions 
of the elytra generally deeper. 

King George's Sound. 

Cerotalis Versicolor : length 7' ; of a rather dark green ; 
thorax covered with transverse striolae and the elytra with 



176 Notes on Australian Goleoptera. 

feeble punctated strise; a few punctures, larger than the others, 
are irregularly dispersed in these strias; on the posterior 
part of the margin a few punctiform impressions ; mouth, 
antennas, inferior side of the body and legs of a reddish 
brown. 

Victoria, in Dr. Howitt's collection. 

Cratoceridce. 

No Australian Carabidce had till lately been placed in this 
family, but Forticosomus belongs to it, the anterior tarsi of 
the males being very little more dilated than those of the 
females ; as also a new genus formed on a large insect previ- 
ously described by White as a Feronia. The Acinopus 
Australis of Hope is very nearly allied to the latter, but the 
squamuke of its tarsi make it necessary to leave it among 
Harpalidce. 

This family of Cratoceridce is a most unnatural and artifi- 
cial division. 

I have also placed here as an Amblygnathus, an insect, of 
which more specimens must be examined before its definitive 
place can be ascertained. 

TEROPHA. 

Mentum broad, transverse, very strongly emarginated, 
having in its centre a strong bifid tooth ; the wings very 
long, rounded externally, pointed at the extremity, and cut 
rather obliquely on the inner side. Labrum quadrilateral, 
transverse ; mandibulse very long, inflexed downwards, 
arched, rounded externally, pointed at the extremity, 
straight, or rather emarginated inside. They are strong, 
and carinated at the base. Palpi : the maxillary long, rather 
slender, having their first article short, the second the longest, 
the third conical, and the last rather inflexed and rounded at 
the extremity ; the labial with the first very small, the 
second very long, and the third truncated at the extremity ; 
trochanters of the posterior pair very long, attenuated poste- 
riorly, curved and pointed at the apex. Antennae rather 
short, growing more attenuated from the base to the extre- 
mity ; first article large, second and fourth equal, third 
larger ; head very large, inflexed downwards ; thorax 
large, longer than broad, with the sides almost straight ; it 
is broader in front than behind ; the anterior margin is 
emarginated, and the posterior angles are acute ; scutellum 



Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 177 

short and transverse ; elytra broader than the thorax, with 
the anterior angles carinated, they are oval and depressed ; 
legs rather strong ; anterior tibiae terminated by a spine, 
and having another on the upper part of their emargination, 
which is short. Tarsi not sensibly dilated in the male, with 
the first article rather long, the three following short and 
triangular ; those of the anterior part having below some 
hard hair, but neither lamellae nor brushes. 

The only known sort belonging to this genus, is the 
Platysma Flindersii of White, of which his Sturtii is only 
a mere variety. 

This beautiful insect is found but rarely in South Aus- 
tralia. I have received one specimen from the Rev. Dr. 
Bostock, as having been taken on the Swan River. 

FORTICOSOMUS. 

The formation of this genus is due to Mr. Schaum 
(" Journ. of Entomology"). It is formed on an insect Felix, 
which is not uncommon in Victoria, and extends itself in 
the interior at least as far as the Darling River and Cooper's 
Creek. 

The following species appear to belong to the same genus 
which, by its tarsi being very dilated in the male, and without 
lamellae, can only be placed in this family. 

Forticosomus Grandis : length 9' ; of a brilliant brownish 
black; head large, and bi-impressed between the eyes; thorax 
much broader in the front than behind, rounded laterally, 
with the anterior angles prominent, and the posterior ones 
well marked. The lateral margin becomes very broad 
towards the posterior angles ; the transverse impression in 
front is pretty well marked, and another is^seen backwards ; 
the longitudinal sulcate moderate ; the elytra are broad, de- 
pressed, striated, and impressed laterally ; the humeral 
angles rather rounded. 

From Cooper's Creek. 

This insect differs from Felix by its much greater size, 
and the form of the posterior angles of the thorax. 

Forticosomus Motundipennis : length 4^-' ; of a dark, 
glossy brown ; head with two short and feeble impressions 
between the eyes ; thorax transverse, broader in front than 
behind, with the sides rather rounded, and all the angles 
well marked ; elytra broad, rather short, rounded laterally, 



178 Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 

feebly striated ; posterior half of the margin impressed ; 
abdomen, legs, palpi, and antennse yellow. 
Paroo River, in the interior of New Holland. 

Forticosomus Lateralis : length 3' ; of a dark brown, with 
a broad yellow border round the elytra ; head very lightly 
impressed between the eyes ; thorax transverse, very 
rounded laterally, with the anterior angles rounded, and the 
posterior ones very little marked ; there is no longitudinal 
sulcate, but in front and behind a feeble transverse impres- 
sion ; elytra rather oblong, rounded, having their disk 
covered with punctated strise, the margins being smooth ; 
lower side of the body of a light reddish brown ; legs, parts 
of the mouth and antennae of a light yellow. 

Paroo River. 

Forticosomus Minutus : length 2 J' ; very much like the 
precedent, but the elytra more oblong, with the sides 
parallel ; the punctated strise very feeble, but extending 
nearly to the margin. The insect is of a reddish brown, 
with the elytra darker, but having the humeral angles of a 
dark red. 

Paroo River. 

Forticosomus Edelii : length 9 J' ; of a shiny brown ; 
head with two feeble and oblique impressions in front ; 
thorax transverse, rather cordiform, rounded laterally, with 
the posterior angles obtuse, and the anterior acute ; all its 
impressions are very faint ; elytra depressed, truncated 
in front, margined with rather weak strise, the intervals 
between which are flat and not convex ; the margin is feebly 
impressed. 

From Swan River. 

Forticosomus Nuytsii : length 7' ; ■ of a brilliant black ; 
head with two large, but not deep punctiform impressions 
between the eyes ; thorax short, transverse, cordiform ; the 
anterior angles advanced and rather rounded, the posterior 
almost straight, or very little obtuse ; the impressions are 
moderately marked, and on the posterior margin are nume- 
rous but faint longitudinal striolse ; elytra broad, with the 
humeral angles acute ; they are rather deeply striated, and 
their margin is impressed ; lower side of the body, legs, an- 
tennae, and palpi, of a reddish brown. 

Nicol Bay, Western Australia. 



Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 179 



AMBLYGNATHUS. 

It is with some hesitation that I place the following species 
in this genus, having only one specimen of it, which may- 
be a female. 

Ambygnathus Minutus : length 2' ; of a brilliant copper 
colour ; head very large, with no longitudinal impressions, but 
two punctiform ones between the eyes ; thorax semicircular, 
truncated in front,with the anterior angles advanced, and having 
a broad lateral margin ; on the middle is a light longitudinal 
sulcate ; elytra oblong, rather short, depressed, with the 
humeral angles rounded ; they are feebly striated, and their 
margin is strongly emarginated near the end ; the thighs are 
black ; tibia?, tarsi, and palpi brown ; antennae black, with 
the first article red. 

King George's Sound. 

A nisodactylido3. 

Two Australian genera have been placed in this family, 
Loxomerus and Lecanomerus ; the first is a curious insect 
from New Zealand, having much resemblance with Nebria ; 
the second has the general appearance of Stenolophus. 

The continent of Australia has also another insect which 
has much more the appearance of a Nebria than the one I 
have just mentioned ; it forms a new genus, 

NEBRIOSOMA, 

Which differs from Loxomerus principally by the absence 
of a tooth to the mentum ; this organ is transverse, very 
strongly emarginated, the wings are rounded ; the palpi are 
long, with the first and third articles short, the second and 
fourth long, the latter truncated at the apex ; the maxilla? 
are slender, elongated, arched, ciliated inside ; the labrum 
very short and transverse ; the tarsi have their first article 
longer than the following, the second, third and fourth are 
triangular, the last long and slender, the anterior tarsi are 
shorter and broader than the others ; antenna? long and 
slender, with the first article stronger than the others, the 
second is rather shorter than the following. 

The characters of this genus are otherwise the same as 
those of Loxomerus. 

Nebriosoma Fallax: length 4'; head short, eyes prominent, 



180 Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 

two strong impressions between the eyes ; thorax short, 
transverse, cordiform, strongly marginated laterally, it has 
a transverse impression in front, a longitudinal sulcate in 
the middle, and two broad impressions behind ; elytra 
broader than the thorax, depressed, bearing striae which do 
not extend over the posterior part nor towards the margin ; 
a strong punctiform impression is seen on the third stria? 
at about the fourth part of the length of the elytra, a stria 
slightly impressed follows the margin. The colour is of a 
dark bronze, almost black, with the tarsi, the palpi, and the 
antennae of a dark brown. 

This rare insect was found by Dr. Howitt at Kiama, in 
New. South Wales. 

Harpalidce. 

In this family we have been obliged to form a new genus 
from an insect described, many years since, by Hope as an 

Acinopus. 

SECATOPHUS. 

This genus is formed on Acinopus Australis of Hope, 
and is in fact very nearly allied to Acinopus. 

The principal differences consist in the labrum, which is 
transverse, but not emarginated and in the palpi much stronger 
and more broadly truncated at the extremity ; the head is 
equally large in both sexes, and the posterior thighs are 
very long and strong, particularly in the male, they always 
extend as far as the extremity of the elytra. 

This genus has many points of similarity to the one I 
have called Teropha, 

This genus is formed on the Acinopus Australis of Hope, 
which comes from South Australia. The following seems to 
be distinct : — 

Secatophus Hopei : length 9^-'; same coloration as Australis 
but thorax more attenuated behind; elytra oval, depressed, 
much broader than the thorax at the basis ; they are covered 
with rather deep striae, on the third of which are three 
punctiform impressions, one on the third of the length, the 
second on the middle, and the third towards the two-thirds 
of the length. 

Adelaide. 

HARP ALUS. 

This g enus is dispersed all over the globe, and the 
number of its species must be very considerable. It is as 



Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 181 

well represented in Australia as it is in Europe, but till this 
day few species have been described. I have observed that 
almost all the Australian sorts have the palpi pointed at the 
extremity, but all their other characters being those of 
Harpalus, and the passage being insensible, it does not 
appear advisable to separate them from that genus. 

Dejean's Species only contains six — Pulcher, Melanarius, 
Lucidicollis, jEreus, Australia and Australasias. 

Grermar, in his paper on the insects of Adelaide (" Linnaea 
Entomologica"), only adds one new species, Inomatus. 

Erichson gives three from Tasmania (" Archiv fur Natur- 
geschichte," 1), Verticalis, Promptus, Vestigialis. 

Mr. MacLeay, junr., in the " Transactions of the Entomo- 
logical Society of New South Wales," No. 2, adds three 
more, Inter stitialis, Picipes, and Flavipalpis. 

Mons. Boisduval, in his "Faune de 1'Oceanie," adds one, Goryi. 

This would carry the number of the described sorts to 
fourteen, but Interstitialis seems to be the same as Pulcher, 
and so this number is restricted to thirteen. In the present 
paper I describe fifty-three new sorts, which carry the total 
number to sixty-six. 

Europe has about one hundred and forty sorts, but if we 
consider how difficult is the study of this genus, and how 
few specimens are usually taken by collectors, on account of 
the great resemblance the sorts bear to each other, and also 
the very small part of Australia that has been explored, we 
will come to the conclusion that an equal number at least 
will, in all probability, be discovered in this part of the 
world. No species of the section Ophonus has, till this day, 
been found in New Holland. 

Harpalus Interioris : length 4'; short; of a dark brown, 
rather brilliant ; head large, with a strong transverse impres- 
sion in front, ending at each end by a punctiform one ; 
thorax semispheric, truncated in form, the posterior angles 
almost rounded ; its surface presents a very faint transverse 
line in front, a faint, short longitudinal line in the centre, 
and a weak transverse line behind ; elytra rather short, 
broader than the thorax, covered with strise, the first of 
which bifurcates in front, near the scutellum ; a series of 
impressions follow the margin ; lower side of the body of a 
dark yellow, with the abdomen brown; legs, parts of the 
mouth, and base of the antennae yellow, the remaining of 
these brown. 

Paroo River. 



182 Notes on Australian Goleoptera. 

This insect belongs to the section Pangus. 

Harpalus Waterhousii : length, 4-J'; very much like the 
precedent, but the thorax still more rounded at the posterior 
angles, the longitudinal line also very faint, but no posterior 
impressions ; the entire surface is marked with transverse 
striolae, the spines of the tibiae very strong ; the colour is 
sometimes dark, but often of a light brown. 

Adelaide. 

Harpalus Thouzeti : length 6'; oval, rather depressed ; 
black, rather brilliant ; head with two slight punctiform 
impressions in front, united by a transverse line ; thorax 
quadrangular, rather transverse, with the angles rather 
rounded ; it is smooth with the longitudinal line, the anterior 
transverse one, and the two posterior impressions very little 
marked ; elytra broader than the thorax, depressed, much 
less brilliant than the thorax, having longitudinal striae, on 
the third of which a punctiform impression is seen behind ; 
a short abbreviated striae near the sutura, and a series of 
very feeble impressions on the posterior part of the margin ; 
lower side of the body and legs of a brilliant black ; a feeble 
impression on each side of the abdominal segments ; antennae 
black, with the basal article brown ; palpi of the latter 
colour. 

Common at Rockhampton. I have also a few specimens 
from Port Denison. 

Harpalus Rotundicollis : length 5'; form elongated, of a 
dark brown, rather brilliant ; head smooth with two puncti- 
form impressions in front ; thorax semicircular, rather 
emarginated in front, rounded and laterally, narrower behind 
than in front, with all the angles rounded, the lateral 
margins are broad, the surface is covered with small transverse 
striolae, on the centre a slight longitudinal sulcate, and a 
feeble transverse impression in front and behind ; elytra 
strongly striated, a series of impressions on the posterior 
part of the margin; legs, antennae and parts of the mouth 
of a light orange colour. 

Note. — There is sometimes a punctiform impression on 
the back part of the interval between the second and third 
striae, but generally there is none. 

This insect appears to inhabit a great portion of the 
Australian continent. I have it from the Paroo Eiver, 
Rockhampton (Queensland), the Murray, Melbourne, Ade- 
laide, and Swan River ; the thorax of this insect has the 



Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 183 

form of the one of Ophonus, but it is devoid of the punc- 
tures which characterise that division ; it belongs to Pangus. 

Harpalus Denisonensis : length 5f; very nearly allied 
to Thowzeti, but much larger, entirely black, without any 
brilliancy ; thorax larger, broader, with the anterior angles 
more advanced, and the impressions deeper ; legs black, the 
three first articles of the antennas brown, the others lighter 
and hirsute ; tarsi and palpi brown. 

Port Denison. 

Harpalus Patrueloides : length 4^'; very nearly allied to 
Patruelis, of the same size; thorax a little larger and a 
little narrower in front, the anterior angles not quite so 
much advanced ; elytra a little broader than the thorax, 
more oval than in Patruelis with the impressions of the 
margin more strongly marked ; the legs are black, with the 
base of the tibia? red ; antenna?, parts of the mouth and tarsi 
of a brownish red ; the insect is of a bronze metallic colour, 
sometimes very obscure. 

New South Wales and Victoria. 

Harpalus Melbournensis : length 4'; body oval, rather 
depressed ; head rather elongated, very feebly impressed in 
front ; thorax rather transverse, narrower in front than 
behind, rounded laterally, with the anterior angles rather 
advanced, slightly obtuse and rather rounded ; the anterior 
transverse impression and the longitudinal line of the centre 
very slightly marked, the two posterior impressions elongated 
and rather deep ; elytra oval, rather broad, with stria?, the 
intervals of which are fiat ; an abbreviate stria? near the 
scutellum ; a longitudinal series of four or H\e deep puncti- 
form impressions on the third lateral margin, strongly 
impressed. The general colour is of a dark brilliant brown ; 
the elytra are bronzed, lower side of the body, legs, parts of 
the mouth and antenna? brown. 

Melbourne. 

Note. — This insect is nearly allied to Paroensis, but it is 
distinguished by its brilliant appearance ; the elongated form 
of the posterior thorax, the depth of the impressions, the 
punctiform impressions of the elytra much larger, &c. 

Harpalus Oblonguisculus : length 4 J 7 to 5'; body oblong, 
with the sides almost parallel, of a dark brown, rather 
brilliant ; head faintly impressed between the eyes ; thorax 
almost square, rather rounded, and marginated laterally with 
the longitudinal sulcate, the anterior transverse impressions, 
and the two rounded posterior ones well marked ; elytra 



184 Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 

rather long, parallel, striated, with a very short extra striae 
near the scutellum ; a punctiform impression is seen behind 
between the second and third strise, and a series of impres- 
sions extend near the margin, more numerous on the posterior 
half of its length ; legs black ; tarsi, antennae and palpi brown* 

Brisbane. 

Harpalus Punctiferus : length 4J'; oval, sub-depressed ; 
dark brown ; head and thorax rather brilliant, the first with 
two rather strong punctiform impressions between the eyes ; 
thorax transverse, rounded and marginated laterally, with the 
anterior angles prominent ; the anterior margin rather 
advanced and rounded in the middle, posterior angles 
rounded, the thorax impressions pretty strong ; elytra oval, 
rather depressed, not brilliant, striated, a short extra striae 
near the scutellum, between the first and second striae ; eight 
to ten punctiform impressions dispersed on each elytra, more 
particularly between the second and third, and fourth and 
fifth striae ; a series of impressions extending only on the 
posterior half of the margin, lower side of the body brilliant, 
a punctiform impression on each side of the abdominal 
segments ; legs, parts of the mouth, and first three articles of 
the antennae of a light brownish red, the remaining part of 
the antennae rather darker. 

Brisbane. 

Note. — This insect is very nearly allied to Mr. MacLeay's 
Picipes, but is more depressed and of a dull color. 

Harpalus Paroensis : length 3 J'; this insect is very 
nearly allied to Punctiferus, and differs only by its smaller 
size, and the elytra having only one series of punctiform 
impressions between the second and third strise. 

From the Paroo River. 

Harpalus Rugosipennis : length 5^'; of a dull black ; 
head large, round, feebly impressed in front ; thorax trans- 
versal, a little narrower in front than behind, with the sides 
rounded ; there is a longitudinal sulcate in the middle and a 
strong impression near each of the four angles ; the whole 
surface is unequal and covered with a strong puncturation, 
better marked on the sides than towards the centre ; elytra 
broader than the thorax, rather depressed, covered with 
narrow striae, the sutural one bifurcated in front ; the entire 
surface is covered with large, irregular impressions ; under 
side of the body and legs of a rather brilliant black ; 
antennae and parts of the mouth black. 

Melbourne. 



Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 185 

Harpalus Sculptipennis : length 4 J'; black, brilliant, 
rather bronzed ; head nearly smooth ; thorax transverse, 
quadrilateral, with the front angles rounded, and the posterior 
ones straight ; the front transverse impression very feeble, the 
sulcate moderate, the two posterior impressions rather short 
but deep, the lateral margin becoming much broader towards 
the posterior angles ; elytra oblong, striated, with an abbre- 
viated striae near the scutellum ; the intervals of the elytra 
covered with very numerous impressions ; the elytra are 
very strongly emarginated near their extremity, and the 
margins are more densely impressed than the surface ; the 
extremity of the palpi and the first article of the antennae of 
a reddish brown. 

King George's Sound. 

Harpalus Sculpturalis : length 3J' ; very much like the 
precedent, but smaller and of a copper colour ; the thorax is 
more rounded laterally ; tibiae and tarsi of a reddish 
brown, with the apex of the former black ; two first articles 
of the antennae red ; palpi variegated with red and black. 

King George's Sound and Swan River. 

Harpalus Inaiqualipennis : length 5'; black; head large, 
rounded, rugous ; thorax short, transverse, rather cordiform, 
rounded laterally, with the posterior angles rather obtuse ; 
it is narrower in front than behind ; entirely rugous, with a 
feeble transverse impression in front, a moderate longitudinal 
sulcate on the centre, and two strong and elongated impres- 
sions behind ; elytra broader than the thorax, oblong, de- 
pressed, very strongly emarginated at their posterior part; 
striated and covered with very irregular impressions ; lower 
side of the body and legs of a more brilliant black than the 
upper side. 

King George's Sound and Swan River. 

Harpalus Alternans : length 6'; black; head large, 
rounded, strongly impressed in front ; thorax a little broader 
than long, rounded laterally, with the anterior angles rather 
advanced, and the posterior ones obtuse and lightly directed 
upwards; the anterior transverse impression is very feeble, the 
sulcate moderately marked ; the posterior impressions feeble 
and elongated ; elytra oblong, rather broader than the thorax, 
very strongly emarginated externally near the apex ; they 
are striated ; behind the sutural striae is an abbreviated one 
which extends to about the first fourth of the total length of 
the elytra. On the intervals between the second, third, fourth, 
fifth, sixth, and seventh striae are series of strong punctiform 

o 



186 Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 

impressions, which extend on all the length ; the margin 
is also similarly impressed ; lower side of the body and legs 
of a brilliant black ; antennas black. 

One single specimen of this insect was found near Bris- 
bane, by Dr. Howitt. 

Harpalus Montanus: length 5 J' ; black, with a very 
faint shiny tinge ; almost as long as broad, with the sides 
rounded; the longitudinal sulcate, front transverse impression, 
and the two elongated posterior ones, rather feebly marked ; 
the lateral sides of the thorax not sensibly bordered ; elytra 
a little broader than the thorax, oval, rather depressed, 
striated ; having a series of six to eight punctiform impres- 
sions between the second and third striae ; a series of impres- 
sions extend near the margin on the posterior half of its 
length ; the thighs are black, the tibiae aud tarsi of a 
brownish red, the same as the antennae and palpi. 

Pine Mountains, near Ipswich, in Queensland. 

Harpalus Impressipennis : length 4^' ; of a dark bronzed 
colour; head rather large, having in front two punctiform 
impressions united by a transverse line ; thorax transverse, 
rounded laterally, with the angles rather rounded ; a feeble 
transverse impression in front, a weak longitudinal sulcate 
in the centre, and behind two impressions feebly marked, but 
broad ; elytra oval, rather depressed, striated ; the ab- 
breviated stria of the basis well marked; five punctiform im- 
pressions on the third striae, three or four between this and 
the second on the posterior part of the elytra, and from 
three to five on the fifth striae ; a series of impressions on 
the margin ; lower side of the body black, legs, palpi, and 
first article of the antennae brown ; remaining articles of the 
last obscure. 

Rockhampton. Found by Mr. Thouzet. 

Harpalus Rana : length 4 J' ; broad ; black ; head large, 
feebly impressed; thorax broad, rather short, very much 
rounded laterally, as broad in front as behind ; posterior 
angles obtuse ; the transverse impressions in front hardly 
visible ; the longitudinal sulcate moderately marked, but the 
two posterior impressions strongly so ; elytra oval, broad, 
striated ; the abbreviated striae very short, the margin feebly 
impressed in front and behind ; lower side of the body more 
brilliant than the upper surface ; legs black, palpi red ; first 
article of the antennae of the latter colour ; the three fol- 
lowing black and shiny, the others brown and hirsute. 

Melbourne. 



Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 187 

Harpalus Wilcoxii: length 5 J' ; very much like Striato- 
pwnctatus, Gyl. (Quadripunctatus, Dej.), and of the same 
size and general form, but has, generally, no punctiform im- 
pressions on the elytra ; thorax a little longer and not quite 
so broad. 

The insect is of a brilliant black with the exception of the 
elytra, which are opac ; antennae brown, with the first article 
lighter ; palpi of the last colour ; legs black, with brown 
hair on the tarsi. 

Brisbane, Clarence River and Sydney. 
Harpalus JEdwardsii : length 5' ; very nearly allied to 
Infelix, but the thorax is broader ; the posterior impressions 
are more deeply marked ; elytra more feebly so. 

The insect is of a dark aeneus green, with a bluish tinge; 
the lower side of the body and legs black ; the antennae 
very dark, with the first and the last articles red ; palpi of 
the latter colour. 

Given to me by Mr. Edwards, who found it near Mel- 
bourne. 

Harpalus Vandiemenensis : length 5'; oval; of a dark 
copper colour ; head rounded, very feebly impressed ; thorax 
rather transversal, a little broader behind than in front, with 
the sides and angles rather rounded ; it bears no appearance 
of the anterior transverse impression, but the longitudinal 
sulcate, and the two posterior impressions are moderately 
marked ; the two latter are united by a transverse line ; 
elytra oval, striated ; an abbreviated striae, and a faint impres- 
sion on each side near the scutellum ; a punctiform impres- 
sion behind, between the second and third striae, the 
lateral margin impressed ; lower side of the body and thighs 
black ; tibiae, tarsi, palpi, and antennae red, the second, third 
and fourth articles of the latter in part black. 
Tasmania. 

Harpalus Planoimpressus : length 4 J' ; oval ; head feebly 
impressed ; thorax transverse, rounded laterally, with the 
anterior angles rather advanced, the posterior ones rather 
rounded ; impressions moderately marked ; elytra oval, 
rather depressed, with striae, the intervals of which are plane ; 
an abbreviated stria near the scutellum ; the intervals 
between the second, third, and fourth striae covered with 
light but rather broad flattened impressions, extending over 
the two anterior thirds of the length ; margin impressed on 
its posterior half. 

The insect is of a dark metallic brown ; the elytra rather 

o 2 



188 Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 

copper colour ; lower side of the body, legs, antennae, and 
parts of the mouth of a reddish brown. 

Brisbane. 

Harpalus Peronii : length 3f ; oval, depressed ; head 
feebly impressed ; thorax transversal, with the sides rounded ; 
it is about as broad in front as it is behind ; the anterior 
angles are rather advanced,*the posterior ones obtuse ; on the 
anterior margin are a few longitudinal striolae, very faintly 
marked ; the anterior impression is feeble ; no longitudinal 
sulcate visible ; two rather strongly marked rounded impres- 
sions behind ; elytra broader than the thorax ; oval, with 
rather feeble striae, the intervals of which are flat ; a small 
abbreviated stria near the scutellum, united with the second 
stria ; margin impressed. 

The insect is black, with the thorax of a dark copper 
colour ; the tibiae and three first articles of the antennae 
red. 

King George's Sound. 

Harpalus Flindersii : length 3 J' to 4 ; body oblong ; head 
large, with the two front punctiform impressions well marked 
elongated and united by a transverse line ; thorax rather 
transverse, very much rounded laterally, with the angles 
also rounded ; the front impression and the longitudinal one 
very feeble, but the two posterior impressions strong ; elytra 
with striae much deeper towards the extremity than on the 
other part ; a very short abbreviated one near the scutellum ; 
impressions on the anterior part and on the posterior half of 
the margin ; posterior tibiae curved. The colour is a dark 
shining brown ; lower side of the body of a dark red ; legs, 
antennae, palpi, yellow ; mandibulae brown, with their ex- 
tremity red. 

Rockhampton. 

Note. — On most specimens there is on each elytra, back- 
wards and between the fourth and fifth striae, a longitudinal 
depression. 

Harpalus Quadraticollis : length 4 J' ; of a brilliant black ; 
head oval, with two punctiform impressions in front of the 
eyes ; thorax almost square but rather cordiform, a little 
broader in front than behind ; the sides are rounded, the 
anterior angles also, the posterior ones straight ; the anterior 
transverse impression is feeble, but the longitudinal sulcate 
and the two posterior impressions are very deep ; elytra oval, 
considerably broader than the base of the thorax, covered 
with deep longitudinal striae, the intervals of which are con- 



Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 189 

vex ; two punctiform impressions on the posterior part of the 
second stria ; the margin is impressed ; lower side of the 
body very brilliant ; abdominal segments strongly impressed 
on each side ; legs, palpi, and labrum brown ; antennae brown, 
hirsute, except on the first four articles. 

Sydney and Brisbane (Queensland). 

Harpalus Marginicollis : length 3 J' ; elongated ; of a 
dark bronzed colour, almost black, and brilliant; head smooth, 
with two very faint impressions in front ; thorax rather 
transverse, with the sides rounded, the anterior angles 
advanced, the posterior angles almost straight and rather 
rounded ; it is rather broader behind than in front, the lateral 
margin is yellow ; elytra depressed, oval, striated, with 
intervals between the striae plane ; a series of seven or 
eight punctiform impressions extends between the second 
and third stria, and one single impression appears on the 
interval between the fourth and fifth, near the middle of the 
length ; a series of impressions extends on the second half 
of the margin ; lower side of the body black and brilliant, 
as are also the thighs ; tibiae, tarsi, palpi, and basal article of 
the antennae of a light brown, remainder of the latter dark. 

Melbourne. 

Harpalus Velox : length 2J'; form oval, of a green 
metallic colour ; head with two punctiform impressions in 
front of the eyes; thorax transverse, with the sides very 
rounded, the anterior angles almost straight, the posterior 
rather rounded, the anterior transverse, and the central 
longitudinal impressions very feeble, the two posterior ones 
strongly marginated ; in some specimens a third impression 
appears in the middle of the posterior part of the margin ; 
elytra oval, subdepressed, having striae which do not extend 
to the lateral margin but leaving a space smooth ; the 
sutural stria flexuous towards the scutellum, but the abbre- 
viated stria of that part generally missing ; a punctiform 
impression behind, between the second and third striae ; 
the posterior part of the margin marked with impressions ; 
lower side of the body and thighs black ; tibiae, palpi, and 
antennae brown, first article of the latter lighter. 

Melbourne, common. 

Harpalus Yarrw : length 3f ; general form short and 
thick ; of a rather brilliant black ; head rather large, very 
feebly impressed in front ; thorax transversal, very rounded 
laterally, with the anterior angles rather prolongated and 
impressed, the posterior ones well marked, the longitudinal 



190 Notes on Australian Goleoptera. 

sulcate and the two posterior impressions also rather deep ; 
elytra rather short, broad and depressed, covered with striae, 
the intervals of which are not convex ; a rather irregularly- 
situated punctiform impression between the second and third 
stria, much nearer to the first of the two ; a very short 
abbreviated stria near the scutellum ; a line of impressions 
on the lateral margin ; lower side of the body and thighs of 
a brilliant black ; tibiae of a very dark brown ; tarsi of a 
lighter colour ; antennae of a dark brown ; palpi rather 
reddish. 
Melbourne. 

Note. — I have preserved the name under which this 
insect is distinguished in various collections ; I believe it is 
attributed to Mr. MacLeay. It is nearly allied to Dejean's 
JEreus, and still more so to Germars Inornatus, but its 
thorax is much broader, and the elytra more strongly 
striated. 

Harpalus Kreftii : length 4f ' ; general form rather broad; 
of a brilliant black ; head and thorax of a dark copper colour, 
head rather large, strongly bi-impressed between the eyes ; 
thorax transversal, with the anterior angles very rounded, 
and the posterior rather obtuse ; it has on its centre a feeble 
longitudinal sulcate, near its anterior margin an equally 
feeble transverse impression, and behind two deep rounded 
impressions; elytra broad, of a purple black, sinuous at 
their extremity, covered with striae, the intervals of which are 
not elevated ; no abbreviated stria, but a light impression 
in the place where it generally meets the sutural stria ; a 
series of strong impressions on the posterior half of the 
margin ; legs black, the posterior thighs inflated, and forming 
below a rather strong angle ; tibiae of the same pair very 
strongly curved ; tarsi, palpi, and antennas brown. 
Port Denison. 

Named in honor of the learned curator of the New South 
Wales Museum. 

Harpalus Germari : length 5'; very nearly allied to 
Serripes, and of the same size and general oval and convex- 
form ; the thorax a little narrower, the striae deeper, more 
particularly at their posterior part; no punctiform impres- 
sion is seen on the back part of the interval between the 
second and third striae; colour black, sometimes with a dark 
metallic tinge ; extremity of the palpi and first article of 
the antennae yellow. 
Melbourne. 



Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 191 

Harpalus Erichsoni : length 5J'; size and general form 
of Cupreus, Dej. ; head with two slight impressions before 
the eyes ; thorax almost square, rather transversal, narrow- 
ing a little in front, and rounded towards the anterior angles; 
the longitudinal central sulcate is very feeble, as also the 
transverse anterior impression ; the two longitudinal impres- 
sions of the posterior margin better marked, the posterior 
angles straight ; elytra oblong, of the breadth of the thorax, 
covered with strong striae, of which the sutural one is rather 
rounded near the scutellum ; between that stria and the 
second, in the same part, is a short oblique line ; a faint 
punctiform impression is generally seen between the second 
and third interval on its posterior part ; a series of deep 
impressions extends on the posterior half of the margin. 

The insect is sometimes of a brilliant black, and sometimes 
of a copper colour ; the legs are black ; the antennae of 
a dark brown, with the first article palpi and tarsi of a light 
colour. 

Melbourne. 

Harpalus Ranula : length 3 J' ; body short and broad, of 
a very brilliant black ; head rounded, feebly impressed ; 
thorax broad, rather short, very rounded laterally, a little 
narrower in front than behind, with the posterior angles 
obtuse and rather rounded ; the front transverse impression, 
the longitudinal one, and the two posterior, are moderately 
marked ; between the two last are one or several transverse 
impressions ; elytra broad, oval, rather convex, covered with 
striae, the sutural of which is rather arched in front, but 
there is no abbreviated stria, the intervals of the striae are 
plane, till towards the end, where they become convex ; no 
punctiform impressions on the elytra, with the exception of 
the margin, which has a series of considerable ones ; lower 
side of the body, legs and antennae brown; first article of the, 
latter and palpi yellowish. 

Melbourne. 

Harpalus Tasmanicus : length 4 y ; general form rather 
broad ; head rather large, with two small punctiform impres- 
sions, united by a faint transverse line in front ; thorax 
short, transverse, rounded laterally, considerably narrowed 
posteriorly, with the posterior angles straight, the anterior 
rounded ; it has a strong transverse impression in front, a 
longitudinal sulcate in the centre, and two well-marked 
impressions behind ; elytra oval, rather short, deeply 
striated ; no abbreviated stria near the scutellum ; a puncti- 



192 Notes on Australian Goleoptera. 

form impression behind, between the second and third strias; 
margin impressed on all its length; abdominal segments 
very feebly impressed laterally ; the entire insect is black, 
with the extremity of the palpi and the first article of the 
antennae of a brownish red. 

Tasmania. 

Harpalus Amaroides : length 4f ' ; copper colour, rather 
brilliant and smooth ; head very feebly impressed in front ; 
thorax large, almost quadrilateral, with the sides nearly 
straight ; it is rather transverse, a little broader behind than 
in front, with the angles rounded ; all the impressions are 
visible, but very feebly marked; elytra large, broad, 
depressed, sinuated behind, striated with an abbreviated stria, 
near the scutellum ; the intervals between the striae are 
very plane, a very faint punctiform impression behind, between 
the second and third striae, a line of impressions on the 
margin ; those impressions very large on the posterior part ; 
lower side of the body and legs black, tibiae, tarsi, and 
antennae, of a reddish brown. 

Brisbane, Queensland. 

Harpalus Infelix : length 4 J' ; of a rather brilliant black; 
general form oblong; head with two strong punctiform 
impressions united by a transverse line in front; thorax 
almost square, long, very little transverse, rounded laterally, 
rather narrower behind than in the middle, but broader 
than in front ; anterior angles advanced, posterior ones 
rather rounded ; all the thoracic impressions feebly marked ; 
elytra rather strongly striated, with an abbreviated stria near 
the scutellum ; a punctiform impression behind, between the 
second and third striae ; the series of marginal impressions 
strongly marked on the posterior half of the elytra ; tarsi, 
palpi and antennae brown, the second, third and fourth 
articles of the latter in great part dark, and almost black. 

Rockhampton, Queensland. 

Harpalus Lapeyrousii : length 5' ; black, oblong ; head 
rather large, with the frontal punctiform impressions pro- 
longated transversely backwards, so as almost to meet 
each other ; thorax rather transversal, about as broad 
behind as in front, with the sides rounded, the anterior 
angles rather advanced, and the posterior ones almost 
straight ; no front transverse line, but the longitudinal one 
and the posterior impressions moderately marked ; elytra 
rather oblong, sinuated behind, they are covered with rather 
strong striae, the abbreviated one well marked, and joining the 



Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 193 

sutural, a pnnctiform impression a little behind the m iddle, 
between the second and third striae, the margin impressed 
at the base, and on the posterior half; lower side of the 
body black and brilliant ; legs, antennae, and parts of the 
mouth black. 

Sydney. 

Harpalus Coxii : length 3f; size and general form of 
Ambiguus ; of a dark copper green; head rather large, with 
two punctiform impressions in front, united by a transverse 
line ; thorax transverse, very rounded laterally, having a 
transverse impression in front, a longitudinal sulcate in the 
middle moderately marked, and two impressions behind, 
strongly so ; elytra broader than the thorax, rather short, 
depressed, covered with striae, the intervals of which are 
not elevated ; a short one near the scutellum ; a feeble punc- 
tiform impression is seen behind on the inner side of the 
second stria, and a line of impressions extends along the 
margin ; lower side of the body black and brilliant, the 
abdominal segments impressed laterally ; legs, antennae and 
palpi of a dark brown. 

Clarence River. 

Named in honor of Dr. Cox, of Sydney. 

Harpalus Kingii : length 3 \'\ about the size of Alpestris 
Redt. ; form rather broad and depressed ; of a dark brilliant 
brown, sometimes rather aeneus ; head rather large, slightly 
impressed in front ; thorax transverse, rather quadrangular, 
with the angles rounded ; the front transverse impression 
and the longitudinal sulcate are very faint, but the two 
posterior impressions are deep ; elytra rather broader than 
the thorax, oval, striated ; the intervals of the striae not 
elevated ; a very short abbreviated stria near the scutellum ; a 
punctiform impression behind, between the second and third 
striae ; a line of impressions on the posterior half of the 
margin ; lower side of the body and thighs of a dark brilliant 
brown ; tibiae and tarsi reddish ; palpi and antennae brown. 

King George's Sound. 

Named in honor of the Rev. Mr. King, of Paramatta. 

Harpalus Antarcticus : length 2 J'; about the form of 
jfflneus, but very much smaller ; copper colour ; head smooth, 
with a transverse line in front ; having a punctiform impres- 
sion at each end ; thorax almost quadrangular, transverse, 
rather rounded and bordered laterally ; a feeble impression 
near each anterior angle, and a strong one behind ; a feeble 
transverse impression in front, and a longitudinal striae on 



194 Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 

the middle very little marked ; elytra rather short, depressed, 
striated, a feeble punctiform impression behind, between the 
second and third striae, and a line of impressions on the 
lateral margin ; lower side of the body of an aeneus brown, 
very brilliant ; legs brown, with the extremity of the tibise 
obscure ; palpi and antennae brown, the basal article rather 
red. 

From Dunedin, New Zealand, and also from the North 
Island. 

Harpalus Novmzelandim : length 5' ; body broad and de- 
pressed, of a light brown ; head round, with two punctiform 
impressions between the eyes ; thorax short, transverse, 
rounded laterally, with the anterior angles rounded, and the 
posterior ones obtuse and rather prominent ; there is a trans- 
verse impression in front, a feeble longitudinal sulcate on 
the middle, and two broad impressions behind ; elytra broad, 
striated, with a broad abbreviated stria near the scutellum, 
after the sutural one ; a feeble punctiform impression 
behind, on the interval between the second and third striae ; 
the margin impressed on its posterior half; abdomen not 
sensibly impressed laterally ; legs, antennae, and parts of the 
mouth of a light brown. 

This insect is from the northern island of New Zealand. 

Harpalus Illawarensis : length 4 J' ; aeneus green, bril- 
liant; head smooth, with two short transversal impressions in 
front of the eyes ; thorax rather quadrangular, transverse, 
rounded on the anterior half of the lateral sides ; the pos- 
terior angles rather rounded ; in the centre, a feeble longi- 
tudinal sulcate and two equally feeble impressions behind ; 
elytra rather broader than the thorax, oval, depressed, 
striated, with the intervals between the striae, not convex ; a 
punctiform impression behind, between the second and third 
striae, and a series of impressions on the margin ; these latter 
more numerous on the posterior part than on the other ; 
legs black ; palpi and antennae brown ; the first article of the 
latter of a lighter colour. 

Illawarra. 

Harpalus Adelaides: length 3'; elongated; copper colour ; 
head slightly bi-impressed in front; thorax almost square, 
very little broader than long, the sides rounded and the 
angles also, the posterior ones rather obtuse ; the transverse 
impression is feeble ; the longitudinal sulcate moderately 
marked, and the two posterior impressions deep ; elytra 
oblong, elongated, with striae, the intervals of which are 



Notes on Austrlian Coleoptera. 195 

plain ; a very feeble abbreviated striae towards the scu- 
tellum ; between tbe second and third striae extends a series 
of six or seven punctiform impressions ; the posterior part of 
the margin is also impressed ; lower side of the body and 
thighs black ; tibiae of a reddish brown, obscure towards the 
end ; tarsi, palpi, and first article of the antennae of a light 
brown, the remaining articles of the latter of a dark colour. 

Note. — Some specimens are rather broader and of a dark 
metallic brown. 

From Adelaide and Port Lincoln, in South Australia, and 
also King George's Sound. 

Harpalus Brunneus : length 3' ; rather short ; of a bril- 
liant brown ; head very feebly bi-impressed in front ; thorax 
transverse, rounded laterally, with the anterior angles pro- 
minent, the posterior ones obtuse; the impressions moderately 
strong ; elytra oval, short, rather feebly striated; the sutural 
stria diverging near the scutellum ; between the second and 
third striae are three punctiform impressions ; one near the 
base, another towards the middle, and the third behind ; 
margin rather feebly impressed on all its length ; lower side 
of the body, legs, palpi, and antennae of a reddish brown. 

Adelaide and Swan River. 

Harpalus Dampierii : length 4£' ; of a dark brown, 
brilliant ; head round, with two impressions in front, united 
by a transversal sulcate ; thorax cordiform, short, rounded 
laterally, with the transverse front impression hardly visible ; 
a faint longitudinal sulcate and two posterior impressions rather 
broad and deep ; elytra broad and short, much wider than the 
thorax ; very strongly striated ; the two first striae rather 
diverging towards the scutellum, but no visible abbreviated 
striae; the margin impressed; lower side of the body, legs, 
parts of the mouth and antennae of a light brownish red. 

Swan River and King George's Sound, and also Port Lin- 
coln (South Australia). 

Harpalus Fortnumi : length 3 J' ; brown, brilliant ; 
general form rather short and broad ; head impressed between 
the eyes; thorax transverse, as broad in front as behind, 
very much rounded laterally; the front impression very 
faint ; the longitudinal sulcate well marked, as also the two 
posterior impressions ; the latter are longitudinal and narrow ; 
the anterior angles are rounded and the posterior obtuse ; 
the surface is covered with undulating transverse striolae, 
which become longitudinal towards the posterior margin ; 



196 Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 

the elytra are oval, broad, truncated in front, convex, 
striated ; the first stria bi-furcated in front ; the margin im- 
pressed ; legs and antennas of the general colour ; mandibulse 
and labrum dark ; palpi of a light yellowish brown. 
Adelaide. 

Harpalus Boisduvalii : length 3f ' ; very nearly allied to 
Australis, Dej., but having the thorax broader, shorter, more 
rounded laterally ; the elytra broader and not so deeply 
striated ; the thorax is often of a brilliant and rather metal- 
lic colour. 

Swan River. 

Harpalus Bostockii : length 4' ; of a brilliant green cop- 
per colour ; head rather small, rounded ; thorax transverse, 
about as broad behind as in front, rounded laterally, with 
the posterior angles obtuse, and the anterior rounded ; the 
impressions are moderate; elytra broad, rather depressed, 
marked with slight striae, the intervals of which are plane ; 
the sutural stria deviates towards the scutellum, and there 
is a light abbreviate stria; a small punctiform impression is 
seen on the posterior part between the second and third 
striae ; the margin is impressed ; legs of a brownish red, with 
the thighs and end of the tibiae black ; antennas dark, with 
the two first articles red, as are the palpi. 

Swan River. 

Harpalus Versicolor : length 4' ; broad ; of a reddish 
brown ; elytra of a dark brown ; head almost round, rather 
rugous, and impressed in front ; thorax transverse, rather 
cordiform, much narrower behind than in front, with a light 
longitudinal sulcate, and two equally light posterior impres- 
sions ; elytra strongly striated, almost sulcated, impressed 
laterally; no abbreviated stria near the scutellum; the 
humeral part of the margin is yellow ; lower side of the body 
of a light brown ; legs and parts of the mouth yellow. 

Swan River. 

Harpalus Deyrolii : length 3 J' ; of a light bronzed 
colour ; head rounded, with a transversal line in front ; thorax 
transverse, rounded laterally, as broad behind as in front ; 
having a well marked transverse impression in front, a feeble 
longitudinal sulcate and two weak impressions behind ; elytra 
oval, with feeble longitudinal striaa, rather far apart one from 
the other, and the intervals of which are plane ; the sutural 
one deviates towards the scutellum, and there is a very short 
abbreviated stria ; margin very feebly impressed ; lower 



Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 197 

side of the body of a light brown ; legs, parts of the mouth 
and antenna? yellow. 

Port Lincoln, South Australia. 

Harpalus Femoralis : length 3 J' ; black; rather brilliant ; 
head with two punctiform impressions united by a transversal 
line in front ; thorax almost square, transverse ; as broad 
behind as in front, having all its impressions feebly marked ; 
elytra rather broad, strongly striated ; the second stria bi- 
furcated near the scutellum ; posterior part of the margin 
impressed ; a feebly marked punctiform impression behind 
on the interval between the third and fourth striae ; thighs 
black; tibiae, tarsi, palpi and antennae of a light red. 

Rockhampton, Queensland. 

Harpalus Mandibularis : length 2f; of a bronzed green 
colour ; body rather broad and depressed ; head smooth, 
with a strong sulcate in front ; thorax broad, transversal, 
with the sides very much rounded but straight behind ; the 
anterior angles are rounded, and the posterior straight ; the 
central longitudinal sulcate and the two posterior impressions 
are strong, the anterior transverse one is feeble ; elytra 
rather broader than the thorax, oval, depressed, having longi- 
tudinal striae, the intervals of which are not convex ; a very 
feeble abbreviated stria near the scutellum ; a row of im- 
pressions on the margin ; lower side of the body brown ; 
legs, palpi, and base of the antennae yellow ; remainder of 
the latter a little darker ; mandibulae yellow at the base, and 
black towards their extremity. 

Port Denison. 

Harpalus Dingo : length 2% to 3' ; general form rather de- 
pressed ; of a dark brilliant brown ; head large, rounded, 
having a faint impression in front; thorax almost square, 
broader in front than behind, rounded laterally ; the impres- 
sions very faint ; scutellum brown ; elytra oval, striated ; 
an abbreviated stria near the scutellum ; a very faint puncti- 
form impression behind, betw een the second and third striae ; 
margin having on its posterior half a series of strong im- 
pressions ; lower side of the body black ; inferior margin of 
the elytra brown ; legs, palpi, and three first articles of the 
antennas yellow, the remaining of the latter obscure. 

Rockhampton. 

Harpalus Novaz Hollandio3 : length 3 J' ; nearly allied to 
Rubripes, but smaller ; of an aeneus copper green ; head 
with two impressions before the eyes ; thorax rather trans- 
versal, rounded and bordered laterally ; narrower in front 



198 Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 

than behind ; the anterior angles moderately prominent, the 
posterior ones rather obtuse ; the longitudinal sulcate very 
obliterated, hardly perceptible • a light transverse impres- 
sions in front and another behind ; two rather strong 
rounded impressions on the posterior part ; elytra a little 
broader than the thorax, oval, rather depressed, striated, 
with the intervals of the stride not elevated ; a light puncti- 
form impression behind, between the second and third strise ; 
a series of strong impressions on the posterior half of the 
margin ; lower side of the body of a dark brown, thighs 
black ; tibiae strongly arched, with their extremity obscure ; 
tarsi, palpi, and first article of the antennae red ; the remain- 
ing articles of the latter obscure. 

Common near Melbourne. 

Note. — This insect is nearly allied to jffireus, Dej., but is 
easily distinguished by the form of the thorax, &c. 

Trigonotomida?. 

The only Australian group that Mr. Lacordaire mentions 
as belonging to this family is Amhlytelus, but this is evi- 
dently not in its right place, which seems to me to be near 
Dyscolus in an artificial system, or near Phylophloeus in a 
natural one ; on the other hand, I have several species of 
Drimostoma. These insects have entirely the facies of the 
genus, but their mentum has a pointed tooth, equal in length 
to the wings, which are broad, rounded and pointed at the 
apex. 

Drimostoma Australis : length 3' ; of a brilliant dark 
brown ; head elongated ; thorax transverse, rounded laterally, 
rather broader behind than in front ; having a deep longi- 
tudinal sulcate and two other deep impressions behind ; 
elytra large, convex, oval, much broader than the thorax, 
rounded at the humeral angles • legs, antennas, and parts of 
the mouth of a dark reddish brown. 

Mountains of Victoria. 

Drimostoma Montana : length 3f ' ; differs from precedent 
by its larger size, its more elongated form ; thorax not so 
narrowed in front • elytra oblong, not sensibly broader than 
the widest part of the thorax ; the striaB of the elytra appear 
crenulated laterally when seen through a magnifying power ; 
the thorax is not marginated laterally ; legs, antennoe, and 
parts of the mouth of a reddish brown. 

Mountains of Dandenong, Victoria. 

Drimostoma Thouzeti : length 2f ' ; of a rather brilliant 



Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 199 

black ; thorax short, rather cordiform, marginated laterally, 
with the impressions well marked and rather broad ; elytra 
oblong, not broader than the thorax at its greatest breadth, 
oblong, very strongly striated, margin impressed ; legs, 
palpi, and base of antennae of a light red ; the remainder of 
the latter of a dark colonr. 

From Hockhampton, Queensland. 

Note. — In this sort the elytra are much more oblong than 
in Montana, and the thorax much more attenuated behind. 

Drimostoma Vicina : length 3' ; very much like Thouzeti, 
but more elongated ; thorax not so broad ; elytra rather broader 
than the thorax at its greatest breadth ; their striae not so 
deep. 

Rockhampton, Queensland. 

Drimostoma Alpestris : length 3f ; much like Montana, 
but broader and thicker ; thorax wider ; elytra more convex, 
with strong but simple striae ; legs, palpi, and antennae of a 
light red. 

Mountains of Victoria. 

Drimostoma Antarctica : length 4' ; of a brilliant black ; 
thorax cordiform, rather transverse ; the longitudinal sulcate 
and the posterior impressions rather deep ; elytra oblong, 
going decreasing in. breadth from nearly the basis to near 
the apex, very feebly striated ; a few impressions on the 
margin ; legs and parts of the mouth of a dark brown, an- 
tennae red 

New Zealand, Wellington, in Dr. Howitt's collection. 

Drimostoma Striato-punctata : length 2 J' ; of a dark 
glossy brown ; thorax almost round, rather transverse ; the 
impressions moderately marked ; numerous punctiform im- 
pressions cover the posterior part ; elytra broad, oval, con- 
vex, covered with striae, formed with punctiform impressions ; 
inferior margin of the elytra, legs, palpi, and antennae of a 
light red. 

New Zealand, Nelson ; in Dr. Howitt's collection. 

Drimostoma (?) Tasmanica : length 2' ; of a dark brown, 
very smooth and brilliant ; head rather large, impressed in 
front ; thorax cordiform, broader than long, convex, with a 
transverse anterior impression, a longitudinal sulcate and 
two broad posterior impressions ; elytra oval, gibbous, 
smooth ; legs, parts of the mouth and antennae of a light 
red. 

Tasmania ; it is doubful that this insect belongs to the 
genus. 



200 Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 

Feronidce. 

The family of Feronidw is most numerously represented 
in Australia, and when the mountains of that continent, 
which form the place of residence of most species, will have 
been thoroughly explored, I do not doubt that their numbers 
will be at least as considerable as the one belonging to the 
European Fauna. 

I begin the study of this family by the description of 
several new genera belonging to it. Feronia proper is the 
most difficult group of all Gar abides, on account of the great 
number of its species. I will describe at first those of Aus- 
tralia proper, and afterwards those of New Zealand 

ZEODEKA. 

Mentum deeply emarginated, with a strong tooth in the 
centre ; the wings broad, pointed at the apex, rounded ex- 
ternally ; labrum transversal ; mandibulae strong, arched, 
subcarinated, pointed at the apex ; palpi : maxillarse with 
their first article short, the second long and compressed, the 
third conical, the last rather longer than the precedent, 
thicker, rather rounded externally, and broadly truncated ; 
the labial with their first article short, the second very long, 
the last large, broad, truncated, almost securiform ; antennae 
filiform, rather long, with the first article large, the second 
shorter than the third, which is nearly as long as the first ; 
the others of equal length. Tarsi with the three first 
articles of the first pair strongly dilated in the male, the first 
longer than the others ; they have below two rows of squa- 
mulse and spiny hair ; the tarsi of the other two pair are 
simple, with the first article as long as the two following ; 
in the female the anterior tarsi are not dilated, the head is 
oval ; the thorax large, almost square, rather broader behind 
than in front, sulcated in the middle, and having two long 
impressions behind ; elytra oval and depressed, no abbre- 
viated striae near the scutellum ; legs rather strong, the an- 
terior deeply emarginated and having a strong terminal 
spine, and another over the emargination. The absence of 
the abbreviated striae near the scutellum, and the form of 
the palpi brings this genus near Microcephalous, but in the 
latter the palpi are very strongly securiform, and obliquely 
truncated. 

Zeodera Ater : length 10' ; oblong, of a brilliant black ; 
elytra very deeply striated, almost sulcated, with punctiform 



Notes on Australian Goleoptera. 201 

impressions on the interval between the second and third 
striae, a little after the middle of the length, the margin 
impressed ; tarsi and antennas brown. 
Clarence River. 

ECCOPTOGENIUS. 

This genus of Baron Chaudoir being very little known, I 
give here the generic characters of the Australian species. 
Stent um broad, transverse, emarginated ; the excavated part 
having no tooth, but being convexly rounded ; the wings 
broad, rounded externally, obliquely truncated internally. 
Labrum transverse, very strongly emarginated in form of a 
half-moon ; palpi long, the maxillary with their first article 
short, the second long, arched, rather broad, and depressed ; 
the third shorter, but still rather long and convex ; the last 
rather longer than the former, oblong, elongated, truncated at 
the apex ; the labial have their first article small, the two 
following long, the last oblong, truncated at the apex. An- 
tennae moderately long, the first article strong, the second 
rather shorter than the others, which are about equal. Man- 
dibulas strong, very slightly arched, carinated, maxillae 
slender, arched, ciliated inside ; tarsi having their first 
article longer than the others ; in the male the three first 
articles of the anterior tarsi are dilated, and have squamulae. 

The insect I refer to this genus, has entirely the form of 
a small Feronia of the Pterostichus group, but it is distinct 
by its marginated labrum. 

Mr. Lacordaire describes the labrum of Eccoptogenius 
as being angularly emarginated, but this is not the case 
in Gtvq or six Indian species which are in my collection. 

Eccoptogenus Feronoides : length 3f ; of a dark bronzed 
colour, almost black ; head rather small, oval, impressed in 
front; thorax lightly cordiform, rather narrower behind than 
on the anterior part ; anterior angles rounded, posterior 
ones almost straight ; the impressions well marked, and a light 
centre impression on the posterior angles ; elytra broader 
than the thorax, oval, strongly striated ; a short, abbreviated 
stria near the scutellum, after the sutural one ; the margin 
impressed ; legs of a dark brown, almost black ; antennae 
and palpi of a light red brown. 

Deep Creek. 

Note. — This is entirely an Indian form ; the genus was 
formed on a species from the north of India, but I have 
taken several others in Siam. 



202 Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 

CEKABILIA. 

Mentum broad, transverse, emarginated, without a tooth 
in the emargination ; wings of the mentum very broad, 
rounded laterally, pointed at the apex. Labrum almost 
square, rather transverse, entire ; mandibulae rather strong, 
arched, pointed. Palpi with their last article oval, fusiform, 
pointed at the apex. Antennae rather long, with the first 
article strong and thick, the second conical and short, the 
third a little longer, the others equal ; the last oval. Tarsi 
with their first article longer than the others ; the anterior 
having, in the male, their first three articles broad, triangular, 
and furnished underneath with squamulae and spiniform 
hair. Head rather small, oval ; thorax almost square, rather 
transverse ; elytra oval, rather depressed, no appearance of 
an abbreviated stria ; thighs rather strong ; tibiae rather 
slender, straight, the posterior rather arched ; the anterior 
becoming thick towards the apex, strongly emarginated, and 
ended by a spine, with another at the top of the excavation ; 
all the tibiae having a row of spines ; the form of the tarsi 
clearly show, that this insect belongs to the Feronidce ; 
the absence of the abbreviated stria of the elytra, and the 
form of the palpi clearly distinguishes it from all the known 
genera of that family. 

Gerabilia Maori: length 4J' ; of a dark brown ; thorax 
with a feeble transverse impression in front, a moderately 
marked longitudinal sulcate, and two narrow impressions 
backwards ; elytra feebly striated, with the margin im- 
pressed backwards ; legs, palpi, and antennae of a reddish 
brown. 

From Dunedin, New Zealand. 

TIBARISUS. 

Mentum deeply emarginated, with the central part ad- 
vanced and rounded ; wings large, broad, pointed at the 
extremity, rounded on the external side. Labrum trans- 
versal, emarginated in front. Mandibulae large, prominent, 
as long as the portion of the head extending behind their 
bases ; they are broad, subcarinated, rounded towards the 
extremity, pointed at the apex, without teeth on the inner 
side, and rather curved downwards. Palpi : maxillarce long, 
the first article very small ; the second very long, curved, 
compressed; the third more slender, conical, rather shorter 
than the precedent ; fourth of the length of the third, sub- 



Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 203 

oval, truncated at the apex ; the lahice with the basal 
article short, the second very long, straight, the last rather 
shorter, straight inside, rather arched externally, and trun- 
cated at the extremity ; maxillae having its external lobe 
bi-articulated ; the first article being much longer than the 
other, which is curved ; the internal lobe straight, arched at 
the extremity, very hirsute internally. Antennae rather 
long, slender ; the first article large, the second conic, and 
shorter, the third the longest of all. Tarsi of the male 
having the three first articles of the anterior pair strongly 
dilated and triangular, the fourth much less so, and elongate; 
below the three first are two rows of squamulae, and below 
all long spiniform hair; the other tarsi are not dilated. 
Body thick and heavy. Head rather large, oval; thorax 
having the same form as in Abax ; scutellum short, broad, 
rounded behind ; elytra oval, legs strong ; trochanters large 
and oblong ; tibiae lined with short spinous hair ; the ante- 
rior terminated by a strong spine, and having a second above 
the emarginated part ; the first striae of the elytra deviating 
obliquely towards the scutellum, but no abbreviated striae. 

Tibarisus Melas: length 9'; of a shiny black; thorax 
transversal, as broad behind as in front, rounded laterally, 
feebly impressed in front, having the longitudinal sulcate 
moderately marked, strongly bi-im pressed on each side behind; 
elytra very strongly striated; the margin impressed; 
hair below the tarsi brown, as also the pubescence that 
covers the antennae after the third article. 

From Queensland (Rockhampton and Brisbane), and north 
of New South Wales (Clarence River). 

FERONIA. 

First Group. — Omalosoma. 

This group is most generally formed on insects of large 
cize ; their elytra are not properly striated, but bear large 
sostae, between which striae may sometimes be seen, in some 
sorts, and particularly in Superba ; the palpi are broadly 
truncated, and the labia] are almost securiform. 

Feronia Atlas: length 17'; black, brilliant, with the 
exception of the elytra which are aeneus, margins of the 
thorax and of the elytra having a fine copper metallic 
tinge, sometimes red, sometimes green ; the general form 
short and robust ; head large, smooth, with two longitudinal 
impressions between the eyes ; thorax short, cordiform, 

p 2 



204 Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 

truncated behind, with the angles very lightly obtuse ; the 
sides are rounded, the anterior angles advanced ; there is a 
transverse impression in front, a longitudinal sulcate in the 
middle and two strong impressions behind ; elytra short, 
oval, depressed, having each seven elevated costee, in the 
intervals of which are faint punctured striae, not visible to 
the caked eye, the margin is lightly impressed, two puncti- 
form impressions on the third costae; antennse hirsute, 
except on the four first articles. 

This fine insect is found in the cedar bushes on the 
Clarence River, and was forwarded to me by Mr. Wilcox. 

Feronia Obesa : length 12'; very nearly allied to the 
precedent and may possibly be a variety of it, but smaller, 
still shorter and broader ; thorax shorter, almost as broad 
behind as in front, with the sides more rounded on their 
anterior part, and the anterior angles very acute ; the costse 
of the elytra not so marked, particularly behind ; the 
punctured striae much stronger ; the elytra are as shiny as 
the thorax ; general color more obscure than in Atlas. 

Clarence River. 

Feronia Solandersii: length 12'; also very nearly allied 
to the two precedent, but differing from Atlas by its 
smaller size, its still broader form, its thorax much more 
cordiform, and narrower behind, and more rounded at its 
anterior part ; the elytra broader, shorter and wider on 
their posterior part ; the costse are much less marked. From 
Obesa it is easily distinguished by its cordiform thorax ; 
the punctate striae are well marked on the back part of the 
elytra, but are cot perceptible on their first part. 

The insect is black, with a dark green margin on the sides 
of the thorax and elytra. 

Found by Mr. Wilcox in the pine scrubs (Araucaria) of 
the Clarence district of New South Wales. 

Feronia Fpiscopalis : length 17'; elongated, of a beautiful 
purple ; head with two longitudinal impressions between 
the eyes, these impressions present some transverse striolae ; 
thorax strongly cordiform, narrow behind, broad in front, 
rounded laterally on the anterior part, the anterior angles 
produced and rather rounded, the posterior ones straight and 
rather elevated, the anterior transverse impression, the 
longitudinal one, and the two posterior are deeply marked ; 
elytra oval, elongated, with their axillary angles acute, they 
have eight longitudinal costse (in counting the sutura) the 
seventh of which forms a light carenae ; the intervals 



Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 205 

between the costae are punctated; two punctiform impressions 
are seen on the posterior part of the third costse, and the 
margin is impressed ; lower side of the body and legs black, 
antennae with their four first articles of the same colour, the 
others brown and hirsute, the mandibulae are very long. 

From Lans Cove in New South Wales. 

Feronia Superba : length 17'; of the same colour as 
Episcopalis, but broader, head larger, thorax shorter and 
more rounded on the sides ; elytra broader, oval, but more 
rounded ; they have each three strong costae, between each 
of which is a much smaller one ; there is no appearance of 
punctated striae, and the humeral angle is rounded; the 
male is much smaller than the female. 

I owe the two sexes of this handsome insect to Dr. 
Howitt, who found them on the Hunter Kiver, in New South 
Wales. 

Feronia Wilsoni : length 13' ; black, with the head, 
thorax, and margin of the elytra of a fine purple ; the 
thorax and elytra have the form of Episcopalis, the latter 
being oval and elongated, but their costse are more like 
those of Superba, being only three large ones, without the 
sutura, and other very faint ones between these ; the 
punctated striae which separate them are very distinct, the 
humeral angles are prominent, and the third large costse 
forms a sort of carina. 

I have only one specimen of this insect, which I received 
from Mr. Wilson of Brisbane. 

Feronia Hercules: length 18'; of a fine, brilliant black, 
except the elytra ; head large, smooth, with two longitudi- 
nal impressions between the eyes ; thorax rather square, a 
little broader behind than in front, rounded laterally, its 
greatest breadth being a little before the middle of its 
length, it has a transverse impression in front, which is only 
strongly marked towards its ends, a moderate longitudinal 
sulcate in the middle, and two strong elongate impressions 
behind ; elytra oval, elongated, a little broader behind than 
at the base, the axillary angles faintly marked, on each 
elytra three strong longitudinal costae, without the sutura, 
and between them others much more feeble ; the punctate 
striae visible ; three punctiform impressions behind on the 
first large costse, the margin feebly impressed ; antennae, 
hirsute and brown, except their four first articles. 

This fine insect inhabits the pine mountains of Queens- 
land. 



206 Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 

Feronia Cunninghamii : length 15'; black, brilliant, with 
the exception of the elytra ; head impressed between the 
eyes ; thorax strongly cordiform, with the anterior angles 
rather rounded, and the posterior ones straight; the 
transverse anterior impression is strong, the longitudinal 
sulcate moderate, the two posterior impressions large and 
broad; elytra oval, elongated, with the costae alternately 
small and large, the third large one forming a considerable 
carina at the humeral angle, margin feebly impressed ; 
antennae hirsute, and brown, with the exception of the four 
first articles, which are smooth and black. 

From Rockhampton — Mr. Thouzet. 

Feronia Viridescens : length 13'; very nearly allied to 
Cyanocincta of Hope and Boisduval, but smaller; thorax 
more cordiform and much narrower behind ; elytra nar- 
rower near the basis ; the costae much more equal, and the 
punctated striae well marked, the humeral angles more pro- 
minent. 

Clarence River. 

Feronia Nitidicollis : length 10'; of a shiny black; 
upper part of the head and thorax of a fine gilt copper colour ; 
thorax cordiform, rather short and broad, with a very faint 
transverse impression in front ; a rather strong longitudinal 
sulcate in the middle, and two broad impressions behind ; 
elytra oval, black, with a golden margin, they have the 
sutural and three other elevated costae on each, and between 
these more very faint costae lined with punctated stria? ; the 
last of the large costae forms a carena near the lateral margin ; 
antennas brown and hirsute, with their first four articles 
black and smooth. 

Clarence River — Mr. Wilcox. 

Feronia Dingo : length 10'; black, brilliant, except the 
elytra, which are dull ; head oval ; thorax rather cordiform, a 
little longer than broad, rounded laterally, with the posterior 
angles rather curled upwards, the impressions are mode- 
ately marked, the two posterior ones are broad ; elytra 
oblong, depressed, having six sharp ridges without the 
sutura, the posterior half of the margin is impressed, but no 
punctiform impressions are seen on the surface of the elytra ; 
legs, palpi and basal article of the antennae of a dark red ; 
the three following articles of the latter darker, the other 
hirsute. 

Mountains of Victoria. 

Feronia Yarroz : length 8'; very much like the pre- 



Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 207 

cedent, but smaller, with the thorax longer and more 
attenuated behind. 

Victoria, 

Note. — The Trigonostoma Violacea of my " Etudes Ento- 
mologiques " belongs to this group. It is probably not, as 
stated, from Port Jackson, but from the north or western 
coast of New Holland, having been brought back by 
Baudin's Expedition. 

Second Group. — Pterostichus. 

This group is very numerous in Australia. 

Feronia Regalis: length 18' ; of a beautiful purple ; head 
large, bi-impressed in front ; thorax cordiform, with the sides 
rounded on their two anterior thirds ; anterior angles rather 
advanced, the posterior rounded ; the front impression and 
sulcate moderately marked ; the two posterior impressions 
elongated and deep ; elytra oval, depressed, having thei 
widest part towards the middle ; they are covered with deep 
striae ; the intervals between two to three, four to five, and 
seven to eight bearing each a series of four or five deep 
punctiform impressions ; the margin is also strongly marked 
with impressions ; a very short oblique stria near the scutel- 
lum ; lower side of the body, legs, parts of the mouth, and 
base of the antennae of brilliant black, the last are from their 
fourth article covered with a brown villosity ; the palpi are 
broadly truncated, and the labial almost securiform. 

Very few specimens of this beautiful insect have yet been 
found ; the one I describe was found at Kiama (New 
South Wales), and is in the collection of Dr. Howitt. 

Feronia Ducalis: length 10-11 J' ; of a fine brilliant cop- 
per colour ; head with two broad impressions between the 
eyes ; thorax rather transverse, rounded laterally, with the 
posterior angles rather obtuse ; the anterior ones rounded ; 
all the impressions strongly marked ; elytra oval, oblong, 
emarginated behind, with the axillary angles well marked ; 
they are covered with strong longitudinal striae ; on the 
interval between the second and third there are on the pos- 
terior part two strong punctiform impressions ; the margin 
is impressed ; lower side of the body, legs, parts of the mouth 
and antennae black. 

Illawarra. 

Note. — In one of my specimens there are three punctiform 
impressions on each elytra. 

Feronia Comes: length 11'; of a brilliant black, some- 



208 Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 

times rather purple ; head bi-impressed ; thorax longer than 
broad, as wide in front as behind ; rounded laterally ; the 
anterior transverse impression light, the longitudinal sulcate 
moderate ; the posterior impressions elongated ; elytra oblong, 
elongated, broader than the thorax, rather depressed, strongly 
striated ; the intervals between the second and third striae 
having four or five punctiform impressions ; the margin im- 
pressed ; lower side of the body and legs of a brilliant black ; 
extremity of the palpi brown ; antennae of the last colour, 
and pubescent, with their three first articles black and 
smooth. 

Clyde Kiver, New South Wales. 

Feronia JEques : length 10'-11' ; very nearly allied to 
Ducalis and of the same brilliant colour, but the thorax is 
of the same form as Comes ; elytra more oval than in the 
latter; between the second and third striae there is a series 
of four or five punctiform impressions. 

Illawarra. 

Feronia Gippsiensis : length 10'- 12' ; of a shiny black, 
sometimes with a copper tinge ; head oval, with the front 
impressions elongated ; thorax not much wider than broad ; 
sub-cordiform, with the angles rounded ; the front transverse 
impressions very faint, but the longitudinal sulcate and the 
posterior impressions strongly marked ; the latter elongated ; 
elytra oval, rather elongated, strongly striated, with a very 
short abbreviate stria near the scutellum ; on the interval 
between the second and third striae are four punctiform im- 
pressions, and the margin is also impressed ; legs, parts of 
the mouth, and antennae of a dark reddish brown ; the latter 
hirsute, except on its first articles. 

Mountains of Gipps Land and of the Dividing Kange 
(Victoria), the specimens from the latter generally smaller. 

Feronia Miles : length 7 J' ; colour, and almost entirely 
the form of Comes, but much smaller ; the two posterior im- 
pressions of the thorax rounded instead of being long and 
narrow ; elytra more elongated, narrower, the striae deeper, 
and only two, or very rarely three, impressions on the interval 
between the second and third striae. 

Clyde River (New South Wales). 

Feronia Satrapa: length 12'-13J' ; of a brilliant black; 
head large, with the front impressions rather broad ; thorax 
rather short, sub-depressed, broader than long, much nar- 
rower behind than in front, with the angles rather rounded ; 
the impressions are moderately marked, and the entire sur- 



Notes on Australian Goleoptera. 209 

face is covered with transverse undulated striolae ; elytra 
oblong, rather depressed, strongly striated ; the intervals 
between the second and third and sixth and seventh striae 
show a series of four or five strong punctiform impressions ; 
the margin is also strongly impressed ; legs, palpi, and an- 
tennae of a dark brown; the latter pubescent after their 
third article. 

Gipps Land, Victoria, 

Feronia Peronii : length 9 J' ; of a metallic green colour ; 
head large, impressed in front ; thorax short, cordiform, with 
the anterior angles rounded and the posterior straight ; the 
impressions strong and deep, with the exception of the front 
transversal one ; elytra oval, depressed, strongly striated, with 
a series of three or four punctiform impressions between the 
second and third striae ; the margin strongly impressed ; 
legs, palpi, and three first articles of the antennae brown, 
the others of the latter black and hirsute ; the tibiae and 
tarsi of the two last pairs of legs dark and almost black. 

Mountains of Victoria. 

Dedicated to the learned Peron, naturalist to Captain 
Baudin's exploring expedition. 

Feronia Croesus: length 9'; black, with a purple tinge ; 
head and thorax of a fine copper gilt colour ; the latter almost 
square, rather broader in front than behind, with the anterior 
angles very much rounded, the posterior obtuse and rather 
curled upwards ; the longitudinal sulcate well marked, and 
the posterior impressions broad and deep ; elytra oblong, 
rather depressed, strongly striated with a series of five or 
six punctiform impressions between the second and third 
striae, and sometimes one or two on the fourth to fifth ; the 
margin impressed ; palpi and first articles of the antennas 
brown, the others black and hirsute. 

Mountains of Victoria. 

Feronia Plutus: length 9 J' ; very much like the prece- 
dent, but still more beautiful ; head and thorax of a gold 
colour ; elytra purple, with the part near the sutura black ; 
the general form is more elongated ; head very large ; thorax 
longer and narrower, with the anterior angles pointed and 
the posterior ones straight ; elytra having the same series of 
punctiform impressions, and also one unique similar impression 
towards the middle of the space between the fourth and 
fifth striae ; the striae become very feeble towards the external 
margin. 

Mountains of Victoria. Very rare. 



210 Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 

Feronia Opwlenta : length 8' ; similar to Plutus in point 
of colouring, but much smaller ; head small and oval ; elytra 
more depressed, and equally covered with strong strise ; a 
series of three or four punctiform impressions on the interval 
between the second and third striae ; the spaces between the 
elytra are convex in this sort, and depressed in the former. 

Mountains of Victoria. Common. 

Feronia Lesueurii : length 9' ; of a long cylindrical form, 
and of a brilliant bronzed black ; head oblong, with the im- 
pressions between the eyes very feeble ; thorax longer than 
broad, rather cylindrical, with all the angles rounded ; no 
transverse impression in front, but the sulcate and two 
posterior impressions deep ; the surface covered with trans- 
verse striolse ; elytra long, oblong, deeply and equally striated 
with two punctiform impressions on the posterior part of 
the interval between the second and third strise ; margin im- 
pressed ; the elytra more or less copper colour ; lower side of 
the body and legs of a brilliant black ; tarsi, antennae^ and 
palpi of a reddish brown. 

Illawarra, New South Wales. 

Feronia Tasmanica : length 7J'; of a brilliant black ; 
head small, elongated, with the two front impressions rather 
feebly marked ; thorax large, almost square, rounded late- 
rally, a little narrower in front than behind ; the impressions 
feeble, with the exception of the two posterior ones, which 
are elongate and deep ; elytra oval, depressed, with the 
axillary angles marked ; they are covered with rather deep 
strise, the intervals of which are not elevated ; between the 
second and third strise are three punctiform impressions, and 
the margin is impressed ; palpi, tarsi, and antennae, brown, 
the latter hirsute, except on the first articles. 

Tasmania. 

Feronia Diemenensis : length 8 J' ; nearly allied to the 
precedent, but very distinct ; the impressions of the head 
deeper ; thorax more cordiform, and considerably narrowed 
backwards, with the posterior angles brilliant, and rather 
acute; the impressions deeper, and the posterior ones 
broader ; elytra having a dark purple tinge, their striae are 
not so deep near the sutura as towards the margin ; the latter 
is carinated ; the legs and base of antenna? rather purple. 

Tasmania. 

Feronia Victoria? : length 7 j' ; of a brilliant black, with 
the elytra of a dark blue, sometimes with a purple tinge ; 
head rather rounded, feebly impressed in front ; thorax 



Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 211 

rather longer than broad, cordiform, with the anterior angles 
rounded, and the posterior rather prominent and acute ; front 
transverse impressions very little marked, longitudinal 
sulcate feeble ; posterior impressions deep ; elytra oval, 
striated ; three punctiform impressions between the second 
and third striae ; margin impressed ; palpi and first articles 
of the antennae brown, the other articles hirsute. 
- Common in the Mountains of Victoria. 

Feronia Auricollis : length 7' ; very nearly allied to 
Victorias, but head and thorax of a fine gilt copper colour ; 
thorax narrower, about as broad in front as behind, rounded 
laterally. 

With the precedent. 

Feronia Marstersii : length 6' ; very much like Victorias, 
but thorax more cordiform, and broader in front ; elytra 
more deeply striated, with two punctiform impressions on 
the posterior part of the intervals between the second and 
third striae. 

Pine Mountains, near Ipswich. 

Feronia Wilcoxii : length 7' ; of a dark colour, sometimes 
with a purple tinge ; head and thorax often of a copper 
colour ; form elongated ; head rather large, feebly impressed 
in front ; thorax cordiform, much narrower behind than in 
front ; anterior angles advanced, the posterior rather acute, 
the front transverse impression very feeble, but the longitudinal 
sulcate and the posterior impressions very deep; the surface is 
generally covered with very faint transverse striolae ; elytra 
oblong, strongly striated ; the interval between the second 
and third striae having two punctiform impressions on its 
posterior part ; the margin impressed ; lower side of the 
body and legs of a brownish black ; palpi and antennae 
rather lighter ; the latter hirsute, except on their first 
articles. 

Clarence River. 

Feronia Gippslandica : length 8J' ; of a rather dark 
copper green ; head elongate ; thorax about as long as broad, 
rounded laterally, broader in front than behind, with all its 
angles rounded ; the impressions, except the anterior one, are 
strong and deep, and the entire surface is covered with strong 
transverse striolae ; the elytraare oval, rather depressed, striated 
with a series of five or six punctiform impressions on the in- 
terval between the second and third striae, and two more on 
the one between the fourth and fifth ; the margin is im- 
pressed ; lower side of the body and legs of a brilliant black ; 



212 Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 

palpi brown ; antennae with their first articles black, and 
the other articles covered with a brown villosity. 

Mountains of Gipps Land, Victoria. 

Feronia Phillipsii : length 8 J' ; this insect has a great 
deal of the form and appearance of JEques, but is smaller, 
and of a dark copper colour ; the posterior angles of the 
thorax are more obtuse ; on the interval between the second 
and third striae there is a series of seven or eight punctiform 
impressions, and on the one between the fifth and sixth one 
or two more ; the tibiae and tarsi are brown. 

Mountains of Gipps Land. 

Feronia Semiviolacea : length 8' ; black, with purple 
elytra ; body depressed ; the impressions of the head very 
feeble ; thorax rather broader than long, cordiform ; the 
sides and anterior angles rounded, the posterior angles well 
marked, and rather turned upwards ; the impressions 
moderately marked, but the two posterior ones long 
and deep ; elytra oval, striated, with the interval between 
the second and third striae bearing three punctiform im- 
pressions ; margin striated ; legs black, tarsi and palpi 
brown. 

Mountains of Victoria. 

Feronia Impressicollis : length 7|' ; oblong, rather de- 
pressed ; head oval, feebly impressed in front ; thorax 
nearly as long as broad, rather narrower behind than in 
front, with the sides rounded. ; the anterior angles are 
rather rounded, and the posterior ones sub-obtuse ; the pos- 
terior margin is cut convexly in its middle ; the anterior and 
middle impressions are moderate, but the posterior ones are 
deep, and extend to one half the length of the thorax ; elytra 
oblong, striated, with two punctiform impressions on the pos- 
terior part of the interval between the second and third 
striae ; the margin is impressed ; the insect is black, 
with the head and thorax of a dark green ; the elytra 
have a purple tinge ; tibiae, tarsi, and base of the 
antennae of a dark brown ; the remaining of the latter 
hirsute. 

Mountains of New South Wales and of Queensland. 

Feronia Vilis : length 5 J' ; black, shiny ; the impressions 
between the eyes rather deep ; thorax large, sub-quadran- 
gular, very little broader than long, rather narrowed behind ; 
the sides rounded, the posterior angles rather obtuse, the 
transverse front impression faint, the longitudinal sulcate 
well marked ; the posterior impressions rather deep, 



Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 213 

elongated, and on each side, behind the posterior angle, is 
seen an extra impression, shorter than the others ; elytra 
oblong, striated, having one or two irregularly placed punc- 
tiform impressions on the interval between the second and 
third strise ; margin impressed ; legs, parts of the mouth 
and antennae of a dark brown. 

Mountains of Victoria. 

Feronia Subvilis : length 6' ; allied to Vilis, hut more 
elongated ; thorax narrower, and much more cordiform ; im- 
pressed in the ordinary manner, without the extra posterior 
impression ; elytra more elongated ; legs black, with the tarsi 
brown. 

Mountains of Victoria. 

Feronia La Peyrousii : length 11' ; head and thorax of a 
dark copper colour ; the first rather large, and strongly im- 
pressed between the eyes; thorax rather short, cordiform, 
transverse, with the anterior angles rather rounded, and the 
posterior ones straight and rather turned up ; the anterior 
transverse impression hardly visible ; the sulcate and the 
two posterior impressions very deep ; elytra oval, rather 
oblong, black, with a copper-coloured margin ; they are 
covered with stria? ; the interval between the second and 
third bearing a series of five or six punctiform impressions ; 
the margin is impressed ; lower side of the body and legs 
black ; palpi black, with the extremity red ; antennae black 
at the base, with the remaining hirsute and brown. 

Ash Island, New South Wales. 

Feronia Resplendens : length 9' ; oblong ; head rather 
elongate, colour of dark bronze ; thorax longer than broad, 
as- wide in front as behind, rounded laterally ; the trans- 
verse impression very feeble ; the longitudinal sulcate well 
marked ; the posterior impressions long and deep ; the ante- 
rior angles rounded ; the posterior ones obtuse ; the middle 
of the thorax is of a dark bronze, with the sides of a fine 
gilt colour ; elytra oblong, rather parallel, striated ; a row 
of generally fine punctiform impressions on the interval 
between the second and third strise ; the margin impressed ; 
the colour of the elytra is of a dark purple, with the mar- 
gin of a beautiful red gilt tinge ; lower side of the body and 
thighs of a dark brown ; tibise and tarsi lighter ; palpi and 
antennae brown. 

Merimbula, New South Wales. 

Feronia Hunteriensis: length 8' ; very much like Feronia 
Resplendens, and having entirely the same colouring, but 



214 Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 

general form shorter ; thorax almost round, and rather 
broader than long, with the posterior angles rounded ; only- 
two punctiform impressions on the interval between the 
second and third striae. 

From the Hunter River (New South Wales). 

Note. — A variety of a darker and more opaque aspect is 
found in various parts of New South Wales. 

Feronia Striatocollis : length 6 J' ; black, with a metallic 
tinge on the head and thorax ; the latter considerably longer 
than broad, as wide behind as in front, rounded laterally, 
with the angles obtuse ; the front impression is hardly visible ; 
the sulcate strong, as also the posterior and elongate impres- 
ions ; the entire surface is covered with rather strong trans- 
verse striolae ; the elytra are oval, almost black near the 
sutura, becoming purple sideways, with the margin impres- 
sed, and of a beautiful gold colour ; they are striated with 
two strong punctiform impressions on the posterior half of the 
interval between the second and third striae ; lower side of 
the body, legs, palpi, and antennae of a brownish black, the 
latter hirsute after their third article. 

Clarence River. 

Feronia Purpwreolimbata : length 7' ; of a dark black ; 
thorax a little broader than long, rounded laterally, narrower 
behind than in front ; the anterior angles rounded, and the 
posterior ones rather acute ; the anterior impression obliter- 
ate, the sulcates strong, the posterior impressions curved, 
elongate and deep ; the entire surface covered with trans- 
verse striolae ; elytra oval, of a dark black, with the margin 
of a golden purple colour ; they are striated, and on the 
interval between the second and third stria? are two puncti- 
form impressions. On all the posterior parts of the elytra 
are numerous irregular, rather elongated impressions, the 
margin feebly impressed ; lower side of the body, legs, an- 
tennae, and palpi of a dark brown. 

Clarence River. 

Feronia Impressipennis : length 8 J' ; black, with the 
elytra generally more brilliant than the thorax, and having 
usually a brilliant green margin ; head oval ; thorax large, 
rounded laterally, as broad in front as behind, with the 
angles well marked ; no transverse impression in front ; the 
sulcate strong, the posterior impressions elongated, deep, and 
rather curved ; elytra oblong, striated ; the entire surface, 
except the basis, covered with numerous deep and irregular 
impressions ; lower side of the body and legs black ; tarsi 



Notes on Australian Goleoptera. 215 

and palpi brown ; antennae black, covered after their third 
article with a brown pubescence. 
Clarence River. 

Feronia Aubei : length 9' ; entirely of a brilliant black ; 
thorax round, with the anterior impression hardly visible, the 
longitudinal sulcate feeble, the posterior impressions broad 
and well marked ; elytra oblong, strongly and deeply striated ; 
no punctiform impressions between the striae, but several on 
the anterior half of the margin, the posterior part of which 
is impressed. 

From the Hunter River. 

Feronia Azureomarginata : length 11'; of a brilliant 
black ; head oval, very feebly impressed between the eyes ; 
thorax round, with the anterior impression very feeble ; the 
sulcate also very lightly marked, but ending behind in a deep 
punctiform impression, the posterior impressions broad ; 
elytra oblong, broader towards the two posterior thirds of 
their length than at the basis, having the humeral angles pro- 
minent and almost carinated ; they have a purple blue margin, 
are covered with puncturated striae, and on the interval 
between the second and third of the latter are two punc- 
tiform impressions ; the margin is impressed ; the tarsi, 
palpi, and antennae are brown. 

From the Lachlan, and Hunter River, in New South 
Wales. 

Feronia Viridilimhata : length 7J' ; black ; interoculor 
impressions very lightly marked ; thorax rather broader in 
front than behind; rounded laterally and at the anterior angles, 
the posterior obtuse front impression very feeble, but the sul- 
cate and the posterior impressions very deep, the last almost 
linear ; elytra oval, rather depressed, covered with strong 
striae, the intervals between the second and third, fourth and 
fifth being broader than the others ; on the interval between 
the second and third are seen two punctiform impressions, 
one after the middle, and the other towards the extremity ; 
margin impressed, and of a fine green ; lower side of the 
body of a brilliant black ; legs, palpi, and antennae brown. 
Brisbane, Queensland. 

Feronia Amabilis : length 6' ; head and thorax of a fine 
purple, with copper tinges ; thorax cordiform ; a little longer 
than broad ; the front transverse impression well marked, as 
also the sulcate and the two posterior impressions, the latter 
broad ; elytra oval, rather oblong, with strong striae ; on the 
interval between the second and third are four punctiform 



216 Notes on Australian Goleoptera. 

impressions ; the margin impressed ; the colour of the elytra 
is a dark iridescent purple, with a golden margin ; lower side 
of the body, legs, antennae, and palpi brown. 

Merimbula, New South Wales. 

Feronia Viridimarginata : length 8' ; black ; head oval, 
with a copper tinge ; thorax about as broad as wide, rounded 
laterally ; narrower behind than in the middle, with the an- 
terior angles advanced ; the front impression very faint, the 
sulcate strong, the two posterior impressions deep but nearly 
linear; the surface is marked with very faint transverse 
striolae ; the elytra are oblong, rather elongated, of the 
breadth of the thorax at their basis ; they are opaque, of a 
dark purple, almost black, with a metallic green margin ; 
they are covered with striae, the intervals of which are not 
convex, but the one between the second and third having 
on its posterior part two punctiform impressions ; margin 
also impressed ; lower side of the body, antennae, and legs 
of a brilliant black ; tarsi and palpi rather brown. 

Brisbane. 

Feronia Darlingii: length 7 J' ; very much like the prece- 
dent, and might easily be taken for it, but the thorax at- 
tenuated behind and more cordiform ; the elytra more oval, 
and narrower near the basis, with the humeral angles more 
rounded. 

The colour is sometimes black, sometimes of a dark copper, 
with the margin of the elytra green. 

Found by Mr. Masters in the Pine Mountains of Queens- 
land. 

Third Group. — Omaseus. 

Feronia Mitchelii : length 7 J' ; black, sometimes copper 
colour ; head rather large ; thorax large, almost square, a 
little narrower behind than in the middle, with the angles 
rather rounded ; the transversal front impression very feeble ; 
the sulcate and the two elongated posterior impressions strongly 
marked ; elytra rather oblong, striated, with two punctiform 
impressions on the posterior part of the interval between the 
second and third striae ; margin striated ; lower side of the 
body, legs, palpi, and antennae black. 

Queensland, New South Wales, and Victoria. 

Feronia Rufipalpis : length 6' ; black ; head large ; thorax 
short, transverse, rounded laterally and at the anterior angles, 
the posterior being well marked and rather obtuse ; the front 
impression is very faint, the sulcate and posterior impressions 



Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 217 

rather deep ; a few very faint longitudinal striolae are seen 
on the posterior margin ; elytra oval, striated ; a series of 
five punctiform impressions on the interval between the 
second and third striae ; margin impressed ; thighs black ; 
tibiae, tarsi, and palpi of a dark red ; antennae with their 
first articles black, and the others covered with a brown 
pubescence. 

Mountains of Victoria. 

Fourth Group. — PraciLus. 

The only Australian insects described belonging to this 
section are— 

Feronia Prolixa, Erichson, from Tasmania and New 
South Wales ; a specimen from Clarence River differs by the 
striae of the elytra being much less deep. 

Feronia Ghalybea, Dej., unknown to me. 

Feronia Sphazdroidese, Dej., from New South Wales. 

The following appear undescribed : — 

Feronia Resplendens : length 8' ; of a fine metallic green, 
with the elytra sometimes of a brilliant copper colour ; thorax 
rather broader than long, wider behind than in front, 
rounded laterally, with the transverse front impression 
moderately marked ; the sulcate very feeble ; two impressions 
on each side near the posterior angles, the inner one being 
much longer than the other ; elytra long, rather broad, de- 
pressed, covered with feeble longitudinal striae, which are 
very finely punctated ; the sutural stria bifurcated towards 
the scutellum ; margin impressed on its posterior half; 
lower side of the body, legs, antennae, and palpi black. 

Rather common in the interior parts of New Holland, 
on the Lachlan, the Darling, the Paroo Rivers, and a] so found 
sometimes at Adelaide and in the Swan River district. It 
is also very nearly allied to a New Caledonian insect, and 
perhaps not distinct from it. 

Note.— Some specimens have the thorax narrower behind, 
but I find all transitions between them and the typical 
specimen. 

Variety, almost black. Swan River. 

Feronia Iridipennis : length 5'-6' ; of a brilliant black 
with the elytra iridescent ; form rather elongated ; head 
oval, bi-impressed in front ; thorax longer than wide, as 
broad in front as behind, rounded laterally, with the ante- 
rior transverse impression and the longitudinal sulcate very 
feeble ; the two posterior impressions better marked and 

Q 



218 Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 

elongated ; elytra oblong, striated, with an abbreviated stria 
near the scutellum ; three punctiform impressions on the 
third stria ; one at less than one-third of the length, the 
other near the middle, and the third at about the two poste- 
rior thirds of the length ; margin impressed ; tarsi, palpi, 
and antennae of a dark brown. 

New South Wales, Victoria, and Adelaide. 

Feronia Iridescens : length 4 J ' ; only differs from the pre- 
cedent by its form being less elongated ; the elytra broader and 
more oval, without punctiform impressions, or at utmost 
one on the centre ; tarsi, palpi, and antennae of a light 
brownish red. 

Rockhampton and Clarence River, and also from the 
Paroo River, in the interior of New Holland. 

Feronia Interioris : length 6' ; of a brilliant black ; head 
small, oval, feebly bi-impressed in front ; thorax almost square, 
rounded laterally, a little broader behind than in front ; an- 
terior and longitudinal impressions very feeble ; the poste- 
rior ones strong, broad, and deep ; elytra oblong, depressed, 
striated; a short abbreviated stria near the scutellum; a 
punctiform impression on the posterior part of the second 
stria, and another towards the middle on the third ; margin 
impressed ; legs, antennae, and palpi of a dark brown. 

Paroo River, in the interior of Australia. 

Feronia Gagatina: length 3f ; of a brilliant black; head 
oval ; thorax rather broader than long, rounded laterally, 
and at the posterior angles ; the anterior ones rather acute ; 
a faint transverse impression in front, and another behind ; 
the longitudinal sulcate, and two posterior elongated impres- 
sions, rather deep ; elytra oval, strongly striated, with one 
or two irregularly placed impressions towards the middle of 
the impression between the second and third striae ; the 
sutural striae sinuous towards the scutellum, but no abbre- 
viated stria ; seen through a strong magnifying power, these 
striae appear rather punctated ; legs, palpi, and antennae black. 

Tasmania. 

Note. — For this and for Iridipennis I haVe preserved 
manuscript names, given I believe, by Mr. MacLeay, in his 
collection. 

Feronia Subgagatina : length 5' ; very much like Gaga- 
tina, and only differing from it by its larger size and the 
colour of the tarsi, palpi, and antennae, which are of a light 
reddish brown. 

Pine Mountains of Queensland. 



Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 219 

Feronia Rufilabris : length 5' ; of a brilliant black ; head 
oval, very lightly impressed in front ; the labrum and palpi 
of a reddish brown ; antennas of the same colour, with their 
first four articles darker ; thorax almost square, rather 
broader in front than behind, rounded laterally, having the 
front impression and the longitudinal sulcate moderately 
marked, and the two posterior impressions deep, narrow, 
and elongated ; the posterior part of the thorax is punctated ; 
elytra oblong, strongly punctated, striated ; the sutural 
stria sinuous towards the scutellum, but no abbreviated 
stria ; there is a punctiform impression towards the middle 
of the third stria ; the elytra are iridescent ; lower side of 
the body of a dark brown ; legs black ; tarsi brown. 

Pine Mountains of Brisbane. 

Note. — These three last sorts could be placed almost as 
well with Argutor as with Poecilus. 

Feronia Funebris : length 10' ; of a brilliant black ; head 
rather small, oval, with two longitudinal impressions in 
front ; thorax rather transverse, almost square, with the an- 
terior angles rounded, and the posterior straight ; the ante- 
rior transverse impression is feeble ; the longitudinal sulcate 
moderately marked ; the two posterior impressions very 
broad ; the elytra oblong, depressed, strongly striated ; the 
sutural stria bifurcated towards the scutellum ; on the 
margin is a punctated stria, on which are seen a few larger 
punctiform impressions ; tarsi, palpi, and antennae rather 
brown. 

This fine insect was found at Mount Gambier, and is in 
Dr. Howitt's collection. 

Fifth Geo up. — Omaseus. 

In this division comes the Feronia Australasia? of 
Dejean, which is found commonly in Victoria, New South 
Wales, South Australia, and extends towards the interior, as 
far as the rivers Darling and Paroo ; the following sorts 
appear undescribed. 

Feronia Lachlandiensis : length 7J' ; nearly allied to the 
precedent, but the thorax is nob cordiform, being rounded 
laterally, and much broader in front than behind ; the poste- 
rior angles are more rounded. 

The insect is of a brilliant black, with the tarsi brown ; 
the palpi and antennas of a light brownish red. 

From the Lachlan River. 

Feronia Clarenciensis : length 5' ; of a brilliant black; 

q2 



220 Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 

head rather triangular ; thorax rather broader than long, 
rounded laterally, rather wider in front than behind, with 
the front transverse impression not visible, the longitudinal 
sulcate moderately marked, the two posterior impressions 
elongated and deep ; elytra oblong striated ; the sutura] stria 
diverging a little near the scutellum, but no abbreviate stria; 
the striae are strong near the sutura, but become more feeble, 
and almost disappear towards the sides ; the margin feebly 
impressed ; the tarsi and palpi of a reddish colour ; antennae 
almost black, hirsute after the third article. 

Clarence River. 

Feronia Subcarbonaria : length 5f ; black, brilliant, 
rather depressed ; thorax broader than long, cordiform ; the 
anterior impression not visible ; the longitudinal sulcate 
well marked ; on the posterior part are two longitudinal 
and narrow impressions, and two others much shorter on the 
posterior angles ; elytra oval, strongly striated near the 
sutura, and very lightly towards the margins ; the sutural 
stria diverging a little towards the scutellum, but no abbre- 
viated one visible ; margin impressed on its posterior half; 
tarsi and palpi of a dark brown ; antennae black, with the 
articles after the fourth hirsute. 

Victoria and New South Wales. 

Note. — I have seen this insect in European collections 
under the name of Sphodroides, Dej., but the description of 
this author does not in the least agree with it. 

Feronia Centralis : length 7' ; very much like Austra- 
lasias, but thorax instead of being cordiform, is almost square, 
and about as broad behind as in front. 

Darling River. 

Feronia Arnheimensis : length 6' ; black, head rather 
large ; thorax cordiform, with no appearance of a transverse 
impression ; longitudinal sulcate moderate ; posterior im- 
pressions rather broad and deep ; elytra oblong, depressed, 
having each five entire striae, and two others abbreviate and 
only visible on the posterior part of the elytra, having on 
the remaining portion a smooth part towards the margin ; 
these striae grow deeper as they go towards the sutura ; two 
other striae follow the margin ; lower side of the body black ; 
legs, palpi, and antennae brown. 

Brought from Arnheim's Land by Mr. Waterhouse. 

Feronia Occidentalis : length ' ; very much like Arnhei- 
mensis ; the posterior impressions of the thorax broader ; 
elytra a little narrower, and more convex, with two puncti- 



Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 221 

form impressions on each, between the second and third 
stride. 

King George's Sound. 

Feronia Satanas : length 8 J' ; of a brilliant black ; head 
large, oval, with the front longitudinal impressions well 
marked ; thorax rounded, truncated in front and behind, 
with the longitudinal sulcate moderate, the front impressions 
almost missing, and the posterior ones deep and broad ; 
elytra oblong, rather convex, of a dark purple; they 
have five striae, which are stronger near the sutura, and dis- 
appear towards the margin, which is impressed ; two puncti- 
form impressions on the interval between the second and 
third striae ; legs black ; palpi brown ; antennae black, 
covered after their fourth article with a brown pubescence. 

King George's Sound. 

Sixth Group. — Percus. 

Feronia Bipunctatus : length 9' ; of a brilliant black ; head 
oval, feebly impressed in front ; thorax almost square, with 
the angles rounded ; the front transverse impression is feebly 
marked, the sulcate moderately so, but the two posterior 
impressions are deep and linear ; elytra oblong, rather elon- 
gate, convex, covered with striae, which are much stronger 
near the sutura than towards the margin, which is impressed; 
a strong punctiform impression appears on the interval 
between the second and third striae, considerably beyond 
the middle of the length ; the humeral angles are well 
marked, and the sides of the elytra have sometimes a green 
tinge ; legs, palpi, and antennae black. 

Very common round Melbourne, and also found in New 
South Wales, Queensland, and South Australia. 

This insect is subject to great variations — 

Variety — Of a brilliant green. 

Variety — Small size (7'), and green, from the Islands of 
the Straits of Bass. 

Variety — Elytra more oblong, and rather depressed ; of a 
brilliant copper purple, or green colour. 

From the floods of the Yarra River. 

Variety — Thorax entirely covered with transverse stricta. 

Melbourne. 

Feronia Montana: length 8' ; nearly allied to Bipunctata* 
but the thorax much shorter and broader, with elytra more 



222 Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 

oval, more convex, narrowing considerably in front, and 
with the humeral angles very lightly marked ; the stride are 
strong. 

Mountains of Gipps Land. 

Note. — This insect has something of the appearance of 
Feronia Navarica. 

Feronia Lacustris : length J 0' ; very much like Bipunc- 
tata,hut larger ; of a very brilliant black ; anterior angles of the 
thorax more rounded ; elytra more oval, and generally quite 
smooth to the naked eye ; the punctiform impression on each 
elytra well marked. 

From Lake Alexandrina, on the Lower Murray. 

Seventh Group. — Abax. 

Feronia Boisduvalii : length 6' ; oblong, black ; head 
rather large ; thorax almost square, narrower behind than in 
front ; rounded laterally, with the anterior angles rather 
advanced, and the posterior ones straight ; the front impres- 
sion is hardly perceptible ; the sulcate and posterior impres- 
sions well marked, the latter almost linear ; elytra depressed, 
striated ; three punctiform impressions on the interval 
between the second and third striae ; an abbreviated stria 
near the scutellum, between the first and second strise ; 
margin impressed ; lower side of the body, legs, antennae, 
and palpi brown. 

Picton, New South Wales. 

Feronia Meichei: length 4f ; very much like precedent, 
of which it may be a simple variety, but smaller, and rather 
narrower ; the colour is of a dark brown, with a metallic tinge. 

Kiama, New South Wales. 

Eighth Group. — Steropus. 

Feronia Gerwiari : length 7'-9' ; very much like the Civilis, 
Germar (" Linn. EntomoL"), to which this author has united 
it, as being its feminine sex, but for all my Civilis are 
every one males, I have the two sexes among Gfermari. 

This insect is much larger than Civilis, and the striae of 
the elytra are strongly punctated, except towards the ex- 
tremity and basis, and extend laterally to the margin ; one 
single punctiform impression is seen on the third stria ; the 
elytra are oblong and elongated. 

Common at Adelaide. 

Feronia Saphyreo-marginata : length 7'-9' ; very much 
like Civilis and Oermari, but with margin of the elytra of a 



Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 223 

beautiful blue ; the striae of the elytra are very strongly 
punctated, except towards the extremity; the elytra are oblong. 

Melbourne. 

Feronia Saphyripennis : length 8' ; same form and 
general appearance as the precedent, but the elytra are en- 
tirely of a beautiful purple ; they are strongly striated in all 
their length, and the striae are strongly punctated, except 
behind ; the form of the elytra is oval, with two punctiform 
impressions on each near the third stria. 

Under sea-weeds on the seashore, Adelaide and Melbourne. 
-Feronia Fsmeraldipennis : length 6J' ; head and thorax 
of a dark bronzed colour, the first oval ; thorax almost round, 
a little longer than in the precedent species ; the 
lateral margin becoming very broad behind, as in those ; the 
impressions moderate ; elytra covered with strong strife, ex- 
tending to all the length of the insect, and being punctated 
in their first two thirds; they have each two punctiform im- 
pressions on the third stria, and their colour is of a fine 
brilliant metallic green ; lower side of the body and legs of 
a dark brown ; antennae and palpi of a lighter colour. 

Adelaide, very rare. 

Feronia Olivieri : length ' ; very much like Germari, 
but the elytra much more oval and rounded ; the striae ex- 
tending in full depth to the basies, and to the extremity. 

Adelaide and Melbourne. 

Feronia Bonvouloirei : length 7f ' ; very nearly allied to 
Germari, but smaller ; elytra elongated, and much narrower 
in front ; their broader part being towards the two posterior 
thirds of the length ; the humeral angles more prominent ; 
the stria? not generally so deep. 

Brisbane, Queensland. 

Feronia Rockhamptoniensis : length 8' ; general form 
rather broad ; of an obscure black ; thorax transverse, 
rounded, with the impressions feeble, except the two poste- 
rior ones ; elytra oval, rather broad and depressed with 
striae, which appear punctated under a magnifying power, 
and which extend on the entire length of the elytra, but 
grow weaker towards the sides ; a punctiform impression on 
the posterior part of the interval between the second and 
third striae, and a series of the same on the margin ; lower 
side of the body and legs more brilliant ; tarsi and extremity 
of the palpi brown ; antennae black, but covered after their 
first four articles with a brown pubescence. 

Rockhampton, Queensland. 



224 Notes on Australian Coleoptera. 

Feronia Waterhousii : length 4 J' ; brown, head very 
feebly impressed between the eyes ; thorax rounded, rather 
longer than broad ; the front impression not visible, and the 
sulcate feeble, but the two posterior impressions broad and 
deep ; elytra oval, oblong, very much rounded at the humeral 
angles, entirely and equally covered with single striae, not 
very deeply marked ; on the back part of the interval be- 
tween the second and third stria? is a punctiform impres- 
sion, and a series of others extend laterally on the ninth 
stria ; lower side of the thorax and legs of a light red, 
abdomen darker ; palpi and antennas of a light reddish colour. 

Adelaide. 

Feronia Elegantula : length 4' ; very much like Water- 
housii, but of a still more slender and elegant form ; thorax 
much narrower behind ; elytra more elongated and oval ; 
three punctiform impressions on the interval between 
second and third striae. 

Found by Mr. Masters at King George's Sound. 

Feronia Master mi : length 3 J'— 4 J' ; also very much like 
Waterhousii, and having the same form of thorax, but elytra 
much more elongated and deeply striated ; three punctiform 
impressions in the interval between the second and third 
striae ; margin strongly impressed ; lower side of the body 
and legs of a dark brown ; thighs almost black ; antennae 
and palpi of a light reddish brown. 

Found by Mr. Masters at Port Lincoln. 

Feronia Blagravii : length 5' ; oval, elongated, of a dark 
glossy brown ; head oval ; mandibular advanced and arched ; 
thorax as long as broad, of the same breadth in front as 
behind ; very rounded laterally, with the margin growing 
much broader on its posterior part ; the front impression and 
the sulcate are feeble, but the posterior impressions are deep 
and elongate ; elytra oval, rather elongated, striated ; a very 
short abbreviated stria near the scutellum, and in that 
place the sutural one diverges obliquely ; three punctiform 
impressions on the interval between the second and third 
striae ; the margin impressed ; lower side of the body, legs, 
parts of the mouth and antennae of a dark brownish red. 

Swan River, 

Ninth Group. — argutor. 

Two species of this division have been described. 
Feronia AustraUs (Dej. species), and Argutor Sollicitus 
("Erich. Archiv"). 



Notes on a New Victorian Gem. 225 

The following sort appears new : — 

Feronia Inedita : length 4' ; of a brilliant black, elytra of 
a dark blue ; head rather triangular, with two impressions 
between the eyes ; thorax short, transverse, rather cordi- 
form, with a transverse impression in front and another be- 
hind; a rather deep longitudinal sulcate in the middle ; behind, 
there are two rather deep and broad impressions, and two 
others smaller towards the angles ; elytra oval, strongly 
striated ; the sutural stria diverging towards the scutellum, 
but no abbreviated one ; two punctiform impressions on 
the interval between the second and third strias ; one 
situated a little after the middle of the length, and the other 
backwards ; near the apex, in the place where the strise 
unite, there is also a broad and rounded impression ; the 
margin impressed ; thighs brown ; legs, tarsi, palpi, and an- 
tennae of a light brownish red. 

Pine Mountains of Queensland. 

Note.-— The general form of this insect is very much like 
the one of Sollicitus. 

A large number of other sorts of Argutor inhabit Aus- 
tralia. I postpone their study to my next publication 
on Australian Carabidce. 



Art. XVI. — Rubellite — Red Tourmaline — found at Tarran- 
gower, Victoria, 1867. By the Rev. J. J. Blbasdale, 
D.D. 

[Read 8th July, 1867.] 

I owe my knowledge of the discovery of this gem-stone 
(new to Yictoria) to the courtesy and kindness of Mr. A. R. C. 
Selwyn, Government Geologist. It was found in Broadford 
Lead, Tarrangower, but by whom, precisely, I do not know. 
We are now acquainted with the mineral Tourmaline, under 
the following generally known names, viz. : — 

1. Common School : a black, hard substance, found fre- 
quently and abundantly in quartz rocks about the gold- 
fields. 

2. Transparent Green Tourmaline : discovered by myself 
in granite rubbish, not far from Benalla. This consisted of 
three specimens. One, the largest, about an inch long and 
a quarter-inch in diameter, and of the colour known as dark 
bottle green. The other two were smaller and of a paler 



226 Notes on a New Victorian Gem. 

colour, which, however, might be, perhaps, accounted for by 
their being comparatively shorter and less thick. None of 
them had any terminal planes of crystalline structure — these 
having been broken off. This stone, when of a reasonably 
pale green, is a gem-stone by no means to be despised. The 
cut specimen which lies on the table is evidence of what I 
am saying. 

3. Transparent Red Tourmaline, or Rubellite : found in 
that district whence so many fine gem-stones have come, 
especially blue topazes, and in which it is a wonder that 
hitherto no diamonds have been discovered. 

The half-dozen specimens which I am able to lay before 
you to-night — all embedded in transparent quartz-crystals — 
are small, it is true, but very interesting ; for they indisput- 
ably demonstrate the presence of stone in our mines, and 
leave us but little reason to fear that where they came from 
originally, there were plenty more. 

This particular substance when transparent, I mean 
Rubellite, has a value in the scientific world far beyond its 
appreciation as an ornament. It has a most rare and im- 
portant use in relation to light. Some of the very best of 
our polariscopes are formed of two thin transparent polished 
plates of it — the thinner the better, so that they are barely 
thick enough to polarize. And they possess this advantage, 
at any rate, over Nicols' prisms of Iceland spar, that they 
do not occupy much room upon the instrument, and can be 
often used upon instruments to which it would be difficult 
to apply the prism. I used them for years and never had 
reason to be dissatisfied ; and if I were going to resume 
microscopic investigation I would adopt them again. 

As a gem, it is of great beauty when its red colour is per- 
fect, the crystal free from blemishes or feathers, and of a fair 
size, say from three carats upwards, and would command a 
good price : perhaps not much less than the Balais Ruby. 

With reference to the actual determination and identifica- 
tion of these specimens of Rubellite, I have not personally 
examined them ; but, I believe, a member of the Council, 
Mr. Newberry, the scientific chemist to the Department of 
Mines, has, and has been satisfied. From so much as I can 
judge from the angles of the crystals shown, and the striation 
well marked on the specimen in the darkest piece of quartz, 
I feel no doubt about the matter. 

Were I tempted to speculate on a matter of gem-stones, 
and the conditions under which they are sometimes found, 



Notes on a New Victorian Gem. 227 

and the mistakes even the very best judges were liable to 
make before the establishment of the science of analytical 
chemistry, I would begin by citing the most extensive and 
intelligent traveller, and even to this day one of the best 
authorities on all that appertains to gems— Tavernier. He 
lived about two centuries ago, or a little more, and was a 
most successful trader in gems, having made a huge fortune 
in that occupation. Yet he mistook some red stone, found in 
agate-balls and quartz-crystals, for the real Oriental ruby. 
A short extract will suffice to show this abundantly. He 
says : — 

"In Bohemia there are mines that produce pebbles of 
various sizes, some as large as eggs, others as large as one's 
fist. When broken, some of these are found to contain rubies 
as hard and fine as those of Pegu. I remember being one 
day at Prague, with the Viceroy of Hungary, in whose service 
I then was, when he and General Wallenstein, Duke of 
Friedland, were washing their hands before sitting down to 
dinner. The Viceroy noticed and greatly praised the beauty 
of a ruby the General wore in a ring, but his admiration 
was increased when he was told that the mine whence it 
came was in Bohemia. When the Viceroy departed, the 
Duke presented him with a basket containing a hundred of 
the pebbles. On his arrival home the Viceroy had the stones 
broken, but out of the hundred only two were found to 
contain a ruby : one, a large gem weighing five carats ; the 
other, a ruby of one carat." — Travels. 

There has been a good deal of conjecture as to the par- 
ticular stone which is here described by him. Some have 
thought it must have been a garnet, and certainly some of 
the Bohemian ones are very fine ; but it is quite out of the 
question that he could have been deceived if he had seen 
one by candle light, for that stone blackens much in artificial 
light. 

It might have been, perhaps, a zircon, or hyacinth ; but 
then nearly all of them have characters very distinctive from 
the grand ruby red, the anthrax live coal of the ancients. 

If I were disposed to speculate, as I said, I would go in for 
a fine specimen of the Red Tourmaline, whether cut or uncut, 
as being the most likely to have imposed itself on the 
venerable gem-trader for the true Oriental ruby. 



228 On Mineral Veins. 



Art. XVII. — On the Formation of Mineral Veins and the 
Deposit of Metallic Ores and Metals in them. By 
Mr. H. A. Thompson. 

[Read 12th August, 1867.] 

For the purpose of this paper mineral veins may be 
divided into two classes — those more or less vertical, found 
in all metalliferous strata ; and the flat or horizontal veins, 
most distinct and regular in the carboniferous limestone, 
but also occasionally found in the diorite dykes traversing 
the schistose rocks, or in these rocks themselves. The 
bounding walls of mineral veins are usually well defined, 
but not universally so, there being some irregularity in this 
respect ; and the veins vary from a mere thread up to 50, 
60, or even 100 feet in width. In some cases the space 
between the walls of the vein is filled up with solid mate- 
rials — quartz in the silurian rocks, and carbonate of lime and 
sulphate of baryta in the carboniferous limestones ; in 
others a portion of the space is occupied by slate, clay, or 
earthy matter. The ores of the different metals are found 
mixed with these substances, sometimes in masses without 
any perceptible order, at others in layers parallel to the 
sides of the vein, and also in the cleavage planes and 
fissures or joints of the adjoining rock. Veins are in some 
cases continuous for many miles in length, and have been 
worked to over two thousand feet in depth without giving 
any sign of closing ; in others they are limited both in 
length and depth. Some veins retain a regular width over 
large areas, others open out into bunches, and then contract 
into mere joints at irregular intervals. 

With such a diversity of conditions it is not surprising to 
find that there has been an equal diversity of opinion as to 
the mode in which these veins have been formed ; but the 
theory now generally supported is, that they have been 
faults caused by some disruptive force — the fissures thus 
opened having been afterwards filled up with the minerals 
now constituting the vein. Acting on this theory, the veins 
of different districts Jiave been classed in series in accordance 
with their presumed relative age, the latter being fixed by 
means of the dislocations which occur at their intersections 
with each other. 



On Mineral Veins. 



229 




One object of this paper is to show that, both as regards 
the formation of the veins and their relative age, these con- 
clusions have been too hastily drawn. 

As regards the relative age of veins it has been held 
that of two veins crossing each 
other, where one is unbroken 
(a Fig. 1) and the other faulted 
(6 Fig. 1), the unbroken vein indi- 
cates the latest fracture, and that 
the faulted vein has been dislocated 
by the sliding of the sides of that 
fracture. But this evidence of the 
relative age is not conclusive, be- 
cause the faulting of the vein b 
may not arise from the sliding of 
the sides of the fissure a, but from 
a being the oldest vein, and there- 
fore interrupting the action of the 
force which has formed the vein b, thus causing an apparent 
dislocation, when the deduction as to age will have to be 
reversed, and a must be considered as the oldest, not the 
latest fracture. 

Cases are frequently met with where several parallel 
veins are faulted in crossing a con- 
tinuous or unbroken vein ; and 
the respective distances of the 
parallel veins from each other 
should correspond on each side 
of the unbroken vein if the 
faulting of these veins was owing 
to a dislocation caused by the 
sliding of the sides of the un- 
broken vein. But instances are 
common where this could not be 
the case. For example, Fig. 2 is 
a plan or horizontal section of the 
intersection of several mineral J" 
veins (b, c, d, e, f), with an un- 
broken vein a, where each of 
these mineral veins reforms at 
different distances from the origi- 
nal line of bearing ; and it would be impossible to account 
for the faulting by the sliding of the sides of the cross vein a. 
Fig. 2, Hanson Mear mine. 




230 



On Mineral Veins. 



Fig. 



A like section is shown in Fig. 3, 
where a mineral vein b comes up to 
the unbroken cross vein a in one 
branch, and at one hundred and 
fifty feet to the north, passes off 
in three branches. 

Where the shifting or faulting of 
the vein is due to the sliding of the 
sides of the vein crossed, the faulted 
vein will be found to curve back to 
the old line of bearing, as shown in 
Fig. 4, where the cross vein a ap- 
pears to have been faulted a dis- 
tance of eighty feet by the sliding 
of the sides of the mineral vein b. 

In the examples (Figs. 2, 
and 3) the unbroken veins or 
joints have been in existence 
before the mineral veins were 
aggregated, and the continuous 
line of the latter having been 
interrupted by the unbroken 
vein or fracture, they have 
formed on joints at some dis- 
tance from the original line of 
bearing. These are not soli- 
tary instances of the apparently 
faulted joints being of more re- 
cent formation than the unbroken joints. 

One extensive mining district in Yorkshire is traversed 
by a strong east and west vein, having a vertical throw or 
fault in some places of two hundred and forty feet, and 
which has been traced over thirty miles in length. This 
vein is not ore bearing, but at irregular intervals it has 
several series of veins striking off from it on each side, and 
bearing a few degrees more to the north, which are the 
mineral veins of the district ; and in none of the instances 
coming under my notice did the veins on one side of the 
cross vein correspond with those on the other in their 
relative distance from each other, although each series was 
evidently the same line of mineral veins. 

Whatever conclusions may be arrived at on this subject, 




Fig, 



Fig. 3, Rampgill mine. 
4, Scaleburn mine, Foster's sections. 



On Mineral Veins. 231 

it should be remembered that they will not decide the com- 
parative age of the mineral deposits in the veins, but only 
that of the joints on which the veins have been formed, for 
it is possible that these joints may have been in existence 
for unknown ages before they were converted into veins by 
the aggregation of the minerals on the lines of fracture. 

The principal evidence against the theory, that veins are 
formed on the fissures caused by faults, and that these fissures 
have either been opened at once, or by successive stages, 
marking different epochs of disruption, and remained open 
until the material now filling the fissure was deposited, 
will be found in the veins themselves, for few cases can be 
produced where such a mode of formation is possible. 

Mineral veins generally penetrate to a great depth, and 
that not vertically, but with a greater or less underlay 
through strata of varying character. Under these conditions 
it is difficult to see how a fissure a few feet wide, from one 
to two thousand feet in depth, and extending for several 
miles, could remain open for the hundreds, or perhaps 
thousands, of years that would be required to fill it by the 
slow process of deposition from water circulating in the 
fissure, and holding in solution the minerals now consti- 
tuting the vein. 

Even in hard rocks, and with only a small area open at 
one time, the greatest difficulty the miner has to contend 
with, is the keeping of the fissure from closing, by means 
of timber or stone- work, until the contents of the vein can 
be taken out ; and all who have had practical experience in 
working mines will be aware that it is absolutely impossible 
for the above theory to be correct. 

The pressure on the sides of the vein increases rapidly 
with the depth ; and in many of the softer silurian rocks, 
where the smallest fissure would not remain open, we have 
large mineral veins. Take, for instance, the Old Man vein 
at Clunes, which is some five or six feet wide at the surface, 
but in going down swells out to one hundred and twenty 
feet wide, and then contracts again, or rather breaks up, at 
a greater depth. Many cases of a similar kind will be found 
in the quartz mines of Sandhurst, Maldon, and other parts 
of the colony, where the veins occasionally open out and 
form large bunches of quartz. Yet we are asked to believe 
that such huge cavities have remained open during the long 
period of time required to fill them. 

Still greater is the difficulty of accounting on this theory 



232 



On Mineral Veins. 



for the formation of the mineral veins in the diorite dykes 
found in the schistose rocks. Take, for example, the 
Morning Star Hill, at Wood's Point, of which Fig. 5 is a 
cross section. 




Ftg. 5. 

The dyke underlays to the west, and is traversed by a 
series of auriferous quartz veins more or less horizontal, 
situate one below the other, and having no connection with 
each other. Portions of the dyke are frequently enclosed 
within the vein, similar in character to the riders in vertical 
veins. These parallel flat veins could not have been a series 
of open fissures, unless the portions of the dyke between 
them had been suspended by the pressure of the schist on 
each side — a manifestly absurd supposition. 

The open fissure theory might have been tenable as regards 
some veins, so long as it was held that the contents of these 
veins had been of igneous origin, for the minerals forced into 
the fissure in a molten state might have kept it open, as in 
the case of trap dykes ; but when the igneous theory has 
been abandoned, it is inconceivable how geologists can cling 
to a supposition so opposed to all experience. It may 
be urged that when the veins were formed the rocks 
might have been in such a hard and compact state as 



On Mineral Veins. 



233 



to allow these fissures to remain open. There is no evidence, 
however, to support such an assumption, and all analogy- 
would lead to the contrary belief. But even supposing 
that the rocks had at some time been so hard as to allow 
of open fissures, penetrating to a great depth, this theory 
will not account for the formation of the small detached leads 
and bunches of quartz found scattered throughout the silurian 
rocks wherever these rocks have been much decomposed, nor 
for the shallow gash or wedge-shaped veins which do not 
penetrate far from the surface. In these cases there could 
be no circulation of currents of water, for the quartz leads 
only extend a few feet, and the gash veins are closed before 
they reach the deep source from whence the contents of the 
veins are, it is assumed, derived. 

The conditions under which riders (i.e. detached masses of 
the bounding rocks enclosed in the vein) occur in veins are 
also incompatible with the open fissure theory. Fig. 6 is a 




section of a lead vein in the limestone rock, where the dark 

lines represent the ore in the vein, and in the strings or 

joints, e e e, connected with it. It will be seen that the 

Fig. 6.— Vertical Section. 



234 On Mineral Veins. 

rider a appears to have been separated from the wall of the 
vein by the gradual filling and expansion of a joint at 6. 
At c d is shown a similar joint filled with ore, where, if the 
deposition of minerals continued, the vein would form along 
the joint c d, and the enclosed block would be converted 
into a rider. Sometimes these riders remain in situ, in 
other cases they have been lowered for some distance, pro- 
bably through the decomposition and removal of the consti- 
tuents of the vein on which they had rested. The riders in 
flat veins present much the same appearance as those in the 
vertical veins, and have evidently originated in the same 
way. 

To recapitulate. We have opposed to the theory that 
mineral veins have been open fissures caused by some dis- 
ruptive force, either acting at once or by a succession of 
movements, and filled by the gradual deposit of minerals 
brought from below in currents of water circulating in the 
open fissures. 

1st. The impossibility of any fissure remaining open, even 
to the smallest extent, in most of the rocks traversed by 
vertical or horizontal veins. 

2nd. The fact that this theory will not account for the 
filling of the wedge-shaped veins, nor for the formation of 
the surface bunches and the detached leads or strings of 
quartz. 

3rd. The phenomena attending the occurrence of riders 
both in flat and vertical veins. 

In support of this theory instances have been adduced, 
where the deposit of minerals assumes the form of corres- 
ponding parallel layers on each side of a vertical central rib. 
But it should be noted that this is not the ordinary arrange- 
ment of the minerals in the vein — in fact, it is an appearance 
rarely met with, and then only in hard rocks, and extending 
over limited portions of the vein. The ordinary flat veins 
in limestone rocks may in some instances have been open 
cavities, or it would be more correct to say, that open cavities 
may have existed in some portions of these veins previous 
to th e deposition of the ores ; and similar small cavities may 
occur in vertical veins traversing hard rocks, but these are 
exceptional cases, and their occurrence on this small scale 
does not remove the impossibility of whole mineral veins 
being formed in this way. 

On the other hand, nearly all the facts observed point to 






On Mineral Veins. 235 

the gradual formation of the veins by the same law of 
replacement atom by atom, which causes a tendency in the 
constituents of some rocks to aggregate in bands or round 
some centre — a law still obscure, but the existence of which 
is now generally acknowledged. The forming of the vein 
fissures and the deposit of minerals in them appear to have 
been simultaneous operations. 

It will also be found that the majority of mineral veins 
are not formed on faults, but either on the cleavage or divi- 
sional planes. 

All rocks, however elevated they may be above the water 
level of the country, are more or less porous, and hold a large 
per centage of water. 

The most compact marbles known will hold -^ part, and 
ordinary limestones | part of their weight of water, while 
Bath stone will take up one gallon, and chalk two gallons 
per cubic foot. Mr. S. T. Hunt has carried out a series of 
experiments to ascertain the amount of water that can be 
absorbed by the paleozoic rocks of Canada. He found that 
the limestones and sandstones would take up from 1 to 13 
per cent., and the shales from 75 to 7*94 per cent, of their 
weight of water. A bed of rock absorbing only 25 per cent., 
and one hundred feet thick, would contain 70,000,000 cubic 
feet of water in a square mile of area,, a quantity sufficient 
to supply seven gallons per minute for over thirteen years. 

This water is never pure, for it invariably holds different 
mineral substances in solution in greater or less quantity, 
which must excite slow electro-chemical action, intensified 
by the magnetic currents constantly circulating in the crust 
of the earth. However unchangeable the rocks may appear 
to our limited experience, it is certain that these forces acting 
during long ages have caused, and are now slowly causing, 
great changes. Consolidation of the particles of the rocks, 
alterations of their crystalline structure, aggregation of their 
constituents into nodules or bands, decomposition under a 
change of conditions of the bodies previously formed, are all 
forces which have been in operation from the time when the 
rocks were first deposited, and are now probably as active 
as ever. The views as to the great change thus produced in 
the structure of rocks are constantly being extended. Nearly 
thirty years ago the late Mr. Evan Hopkins called attention 
to instances of the gradual change of granite to gniess, and 
gniess to mica-schist ; and from these drew the conclusion 

r 2 



236 On Mineral Veins, 

that the gniess and schistose rocks were merely changed 
granites. 

The presence of organic remains in the schistose rocks 
indicated that this could not be the case, but the investiga- 
tions of the English Geological Survey have shown that the 
observations of Mr. Hopkins were correct, although the con- 
clusions he drew from them will have to be reversed. 

The opinion that granite is only a changed form of the 
schistose rocks is daily becoming more general among prac- 
tical geologists. Messrs. Hicks and Salter, in a report on 
the geology of St. David's, Pembrokeshire, read at the last 
meeting of the British Association (1866), state " that the 
Harlech group has a passage downwards into the central 
syenitic mass, so distinct and gradual as to induce the belief 
that that mass is throughout no other than altered Cam- 
brian." Professor Hitchcock also describes an extensive bed 
of partially metamorphosed conglomerates where the quartz 
pebbles had been elongated, and in some cases had assumed 
a laminated structure, the elongation and lamination being 
in a meridional direction 

Whether such is the origin of the granites or not, it must 
still be allowed that the slow and gradual changes at 
present in operation which, in the long course of ages have 
produced the great alterations in the physical geography 
of the earth's surface now observed, may have produced 
a like change in the rocks themselves, and unless we 
give due weight to the accumulative action of these small 
changes (i.e. small in a limited space of time), little progress 
will be made in explaining the phenomena attending the 
formation of mineral veins. 

The silurian and other rocks, besides the planes of deposi- 
tion, commonly called bedding or sedimentary planes, are 
traversed by vertical cleavage planes, and these are again 
crossed by joints or divisional planes at different angles, 
which penetrate to a great depth. The ordinary rock-joints 
are usually confined to the bed in which they occur ; it is 
not these, however, that we have to consider, but only the 
large master-joints of a district which traverse all the beds. 
Although the direction of these divisional planes is variable, 
yet series of them running on parallel lines are found in 
sufficient numbers to show that they owe their origin to 
some general cause. I have seen large areas of flat lime- 
stone-rocks on the shores of Northumberland, where the 
divisional planes crossed each other with such regularity 



On Mineral Veins. 237 

as to present the appearance of a gigantic tesselated pave- 
ment. 

Mr. Hopkins has tried to demonstrate mathematically that 
a series of joints would be formed parallel to an axis of 
elevation, along with a second series crossing the first at 
right angles ; but this theory must be put to the test of a 
searching comparison with the observed phenomena in 
numerous instances before it could be accepted as the true 
explanation, and this has not yet been done. In the case of 
the partially-metamorphosed conglomerates described by 
Professor Hitchcock, the bed was crossed by east and west 
joints or divisional planes, cutting smoothly through the 
pebbles ; these planes having in some places polished 
faces, although the cut pebbles on each side of the joints 
exactly corresponded, showing that there had been no slip. 
He considered mechanical agency could not possibly 
account for these phenomena, and that we are driven to 
the supposition that some polarising force has been the 
agent. 

It is indeed difficult to conceive how these regular series 
of parallel joints or divisional planes could be produced 
by disruptive forces acting from below, and so far as 
the cleavage planes are concerned, the prevailing opinion 
is that they have been caused by polar forces originating 
with the magnetic currents traversing the earth. It is true 
that laminations similar to cleavage planes may be produced 
by lateral pressure ; but this will not account for the con- 
stant meridional direction of these planes, and has no bearing 
on the formation of divisional planes. 

Mr. Fox's investigations into this subject are well known, 
and the repetition of one of them by Mr. Hunt of the School 
of Mines, Jermyn-street, appears to bear so exactly upon 
the question, that it may be well to briefly describe it. The 
apparatus used was an oblong box or trough, and the 
material operated on was Stourbridge clay, plaster-of-paris, 
bath-brick, sandstone, and powdered coal. The trough in 
this experiment was divided into two compartments by a 
wall of clay three to four inches thick, and on one side of 
this wall was placed a plate of copper, on the other a plate 
of zinc ; the two plates being connected together by a strip 
of copper. The cells were then filled with the exciting fluids, 
that on the copper side being a weak solution of sulphate 
of copper, and on the zinc side of the muriate of soda. A 
complete circuit was thus formed, the current passing from 



238 On Mineral Veins. 

the zinc plate along the strip of copper to the copper plate, 
and from the latter through the wall of clay to the zinc 
plate. The action was kept up for six months by daily 
additions to the solutions, when the clay wall was examined 
and found to have assumed the conditions described by Mr. 
Fox. On the side next the zinc plate, the clay was tra- 
versed by distinct lines of cleavage parallel to the sides of 
the clay wall. On the copper side, instead of the vertical 
laminated structure, there was a consolidation of the mass ; 
this consolidation appearing to take place in the direction of 
the current ; the induration in many places being very 
striking, and the fluid and clay were considerably elevated 
on that side. This action produced a hollow in the centre 
of the mass, and a series of curved lines proceeding from the 
top of the zinc plate towards the centre of the copper plate, 
and from thence back towards the bottom of the zinc 
plate. As these curved lines approached the zinc side, they 
were crossed and split by the vertical laminations, although 
very distinctly continued. A dark band was formed on the 
curved lines, and in this near the copper plate laminae of 
copper were found, while at a greater distance from the plate 
the metallic copper in the laminae was replaced by carbonates 
of copper and zinc. A number of nodules were also formed 
on the lines of the magnetic currents. 

This experiment indicates that two forces or lines of power 
were in operation ; one of them producing cleavage lamina- 
tions similar in character to those traversing the schistose 
rocks, the other exerting a drawing action towards the 
copper plate ; elevating the clay on that side and leaving a 
cavity in the centre. At the same time a molecular change 
of structure was going on, as indicated by the formation of 
nodules in the clay ; and not only were the metals employed 
removed and deposited in the laminations of the clay, but 
by the same agent the ores of these metals had been formed 
and deposited on the laminations under the same conditions 
as they are found in mineral veins. 

If on this small scale, and in such a comparatively short 
period of time, these effects can be produced, it is easy to 
conceive how powerful may be the action of magnetic currents 
circulating in the crust of the earth — how readily the pheno- 
mena we now observe may be produced by them — and how 
varied these phenomena may become through the disturbing 
influence of peculiar local conditions. It is probable that here 
we have the principal agent in the formation of the cleavage 



On Mineral Veins. 239 

and divisional planes, and not unlikely that the magnetic 
tension may have at least assisted in the opening of vein- 
fissures in the harder rocks. 

I have met with one instance where the rock on the north 
side of the vein presented a singular appearance, which 
might arise from this cause. At the Beldi hill mine — an 
east and west vein in the mountain limestone formation — 
a drive was taken into the north wall in the twelve fathom 
lime ; on the wall of the vein the rock was hard and diffi- 
cult to work, with a peculiar knotted appearance as if it had 
been compressed by some enormous force, and the drive was 
carried several fathoms before the limestone resumed its 
usual character. A lower drive was carried in the same 
direction in the plate or shale beds underneath the lime- 
stone. These beds are nearly horizontal, and the sedimentary 
planes correspond ; but on the north wall of the vein there 
was a vertical cleavage which had nearly obliterated the 
sedimentary planes, and as in the limestone drive above, 
the bed only attained its ordinary character at some distance 
from the vein. The compression of the sedimentary beds in 
the schistose rocks when these beds are at right angles to 
the cleavage may possibly arise from the same cause. In 
numerous cases, however, the conditions point more to the 
gradual replacement of the rock by the constituents of the 
vein, and the force of tension could only have acted as an 
auxiliary. For instance, a mineral like quartz distributed 
through a mass of alumina, as it is found in the schistose 
rocks, has a tendency to segregate itself from the clay and 
accumulate on certain lines or points, where it will replace 
the previously existing rock atom by atom by an action 
similar to that by means of which pseudomorphic crystals 
are formed. An interesting experiment bearing on this 
point is described by Becquerel : — A plate of steel was en- 
closed in a case communicating through a fissure at one end 
with a weak solution of nitrate of silver — kept at the same 
level by occasional additions to the solution — and left in this 
state for eight years. At the end of that time it was found 
that one half of the steel plate was changed into very pure 
silver, the volume of silver being the same as that of the 
steel removed. 

After a careful analysis of the observed facts I have come 
to the conclusion that mineral veins have not been open 
fissures caused by faults in the sense usually understood, 
but that they have formed gradually on the existing joints, 



240 On Mineral Veins. 

irrespective of whether these joints were cleavage planes, 
divisional planes, or true faults. 

The lower Silurians of this colony are highly metamor- 
phosed rocks, exhibiting the marked cleavage which usually 
attends the change from a compact crystalline structure to 
a comparatively soft state, and in these rocks the quartz 
veins have generally formed on the cleavage planes ; but in 
the rare instances where they have formed on the divisional 
planes, they have usually been exceedingly productive. 

In the upper silurians, where the cleavage is imperfect and 
when present seldom extends over large areas, the veins 
generally form on the divisional planes, or on some fault or 
dyke. In consequence they are, as compared with the veins 
of the lower silurians, more apt to form rich deposits of sur- 
face quartz, which are soon exhausted, as they are not con- 
tinuous either in length or depth. Wherever they are 
of a more permanent character, it will be found that a 
change has occurred in the rocks bounding the vein similar 
to that observed in the lower silurians. 

Where these upper silurians are traversed by thin diorite 
dykes, the auriferous quartz veins usually form on the side 
of the dyke, in the same manner as the lead ore veins have 
formed on the side of the trap dykes in the island of May. 

In the wide diorite dykes the quartz veins frequently tra- 
verse the dyke itself, either as flat or highly inclined veins, 
or as irregular leads of quartz. 

The next point to be considered is the mode in which the 
contents of the veins have been deposited, and the source 
from whence they have been derived : — 

In discussing this question occasional reference will be 
made to the phenomena observed in the veins of the car- 
boniferous or mountain limestone of the north of England. 
This formation consists of a series of nearly horizontal alter- 
nating beds of shales, sandstones, and. limestones, and in the 
Derbyshire mining field, of alternate beds of limestone and 
basalt. In some of the limestones flat veins are formed, but 
generally the veins are nearly vertical, and thus afford an 
excellent opportunity for studying their changes of character 
as they traverse and are affected by the different beds of 
rock. Had more attention been given to the veins of this 
formation, a clue would have been obtained to the pheno- 
mena attending veins in the silurian rocks, and correct views 
would have been sooner promulgated as to the agents 
employed in collecting our metallic treasures. 



On Mineral Veins. 241 

For some time the question as to whether the 'contents of 
veins were of igneous or aqueous origin created much dis- 
cussion. This may now be considered as set at rest, the 
presence of undoubted aqueous deposits in veins in large 
proportions rendering it more than probable that aJl the 
contents are of this character. For example, there can be 
no question but that the quartz found in the veins of this 
colony is of aqueous origin. Bischof in the first instance, 
and Dr. Percy since, point out that although quartz may be 
formed artificially both by igneous and aqueous means, yet 
there is a difference in the specific gravity of the two 
minerals thus obtained, that of the igneous quartz being 2 1 
to 23, of the aqueous quartz 2*5 to 2 '6. 

The quartz met with both in mineral veins and in tne 
granites has the specific gravity of aqueous quartz, and may 
therefore be safely considered as having been formed by 
aqueous action, and not by fire. This view is further sup- 
ported by the conditions attending these deposits, for on 
no other hypothesis yet advanced is it possible to account for 
the cases frequently met with of a change from pure quartz 
to quartz-rock, sandstone, and slate, so gradual as to render 
it impossible to draw a boundary-line between the different 
deposits, or for the surface veins and detached strings or 
leads of quartz, which are found throughout the lower Silu- 
rian rocks, and have no connection with any fissure or 
opening through which the molten quartz could have been 
injected. 

Change is no doubt going on in mineral veins as it is in 
all other deposits, and the contents may have been fre- 
quently removed and replaced, as is indicated by the 
presence of pseudomorphic crystals of different minerals. 
The same agent that collected the minerals in the veins may 
re-arrange them, or even carry them away altogether, and it 
is in this way that cavities have probably been formed in 
the veins traversing the limestones, and where the walls 
were of hard rock, or where they had been left coated with 
solid mineral deposits, so as to allow the cavities to remain 
open, the space may have been filled in with the earthy matter 
and ore now found in some veins, or with the regular crys- 
talline deposits seen in others. During these changes, the 
corresponding vertical parallel ribs of minerals occasionally 
met with in veins may have been formed, and it is even 
possible that veins may have been partially or wholly obli- 
terated. Bischof mentions a case where a previous deposit 



242 On Mineral Veins. 

of flu or and calc spar had been removed from a whole series 
of veins, and replaced by an equal quantity of quartz. 

The deposit of metallic ores and metals in the veins has 
been ascribed to various causes, of which the principal are — 

1st. Injection of the ore or metal into the vein in a molten 
state. 

2nd. Deposition in the veins by the sublimation of sub- 
stances driven by heat from beneath upwards. 

3rd. Deposition of ores from solutions in water, brought 
from below. 

4th. Deposition or rather aggregation in the veins of ores 
or metals derived from the bounding rocks. 

The three first theories are founded on the opinion that 
the metallic ores and metals found in the veins are derived 
from some deposit situate at an unknown depth below the 
surface of the earth. The fourth that they have been derived 
from the rocks bounding or immediately contiguous to the 
vein, and have been aggregated in the latter in the same 
way and by the same power which has collected the other 
mineral constituents of the vein. 

The first supposition assumes that the ores and metals have 
formed a portion of some molten mass, and have been 
injected into the veins. It is hardly necessary to dwell on 
this theory, the conditions under which the sulphides, car- 
bonates and oxides of the different metals are found render- 
ing it impossible that they can have been deposited in a 
melted state, while the peculiar arborescent and crystalline 
form of the native metals in veins — so completely different 
from the rounded figure which melted metals assume— and 
their frequent presence as fine flakes like gilding in the 
cleavage planes of the rock adjoining the veins, afford suffi- 
cient proof that they have not been deposited in this 
state. 

The second theory is more probable, inasmuch as some of 
the metallic ores can be formed by sublimation — a fact 
proved by their occasional presence in the flues of smelting 
furnaces — yet to render this theory possible it must be 
assumed that molten masses of ore exist in the interior of 
the earth ; or rather, as there are several metals usually 
found in each vein, there must be a corresponding number of 
melted parcels of the different ores, and these must each 
have communication with the vein. But there are many 
productive veins which do not penetrate far from the surface, 
and the flat veins of the diorite dykes and the mountain 



On Mineral Veins. 243 

limestone formation, could not have obtained their ores in 
this way, for there is no passage or communication to 
connect them with the hypothetical deep storehouse. Most 
veins are also saturated with water, the quantity increasing 
with the depth, and it is difficult to see how the sublimed 
ores could penetrate this water for many thousand feet, 
instead of being deposited as soon as it reached the water, 
which we know always is the case in smelting works. 

Again, in the Derbyshire and north of England mining 
fields, where the veins traverse horizontal beds of limestone, 
sandstone, shale, and basalt, if the ores were deposited by 
sublimation, they would be distributed indifferently through- 
out these beds ; but it is found that the veins only carry ore 
while traversing a certain number of these rocks, while in 
the remainder they are invariably barren. In the mines of 
the silurian formation the same phenomena may be observed. 
A change in the character of the bounding rocks usually 
affects the ore-bearing qualities of the vein, and where the 
latter pass from the schist into the granite there is fre- 
quently a change in the metals aggregated, as from copper 
to tin, or the contrary. 

Similar difficulties have to be overcome in endeavouring 
to apply the third theory. As regards the vertical veins it 
has been suggested that the magnetic condition of some of 
the rocks influences the deposition on them of the ores 
brought from below, and held in solution in the water cir- 
culating in the vein. In the mountain limestone the pro- 
ductive character of many of the beds varies within short 
distances, although constant in a certain area, while no 
perceptible difference can be detected in the character of the 
rock. This is not a convincing refutation, for there may be 
a change in the magnetic condition of the rock without any 
visible alteration in its appearance ; but the difficult 
task still remains of accounting on this hypothesis for the 
filling of the flat and wedge-shaped veins, the deposit of 
minerals in the detached strings of quartz, or for the metallic 
ores intimately incorporated with the rocks. In driving- 
levels in the mountain limestone, I have met with small 
cavities in the solid compact rock not connected with any 
fissure or joint, and yet these cavities were filled with galena. 

Copper ores are found disseminated through some of the 
old red sandstone beds in Ireland, and in the so-called copper 
slates of Germany. 

Tin ore is also found so intermixed with the granite 



244 On Mineral Veins. 

as to render it profitable to quarry and crush the surface 
rock in many places. 

The stream tin of this colony, and most of the gold asso- 
ciated with it, appear to have been derived from the decom- 
position of the granites in the neighbourhood of which they 
are found. 

The obstacles enumerated have been felt even by the 
staunchest supporters of the above theories ; and it has been 
suggested that deposition from sublimation, from currents, 
and from the bounding rocks, may have been going on at 
the same time. It is not probable, however, that nature is 
working by several distinct means in filling the veins ; and 
if it is found that the theory of deposition or aggregation 
from the bounding rocks will account for all the phenomena 
observed, and as it is the only theory which will do so, it 
may be safely accepted as the correct explanation of the 
mode in which ores have been deposited. 

No doubt, in localities where powerful volcanic action is 
going on, metallic ores may be deposited from sublimation 
in sufficient quantity to afford cabinet specimens. And the 
veins acting as channels for water holding minerals in solu- 
tion an occasional deposit may occur in this way, or a trans- 
fer of the ore from one part of the vein to another, or even 
to joints or veins adjoining it, may be effected. But a close 
examination of all the phenomena attending the deposits in 
veins leads irresistibly to the conclusion that the great bulk 
of the metallic ores have been derived from the bounding 
rocks. 

In the experiment carried out by Mr. Hunt metallic copper 
and carbonates of copper and zinc were deposited along the 
curved laminations in the clay wall, forming in fact an 
artificial mineral vein. In the same way Mr. Fox obtained 
deposits of peroxide of tin and other ores, and proved that 
long-continued electro-chemical action with weak currents 
is able to overcome strong affinities, decomposing some 
bodies, and forming new combinations. Using the same 
agents, Becquerel has produced crystals of the sulphides of 
tin, copper, lead, and iron, and oxides of copper and zinc ; 
and there can be no reason why the same minerals should 
not be produced by the same agents in the laboratory of 
nature as well as in that of the chemist. 

In nature will be found all the requisite conditions 
operating on a grand scale. Magnetic currents traverse the 
rocks capable of exciting the necessary action, and bearing 



On Mineral Veins. 245 

along with them the various metals — no such thing as dry 
sedimentary rocks exist naturally — for they all contain a 
certain amount of water, which fills up their pores, and 
affords an ample medium for the decomposition and trans- 
port of minerals — a road along which they may travel great 
distances. That this road does not remain unused is proved 
by the recent deposits of ore sometimes found in old mining 
works. 

A marked instance came under my notice at the Tees-side 
mine, where there was an old level driven on the vein in the 
limestone rock, which had not been used for nearly sixty 
years. In one part of this level a crop of carbonate of lead 
was formed, growing out of the old underlay wall of the 
vein in long, delicate, needle-like crystals. Had the growth 
gone on at the same rate, the wall of the vein would have 
been covered with a sheet of carbonate of lead about an inch 
thick in the course of a few hundred years. This is far from 
being a solitary case, as there are few men having much 
experience in practical mining on old fields who could not 
recount similar instances of modern deposits forming in old 
workings. These recent deposits of metallic ores could not 
have been indebted to sublimation for their origin, nor to 
currents of water circulating in the vein fissure, as the water 
had been drained off by the level. It must, therefore, be 
evident that they could only have been derived from the 
rocks bounding the vein. 

Coming to the gold deposits of this colony we have 
modern auriferous pyrites of recent date formed in the gold- 
bearing drifts, and the experiments, particulars of which 
have been communicated to the Society by Messrs. Wilkin- 
son and Newberry, indicate how this has been effected. 

These views, as to the source from whence the ores have 
been derived, receive strong support from most of the 
phenomena presented by mineral veins. 

The veins in the limestone rock are usually accompanied 
by strings (joints filled with ore) passing out of the vein, 
and coming back to it after they have run a greater or less 
distance, (e e, Fig. 6.) Sometimes a portion of the wall 
of the vein is traversed by these joints of ore, set so close 
together as to render it profitable to work ; and the riders 
are frequently of the same character, the ores in some 
instances being intermixed with the compact rock, in others 
collected into a net- work of strings. In the north of England 
the beds in which the veins bear ore are generally separated 



246 On Mineral Veins. 

from each other by long intervals of barren rock, and in 
Derbyshire by thick beds of basalt. 

Many very productive veins are met with which only 
penetrate a short distance from the surface of the earth. 

Flat veins are formed between the layers of limestone beds, 
and are frequently very rich. The galena deposit of Wis- 
consin, in the United States, is of this character ; and in 
many places is so regular as to allow of its being worked in 
the same manner as a coal seam. 

The flat veins of quartz in the diorite dykes do not pene- 
trate to any depth, and are really detached strings of quartz 
having no connection with each other. 

Detached masses of metallic ores are found in the cavities 
formed in hard crystalline rocks, when these cavities are not 
connected with any joint. 

Bands of granite are found impregnated with metallic 
ores, and these ores are also found disseminated in sedi- 
mentary strata. 

Eecent deposits of ore have been formed in old workings, 
where they could only have been derived from the rocks 
bounding the vein. 

It will be seen how impossible it is in some of these cases 
— how improbable it is in others — for the minerals to have 
been derived from some source deep in the earth, and to 
have been brought to the surface and deposited in open fis- 
sures, either by currents of water or by sublimation. 

On the other hand, how readily all the observed facts may 
be accounted for by adopting the theory which derives the 
mineral contents of the veins from the rocks bounding them, 
and assumes these contents to have been deposited on the 
joints or fractures of the rock, which have been enlarged by 
the aggregation of the minerals in them, operating by the 
law of replacement whose action is so marked, and perhaps 
in some instances assisted by the magnetic tension. If a 
steel plate can be removed atom by atom, and each atom be 
replaced by a corresponding atom of silver — a fact estab- 
lished by direct experiment — it will be readily seen that a 
mineral vein may be formed in the same way. 

Further evidence in support of this theory will be dis- 
covered in the fact that productive veins are rarely found in 
hard crystalline rocks, unless a portion of these rocks has 
undergone decomposition. Bischof has noted this, and 
points out that " the removal of the constituents of a rock 
is always preceded by its decomposition, and is facilitated by 



On Mineral Veins. 247 

the advance of the decomposition. Whenever quartz exists 
in lodes, the adjoining rock is more or less converted into 
kaolin, so that we find in the one place what is deficient in 
the other ; and when it is found that the abundance of ore 
in a lode is proportionate to the extent of the decomposition 
of the adjoining rock, this circumstance can only be regarded 
as a consequence of that decomposition." 

This peculiarity may be noted even in the lower silurians 
of the western gold-fields of this colony, greatly changed as 
these all are ; but it is most marked where these rocks are 
hard and crystalline, as in some of our mountain ranges, or 
in the upper silurians ; for in the latter the cleavage (which 
is one indication of this decomposition) is imperfect, and 
only extends over limited areas, and in consequence the 
veins formed in them have a corresponding character. 
When this decomposition has not penetrated far from the 
surface, the veins will soon die out, or become worthless ; 
but when the decomposition sets down to a great depth, the 
veins will do so likewise, and are as likely to bear ore below 
as at the surface. Auriferous veins are only an apparent 
exception to this rule, for although the rock may be rich in 
gold, yet the latter may be prevented from collecting in the 
veins, because a considerable portion of it has already been 
aggregated in the rock, and requires a second decomposition 
to liberate it. Cases may therefore occur where there has 
been a sufficient metamorphosis of the schists to allow of 
large quartz veins being formed at great depths from the 
surface, while the bulk of the gold may still be retained in 
the bounding beds. 

This apparent incongruity may be easily explained : — In 
assisting the decomposition of the rocks and the aggregation 
of its constituents in the veins, water no doubt acts an 
important part, and with the exception of gold, the veins 
are found to be as productive in metals at some distance 
below the water line as they are above that point. But this 
is not always the case with auriferous quartz veins. Gold 
is generally found intimately associated with the sulphides 
of iron, being aggregated along with them, and in auriferous 
strata the iron ore, whether collected in the quartz veins or 
scattered in detached crystals through the rock, is seldom 
found without gold. This intimate association also exists in 
the case of the recent pyrites formed in the auriferous drifts, 
which invariably contain metallic gold incorporated with the 
sulphide of iron. The same affinity may be illustrated by 



248 On Mineral Veins. 

placing a piece of quartz containing iron pyrites in a weak 
solution of chloride of gold, and adding any organic sub- 
stance, when a deposition of gold occurs on the pyrites, but 
none on the quartz. In many places the total amount of this 
ore in the schists is very great, and we can understand what 
a large quantity of gold may be locked up with it.' Still in 
localities where the sulphides of iron are not plentiful, or 
where the decomposition of the rock has been so great as to 
allow a considerable proportion of these auriferous sulphides 
to be removed and aggregated with the quartz, rich gold- 
bearing veins will be found below the water line, irrespec- 
tive of the depth. 

When the sulphides in the rocks are completely decom- 
posed, as they are found above the water line and near the 
surface, the gold thus liberated is then in a condition to be 
acted on by other agents, and it is probable that nearly the 
whole of it has been accumulated in the veins, forming the 
rich surface deposits so frequently met with. The rich 
casing or layer of auriferous slate running by the side of the 
quartz, which is occasionally found above the water line, 
changes below that point into a layer of slate full of aurifer- 
ous pyrites, and an extension of this action to the bounding 
rocks will account for the surface deposits. 

A similar illustration is afforded by the diorite dykes of 
the Wood's Point district. Near the surface these dykes are 
much decomposed, and in this condition the quartz veins 
traversing them have yielded large quantities of gold ; but 
as the rock becomes hard and compact at a greater depth, 
the gold in the veins decreases, indicating that this decompo- 
sition of the bounding rock and consequent liberation of the 
contained gold, was necessary to the aggregation of the 
latter in the quartz veins. The dyke may contain quite as 
large an amount of gold where the quartz veins are worth- 
less as it does where they are rich, but it will require long 
ages to pass over before the necessary changes are effected 
that would render this gold available. 

The question as to the agency by means of which the 
metals were first disseminated through the rocks is not of 
such practical importance to the miner as that of the 
formation of the deposits from whence our mineral wealth 
is directly obtained. Mr. S. T. Hunt, who has carefully 
investigated this matter, expresses an opinion that the metals 
have been brought to the surface in solution, and precipi- 
tated by the agency of organic matter along with the con- 



The Ethics of Opinion. 249 

temporaneous sediments, which gradually consolidate into 
rocks. It is well known that both gold and silver are found 
in sea-water, and under favourable conditions deposits of 
those metals may still be going on in some of the rocks now 
forming at the bottom of the ocean. 

It would be impossible to detail in a paper of this kind 
the number of minute observations made extending over 
many years, and forming a strong chain of evidence leading 
up to the same deductions. I have therefore endeavoured to 
lay before the Eoyal Society an outline of the views I have 
formed on this subject — one of some scientific interest, and of 
great practical importance to this colony — partly with the 
hope of inducing other labourers to enter the field. What- 
ever advance may be made will not be due to investigations 
conducted in the closet only, but it must in a great measure 
depend on the careful and intelligent noting of the facts 
observed by those engaged in practical mining. 

At present these observations only add to individual expe- 
rience, and unfortunately pass away with the individual ; 
but if some system could be adopted for collecting and 
arranging the facts noted by different observers, say some 
plan similar to that by means of which Maury has given 
such an impulse to navigation, I believe an equal impulse 
would be given to our mines, through the greater certainty 
a knowledge of the laws which govern the deposition of 
metals would give to mining enterprise. 

It may even be worthy of consideration whether a section 
of this Society might not be usefully employed in carrying 
out some plan of collecting and arranging the observations 
now lost. 



Art. XVIII. — The Ethics of Opinion and Action, 
By H. K. Rusden. 

[Read 9th September, 1867.] 

Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen of the Royal Society, 

It may be considered that I owe you some apology for 
venturing to ask your attention to a "paper in the form of 
that which I am about to read ; as it is in fact, simply 
a critique upon an* article in Frazer's Magazine. Still though 
only a review, it contains as quotations all the salient por- 
tions of the essay criticised ; and I think that the mode 



250 The Ethics of Opinion. 

which I have adopted of approaching the subject is not 
without some important advantages. It leads at once to a 
fundamental principle in the heart of the question, and 
avoids all those metaphysical labyrinths in which the real points 
at issue are so often lost, and in which the difficulties appear 
all the more colossal, as they are purely imaginary. We all 
know the magnifying properties of the lens of fancy. I will 
only premise that this paper was written without any inten- 
tion of thus producing it ; without indeed any definite pur- 
pose whatsoever ; but when I was hesitating as to its disposal, 
it was suggested to me that it would be desirable to introduce 
some such variety into your proceedings. 

I now proceed to consider the Ethics of Opinion and 
Action ; or how far men are properly liable to praise or 
blame, reward or punishment, for their thoughts or actions. 



THE ETHICS OF OPINION AND ACTION. 

In questions of historical or legal evidence, of mathema- 
tics, of logic, or of any practical science, the final human 
test of truth, is consistency ; of doubtful alternatives, choice 
is invariably determined by their respective degrees of con- 
sistency with what has been previously, in the same way, 
apprehended and accepted as most certain. Keasoning itself 
is nothing but the process by which that which is, is distin- 
guished from that which IS NOT ; and that which is consistent 
with experience, from that which is inconsistent with it. If 
there be an axiom which must be universally regarded as ab- 
solutely certain and impregnable, it is this : that a thing 
cannot be, and not be, at the same time. And simply be- 
cause the one is inconsistent with the other. Of so great 
importance then is consistency. Even such an axiom as that 
quoted would have to give way, were aggregated experience 
at any time in future to furnish preponderating evidence of 
facts with which it would be clearly inconsistent. Of course 
such a revolution in the primitive data upon which human 
knowledge and reasoning are founded, cannot be imagined ; 
and I only propose it to show that even in our most funda- 
mental judgments, consistency is, as I at first stated, our final 
test of truth. 

In matters of opinion, however, it is surprising (or would 
be so but for certain considerations), how far this universal 
criterion is disregarded ; either as inadequate, or as too strin- 
gent, it is often treated as inapplicable. We find among men 



The Ethics of Opinion. 251 

of every degree of ability, many who are accustomed to 
entertain some theoretical opinions which they must fail to 
find consistent with others that they regard as alike incon- 
trovertible, as well as with the principles upon which they 
instinctively act every day of their lives. Of this, of course, they 
are wholly unconscious, having in one way or another, gene- 
rally as children, imbibed certain views as bases of their 
judgments of right and wrong, which in after reasoning they 
assume as uncontested starting points or fixed data, and 
therefore never question ; the}^ shun all investigation of them 
as unnecessary and profitless, and shelve them when circum- 
stances force anomalies upon their notice, as " mysteries,'' 
inexplicable or sacred. 

We find that in practical physical matters, similar pre- 
judices are now and then assailed, and slowly but surely 
exploded, as inconsistent with the facts of progressive scien- 
tific discovery. The difficulty with which new inventions 
and discoveries are adopted, is sufficient proof of the power 
of habit and custom to obstruct the exposure of time- 
honoured delusions. I need only to name Galileo, Harvey, 
Jenner, and George Stephenson, as my witnesses. In such 
cases, however, facts are indeed stubborn things, and though 
the old fallacies die hard, they must succumb. 

With matters of opinion, and especially of moral philoso- 
phy, the case is unfortunately different. For from their 
nature, theoretical errors obtain a stronger and far more 
insidious hold upon the human imagination. They are 
easier of acquisition, and more difficult to extirpate ; for 
in practical life we are rarely brought into a position 
to observe their antagonism to the facts calculated to expose 
them ; and when we are, we are generally so engrossed 
with instinctively getting out of the passing difficulty, that 
we either entirely overlook the discrepancies, or postpone con- 
sideration of them till a more convenient season, which 
seldom arrives. In the hurry of life they are thus neglected 
by many of the thoughtful, as well as by all the thoughtless ; 
for the former frequently live so little in the crowd that they 
meet with few favourable opportunities of checking and cor- 
recting their philosophy, while the latter have no philosophy 
to check. And it is not upon all the thoughtful, nor upon 
all among them who are also busy and observant, but simply 
upon a few of that section of them, who, having the inclina- 
tion and opportunity, are also enabled to secure sufficient 
leisure to prosecute such studies, that all have really to 

s 2 



252 The Ethics oj Opinion. 

depend for progression in abstract opinions. So varied and so 
rare, even among philosophers, are the conditions requisite to 
enable them to become discoverers of truth and exposers of 
error for their generation. 

I confess that I should be fairly liable to the charge of 
presumption were I to pretend to intellectual qualifications 
superior to those of my neighbours for the study of mental 
and moral philosophy ; but when I state that for so much 
aptitude as I may have, I am conscious of deserving no 
credit whatever, I trust that I may stand acquitted of undue 
egotism and impertinence. The principal advantages which 
I conceive myself to possess for such investigations, are, a 
positive defect of memory which few will envy, but by 
which, happily, I am partially relieved from the incubus of 
prejudice ; a profound conviction of the supreme importance 
of the subject, and a determination to pursue consistently 
the principle stated by Mr. John Stuart Mill in his late 
'• Inaugural Address," pp. 32, 33. He there says that we 
learn from the ancient dialecticians, " To question all things ; 
" never to turn away from any difficulty ; to accept no doc- 
" trine either from ourselves or from other people without a 
" rigid scrutiny by negative criticism, letting no fallacy or 
" incoherence, or confusion of thought, slip by unperceived ; 
" above all, to insist upon having the meaning of a word 
" clearly understood before using it, and the meaning of a 
" proposition before assenting to it." I would that I could 
invariably fulfil this rule. 

I consider that the transcendent importance of consistency 
is even greater in thought and opinion, than in physical 
science ; in consequence of our greater liability to imbibe, 
and the far greater difficulty of escaping from fallacies of 
that description ; and having lately stumbled in Frazer's 
Magazine upon some passages which appear to me to be 
wholly inconsistent with the general principles enunciated 
and forcibly illustrated in the same entertaining and instruc- 
tive article, and also to furnish an unusually favourable 
opportunity of exposing their inconsistency and the fallacy 
upon which they appear to me to be based ; I seize the occa- 
sion presented, not only of doing so, but at the same time of 
paying a deserved tribute to the general enlightened 
cosmopolitanism of the author.* 

* See Frazer's Magazine, March 1867, pp. 316 — 329. " Concerning the 
" Treatment of those who differ from us in Opinion." — By " A.K.H.B." 



The Ethics of Opinion. 253 

It is almost needless for me to add to the statement that 
the article is signed " A.H.K.B.,"that it is excellently written ; 
and almost throughout distinguished by a liberality of spirit 
and an acuteness of discrimination, which render the expres- 
sion in it of an opinion, which I conceive exhibits diametri- 
cally opposite characteristics, so much the more astonishing. 
I shall consider myself fortunate if, in animadverting upon it, 
I accomplish three objects which I have in view — to draw 
attention to the admirable lessons interspersed throughout 
the treatise — to show that the illiberal sentiment to which I 
take exception is not involved in, but rather contradicts, the 
general principles advocated by the author ; and what is of 
most importance, to arouse thought and discussion on the 
subject generally. 

It might tend to defeat my first specified intention, were I 
to quote so much from the essay as to satisfy the curiosity of 
those who have not read it, as to more than the general drift 
of the arguments, for the whole of it is well worth the careful 
study of all those who may have the opportunity of reading 
it. I shall therefore only mention how clearly it is shown 
that the spirit of intolerance which prompted burning 
(while burning was possible) those who differed in opinion 
from the burners, is not obsolete, but still animates all those 
who misrepresent, or cut, or even avoid, or PRAY PUBLICLY 
for, or do anything but endeavour to convince those holding 
different opinions. 

" Whenever you try to bully a man out of his opinion 
" instead of reasoning him out of it : whenever you attempt 
" any form or degree of physical or moral intimidation, you 
" are showing that you WOULD burn an opponent if you had 
" the chance, or if you durst." * The illustrations given by 
"A.K.H.B." in verification of this conclusion, should, I think, 
carry conviction even to the most prejudiced mind. What 
advanced large-mindedness is shown in the paragraph 
commencing : 

" It is good for us to see and know people who differ from 
"us in opinion, politically, theologically, ecclesiastically, 
" aesthetically. It is agreat mistake to live always among those 
" who think exactly as you do. You will grow very narrow, very 
" self-sufficient ; you will get a quite foolish idea of your 
" own infallibility and importance. I have known good 

* See Frazer's Magazine, March 1867, pp. 321. "Concerning the Treat- 
ment of those who differ from ns in Opinion." — By A.H.K.B." 



254 The Ethics of Dpi 



imon. 



" men, more than one or two, who would have been much 
" better and more useful had they occasionally met and con- 
" versed with people who did not agree with them." * The 
same spirit of liberality speaks to the conclusion of the essay. 

How much more pleasant it is to bear testimony to the 
merits than to the defects of anyone, but particularly of one 
whom we respect ! But as Iago says, "I am nothing, if not 
critical." The passage to which I wish particularly to advert 
is this (p. 318) : 

" Now, no doubt, to think wrong, is wrong ; and deserves 
"blame. Nobody has a right to form a wrong opinion." 
Now this dictum appears to me calculated to open the door to 
the worst forms of intolerance, and to be opposed to the fun- 
damental principles of moral criticism. Let us examine it 
closely and test it at once, by applying it to an ordinary 
though an extreme case. 

I ask, do you not blame a murderer for murdering, solely 
because you believe that he thought rightly — that to 
murder was - wrong ? And do you not exempt him from 
blame exactly in so far as you believe that he may have 
thought wrongly, that to murder was right ? If a mur- 
derer really think himself right in killing his victim, you 
may call him insane or stupid, but you could not BLAME him 
any more than you would blame the victim were he in self- 
defence to kill his intending murderer ; he, in so doing would 
assuredly think himself right. You blame the murderer, 
distinctly because you assume that he knew better — that he 
thought rightly ; and that he acted in opposition to what 
HE thought was right. You blame him NOT, if you have 
reason to believe that he THOUGHT (wrongly) that to murder 
would be right. For erroneous (i.e., wrong) thought, you not 
only do not blame, but for the same reason you actually also 
forbear to blame for acts, which you would otherwise regard 
as blameable. Thus, if a man's thought and act concur, he 
cannot be a proper object of blame. If he act contrary to 
what he think right (i.e., un conscientiously), he will be as 
justly amenable to evil consequences as if he put his finger 
in the fire. If he act as he think right (i. e., conscientiously), 
you cannot blame him. Consequently, a man cannot pro- 
perly be blamed for what he thinks, nor punished but for 
what he does. Consequently, also, thought must be blame- 

* See Frazer's Magazine, March 1867, pp. 327. " Concerning the Treat- 
ment of those who differ from us in Opinion." By " A.K.H.B," 



The Ethics of Opinion. 255 

less, even if erroneous ; and as the only valid excuse for an 
erroneous thought or act is, that it co-exists with uncon- 
sciousness of error, and is the best or rather absolute result 
of constitution, education, and circumstances united : 
thought must be essentially instinctive in its origin and in- 
evitable, being beyond the option or control of the man ; 
in one word, involuntary. Punishment for evil acts, is 
nevertheless, incontestably justifiable and necessary, as a 
warning to possible offenders and for security to all, whether 
such acts be perpetrated conscientiously or unconscien- 
tiously, whether the thought and act concur with the agent 
or not. 

That no one may misunderstand my use above of the word 
involuntary, I must explain, that though, physiologically, 
motions of which the cerebro-spinal nervous system forms the 
medium, are, generally speaking, contradistinctively called 
voluntary, and those which are produced through the sym- 
pathetic nervous system, involuntary ; still both are actually 
involuntary. The true distinction I conceive to be this : 
The cerebro-spinal system receives peripherally afferent im- 
pressions, which cause, or are at the nervous centre converted 
into, corresponding efferent expressions or motions, as neces- 
sary, and strictly speaking, involuntary consequences. Such 
motions being mostly external, we become so far conscious 
of them sensationally. In the sympathetic system, and in the 
case of all those nerves not concerned in so-called voluntary 
action, the afferent impressions and the consequent efferent 
expressions are internal or insensible, and therefore further 
removed from our observation and cognizance ; hence they 
are technically regarded as more involuntary than the others. 
Both, however, are equally absolute consequences of their 
antecedents. My use of the word involuntary, is there- 
fore popular rather than technical ; but I adopt it, because I 
recollect no other so well calculated to express repudiation of 
the common fallacy, that motions which are both physiolo- 
gically and popularly called voluntary, are caused by the will 
alone, and not by external impressions. Such a theory is 
clearly incompatible with the ascertained scientific fact, that 
all efferent expressions have their full adequate causes in 
afferent impressions. In fact, afferent nerves would other- 
wise be entirely superfluous and useless, for there would then 
be two adequate causes of the same effects. 

In connection with this part of my subject, I would point 
out one or two other ways in which the freewill theory is most 



256 The Ethics of Opinion. 

obviously inconsistent and logically untenable. For the only 
way, on the free-will theory, by which I believe it has ever 
been imagined or asserted that man could be morally responsible 
for his acts or thoughts, is to assume that he is himself the 
sole or first cause of them. Now, the whole doctrine of first 
causes is ostensibly and confessedly built upon the indisput- 
able axiom, that everything must have a cause, for ex nihilo 
nihil fit. But in deducing such a conclusion from that pre- 
miss, it is most unaccountably overlooked that the very prin- 
ciple postulated is directly violated and contradicted, for a 
first cause is essentially and indisputably that which has 
no cause ! 

And if, admitting here for the sake of argument, as the best 
means of refuting the theory by showing its inherent contra- 
dictions, that men's acts could be thus uncaused, they 
must then be simply the result of CHANCE, a mere word, 
which all scientific experience proves to be expressive of 
some unknown quantity representative of causes which 
man is incompetent, or will not trouble himself to trace. 
The natural genesis of the metaphysical theory of freewill in 
the superficial notion of chance, and that of the theological 
doctrine of predestination in the empirical conviction of 
necessary causation (which has thus been degraded into 
something really indistinguishable from " blind Asiatic 
fatalism" personified), has been most strikingly and sugges- 
tively exhibited by Mr. Buckle, in the first chapter of his 
" History of Civilisation." * 

Again, it should be clear that so far from affording a valid 
basis for moral responsibility, the doctrine of freewill must 
effectually destroy it. For if a man, or any being, have 
no natural tendency, motive, or disposition whatever, to- 
wards one course of action rather than another, if he be 
really free, he cannot possibly be blamed or responsible for 
acting in any conceivable manner ; for if he act in any one 
manner without a motive, he certainly has none for acting 
otherwise under the premised conditions. If he acquire 
any such tendency, he must first have a susceptibility for 
acquiring it, for motion cannot originate uncaused ; and if 
he have originally a susceptibility equally appropriative of 
good and evil tendencies, he still cannot be responsible for 
the priority or nature of the external impressions by which 
he may be affected. If he have any original inherent bias 

* Longmans, 1867, pp. 9 — 11. 



The Ethics of Opinion. 257 

in favour of good or of evil, that bias must inevitably deter- 
mine or form his predominant motive, until superseded by 
a stronger opposing motive, when the first would no longer 
be predominant. But in either case freedom is incompa- 
tible, not only with the superseding motive, but also with the 
original bias ; for when either exists, it must constitute a 
predominant motive until superseded by a stronger. This is 
as clear and simple as changing the weights in a pair of scales ; 
for neither can man's imagined will, nor any other power, 
make a lighter weight preponderate, nor a weaker motive 
overcome a stronger. 

The sentence which succeeds that which I last quoted from 
"A.K.H.B.," is evidently intended, but entirely fails, as a kind 
of compromise. He says, " But we have learned that great 
" lesson of toleration which the world took many ages to 
" learn ; that for his HONEST belief, man is indeed respon- 
" sible, but responsible solely to his Maker."* For the words 
" honest belief," clearly involve, that the best use of abili- 
ties and circumstances has been made, otherwise they would 
be inappropriate and impertinent. Over his original consti- 
tution and opportunities, as a man cannot be justly held or 
supposed to have any control, so therefore he cannot possi- 
bly be held responsible for them. How has the world 
"learned that great lesson of toleration," but by learning that 
any man's belief is the necessary result of his constitution and 
circumstances ? And that therefore for such belief he cannot 
be justly held responsible? For so far as that constitution and 
those circumstances are made by his Maker, that Maker alone 
must be responsible for them, and not the man who had no 
possible selection of or control over them. This is essentially 
not transferring to a more competent hand merely the right to 
blame and punish, but the entire responsibility for erroneous 
belief is what is really transferred. This cannot be evaded. 
When "A.K.H.B." says that he sees "that Almighty God 
" looks ON at us, going through life thinking so differently, 
" and VOUCHSAFES TO us no unmistakable information 
" which of us is right," -f* whom does he make responsible 
for that want of information ? Those who strive painfully 
after information, or him who withholds it ? It is very easy to 
say that perhaps " the difference is not one to make any very 
" bitter fight about." \ But the difference here at issue is vital, 
involving the very bases upon which we erect our moral 

* Longmans, p. 318. f Ibid, p. 319. \ Ibid, p. 319. 



258 The Ethics oj Opinion. 

judgments. When " A.K.H.B/' says, " There are some views 
" which show not merely a wrong head, but some moral per- 
iC version," *— whois responsible for the wrong head and moral 
perversion, if not the maker of the one and governing cause 
of the other ? When he says, " There was a man, a year or 
" two ago, who maintained by argument that he had a per- 
" feet right to murder his wife and children, and who acted 
" on that belief. Society said to him, ' we shall not 
" ' DISCUSS THE question WITH YOU ; only your ways of 
" 'thinking and ours are so opposed, that it is plain we can- 
" ' not both go on together ; and as you are in the minority, 
" 'you must give way, so we shall hang you.' Thus society 
"hanged him, and it unquestionably served HIM right." f 
To this I also say, yes, quite right ; BECAUSE that was the 
only way to convince him, and others like or unlike him, 
thatthe right which, he claimed (and which neither" A.K.H.B." 
nor society appear to have been able to dispute), included that 
evil consequence to himself. This he appears to have been so 
stupid as to fail to understand : That in the last resort, power 
constitutes right, cannot be consistently denied. Nature 
confers upon every man a right to do whatever she gives him 
power to do ; but, she annexes appropriate and inevitable con- 
sequences to every act, and gives man generally, also, reason 
and capacity to judge from experience of them, what is best, 
or wisest, or right to be done, and what is worst, or foolish, 
or wrong ; according as those consequences may be probably 
good or evil to himself. To consequences then, and to conse- 
quences only, can man be properly said to be responsible. 
Self-interest is the only natural, valid, efficient basis of morals. 
Even in those systems with which man, presumptuously dis- 
satisfied with nature's administration, has endeavoured to 
supersede natural morality by imagining supernatural and 
unnatural rewards and punishments, the same principle is still 
in fact invariably adopted, but wholly stultified and rendered 
abortive by the distance and uncertainty of the motives pro- 
posed. As a general rule, to which there are now I believe 
but a few doubtful exceptions, all physical force acts inversely 
as the square of the distance, whether in time or space ; and 
moral power is simply the indirect operation of physical 
force. Also, though it may appear precipitate to assert or 
assume that the same absolute proportion subsists between 
moral, as between physical causes and effects, experience 



* Longmans, p. 39. f Ibid, p. 319. 



The Ethics of Opinion. 259 

proves that in the former, an analogous relation indisputably 
obtains, though in some cases it may be more difficult to 
measure or apprehend ; but can any good reason be given 
why the ratio may not be absolutely identical in every 
instance ? 

But is it quite right of " A.K.H.B. " to say next, " There is a 
" difficulty, here of course. I find difficulties now in most 
" things," * and offer no solution. He here quite naively 
leads us into " a difficulty " as he himself calls it ; such a 
difficulty as to induce him to express strongly a principle at 
direct variance with the whole tenor of his essay, and then 
leaves us there, without offering so much as a word to help 
us out. Is this philosophical ? 

Why did it serve the man right ? In the veiy words put 
by " A.K.H.B." into the mouth of society, the question of 
the propriety of blame is tacitly yielded ; and why ? Clearly 
because the man's thought and act concurring, it could not 
be contested that what is stated to have been his belief,. 
was sincere. The man may have been, and probably was, 
insane, but incontestable he was conscientious, and therefore 
blameless. " A.K.H.B." himself refrains from asserting his 
culpability, but he refrains also from explaining why.. 
Yet he says that hanging him " unquestionably served 
"him right." This again he leaves unexplained, and the 
next paragraph is devoted simply to magnifying the difficulty. 
First, he proceeds to say that doubtless it is so desirable (in 
his opinion) to prevent certain opinions of the Mormons from 
being generally accepted, that it is well to crush them by 
the readiest means within reach. Then perhaps anticipating 
a natural suggestion of stakes and faggots, he tantalises and 
perplexes us by saying, " On the other side books have been 
"burnt-by the hangman because they set out opinions which 
" all intelligent people now accept as true and right." f Can 
he state that those people who caused the books to be burnt 
were less intelligent than "all intelligent people now," or 
their principles less " true and right " than his own ? What 
has made those opinions since appear true and right, but the 
accumulated experience, matured judgment,, and scientific 
knowledge, of succeeding generations ? And what guarantee 
have we that posterity may not similarly discard as im- 
moral the opinions of those now designated " all intelligent 
people ?" + 

* Longmans, p. 319. f Ibid, p. 39. % Ibid, p. 319. 



260 The Ethics oj Opinion. 

" A. K.H.B." proceeds: — "To emancipate a certain largeclass 
" of our countrymen from cruel penal laws, would be a national 
" sin ; so, once upon a time, declared many worthy men and 
" worthy old women. By-and-bye, the nation discerned that 
" it was not a sin, but a duty." That was when its know- 
ledge was sufficiently increased. " Some day the king's mails 
" will go by railway, and railways will be the great highroads 
" of this country ; " so said old George Stephenson : and for 
" thinking so, and saying so, he was hounded down as a 
"mischievous fool. Read the reports of the abuse heaped on 
" that great man, before the committee of Parliament on the 
" Liverpool and Manchester railway : and you will see how 
" perilous a thing it is for a man to be a great deal wiser 
" than his generation. Yes, it is an awful charge, to be the 
" only man that knows some great truth, flatly opposed to the 
" common way of thinking. Either you must be a miserable 
" sneak, shamming a conformity with errors and prejudices 
" you despise : or you must set your face to a lifelong strife, 
" obloquy, and misrepresentation." * Good ! but what does all 
this tend to prove, but that we have no test whatever of the 
justness of new opinions, which must not give way to that of 
their stability, or more extensive adoption, as men become 
generally wiser ? And that the novelty of an opinion, and 
the fact that it violently shocks the prejudices of good persons, 
do not constitute sufficient reasons for refusing to submit it 
to experiment ; or at least to severe, open, and impartial 
investigation and discussion. That subjects usually esteemed 
sacred cannot be excluded from the category, is conclusively 
proved by "A.K.H.B.," when he adduces more than one 
pointed illustration of that description. 

But " A.K.H.B.," instead of endeavouring to help us out of 
the difficulty in which he landed us, and of reverting to the 
case of the man whom society hanged, which obviously called 
for the explanation he failed to offer, goes off " to think of some 
" of the ways in which people have been found to treat such as 
" differed from them in opinion," -f- Let us attend to the mur- 
derer's case. " A.K.H.B." said distinctly, that the man in 
question " ACTED ON HIS belief " ; thus indirectly or directly 
admitting that he was therefore blameless, and he does not 
blame him. Yet he says, hanging him " served him eight." 
So say I. I accept " AK.H.B's " statement of the case, of his 
" difficulty," but I decline to pass it by without offering a 

* Longmans, p. 319. t Ibid, p. 320. 



The Ethics of Opinion. 261 

solution. I demur also to his use of the words, " served 
him." My reason shall appear presently. 

Society DID right in removing the man, for he had forfeited 
his right to its protection, by violating that of others to the 
same. And society would have been justified in removing 
him in ANY manner best CALCULATED to prevent repetition or 
imitation of his act. For society in dealing with him, should 
regard, not his forfeited interest, but that of its more 
worthy members ; of its aggregate body. " Prisoner at the 
*' bar," said a wise English judge, " You will be hanged, not 
" because you have stolen a horse, but in order that horses 
" may not be stolen," condensing into one sentence the whole 
true principle of moral and penal legislation. 

But as it was in effect conceded that the man who 
murdered his wife and children acted on his belief — as his 
thought and act concurred — as thus he was CONSCIENTIOUS, 
society would have clearly done wrong to BLAME him. 
Blame thus is not only entirely unjust, but essentially 
mischievous. For no man ever, naturally, feels himself 
deserving of it. It is notorious that nearly (if not) every 
man instinctively finds ample excuses for his own conduct 
in any conceivable circumstances ; and I maintain, that 
though a man may, in one way, blame himself for errors in 
conduct, not only will he energetically deny the justice of 
blame experienced from another, but he will in every case 
deny, even to himself, that his errors have been other than 
of judgment. Instinctively, necessarily, and rightly too. 
I challenge each man's impartial introspection. Nothing but 
the most cowardly abdication of thought, and abject servility 
to a false education and a paralysing superstition, could ever 
delude a reasoning being into believing himself, even theo- 
retically, actually WORSE THAN his own degraded nature. 
Surely the most certain and effectual way to become every- 
thing villainous and base, is to believe one's self such already. 
If this be so, blame does not and cannot operate salutarily 
on anyone, but simply arouses feelings of antipathy, recipro- 
cation of the blame ; and as a person who blames is past 
reason (for every excuse advanced appears to him only an 
aggravation of the offence), it is but the unique and prolific 
source of mutual hatred and all uncharitableness. 

The fact is, that A.K.H.B's "difficulty" lies in his failure to 
recognise the broad distinction which nature teaches us, 
between the improper subjection to blame, and the legitimate 
amenability to punishment, of any offender. Nature is our 



262 The Ethics of Opinion. 

best and unerring tutor and example. Nature never fails to 
punish, never condones an offence, not even the first ; she 
invariably punishes for evil acts done : — even those persons 
whom man would blindly call morally innocent rather 
than none. Children often really suffer for the errors of their 
parents, an anomaly which it is simply impossible to justify 
by any fantastic, unnatural principles, which are thereby 
proved to be entirely illusory. We know that by an inexor- 
able necessity this is so, and can discover that we are thus 
furnished with an invaluable rule of conduct and pattern of 
government. Should we not hence learn that our common 
notions of morality are as factitious and unnatural as they 
are notoriously unsuccessful and nugatory ? Is it not true that 
our administration of praise and blame is but a chimerical 
and pernicious device to govern thought, while neglecting to 
modify its antecedents ? That its causes being unchanged, 
thought being involuntary, must be ungovernable ; and that 
the judicious distribution of physical pleasures and pains, is the 
only real and operative method of governing human beings. 
Through our balancing of imaginary desert for praise and 
blame do we not frequently — aye, and consciously, mismeasure 
punishment, or withhold it altogether ? — yes, incontestably ; 
and hence the glaring inefficiency of our retributory laws ; 
criminals, at least, know only too well how to appreciate the 
consequent impunity they enjoy. 

As a striking illustration of the fact that our ordinary 
notions of moral responsibility are not only arbitrary but in- 
consistent, and that the propriety of blame is not a necessary 
corollary of that of punishment, I would here point out that 
exactly in proportion as we find in a child a strong inherent 
tendency or original propensity to a bad habit ; so do we, 
failing other means, augment punishment until we succeed in 
counteracting it. Notwithstanding that we must to the same 
extent exonerate the child from culpability for what we know 
to be a constitutional defect ; and therefore the more we 
punish the less we blame. Is not the pain we feel in inflict- 
ing such punishment an instinctive testimony or acknow- 
ledgment that it is not merited ? That we administer it 
with sorrow, but with the knowledge also, that like the 
amputation of a limb, it is indispensable to future welfare ? 

All nature's punishments are exactly proportioned to the 
offence, and are absolutely certain in their accomplishment. 
Who questions this impugns the justice of nature or of God. 
Nature's punishments are unquestionably not always in- 



The Ethics of Opinion. 263 

flicted solely upon the offenders themselves. Indeed, the 
errors of individuals are frequently visited far more heavily 
upon other members of society. And how admirable are the 
consequences of this fact ! For it is precisely thus that 
society acquires a direct interest which it could not otherwise 
possess, in discouraging in all, those acts, the evil consequences 
of which would else have to be learned by each individual in 
his own experience, while society would be but a passive dis- 
interested spectator. But for this apparent injustice, one of 
the most stringent bonds by which society is established and 
held together, would be alogether wanting. 

Both nature's punishments and her rewards are inevitable 
and necessary consequences of breaches of that universal law 
of self-interest which is the basis of her beautiful selfadjust- 
ing system, that administers itself so harmoniously. But 
nature as certainly neither blames nor praises ; and knowing 
how infallible is her administration and how perfect her code, 
can we do better than obey her precepts and follow her in- 
structions ? When a limb mortifies, is not amputation 
necessary to preserve life ? On the same principle I say, 
society DID right in hanging the murderer. But should I be 
justified in saying so if I suppressed my reasons ? 

I object to "A.K.H.B.'s" words, "served him right," for 
they convey to my mind an idea of even exclusive regard to 
his (the murderer's) interest instead of to that of the rest of 
society, the unworthy as well as the worthy portion ; the 
first requiring a salutary warning, and the second effective 
security against such conduct. He cancelled his title to any 
consideration when he incurred the penalty decreed by 
society to those who violate that of others. Still, why, 
" served him right " ? As if the evil of his crime could be 
quantitatively estimated and balanced, by the evil of his 
punishment ! Why, as respected even HIM, must not the 
first evil in its natural consequences have been enough ? And 
what did the second but double it ? Swell the account of 
evil ! Evil simply multiplied ! As I before pointed out, the 
sole province of society is to govern its body ; to secure the 
good, to warn, to instruct, and to convince the bad, by effec- 
tual arguments ; even by the punishment, removal, or 
destruction of its hopelessly useless members ; in fact to 
utilise them as visible examples of the evil consequences of 
bad acts. 

If the supposition of a post mortem rectification of the 
imagined unequal apportionment of good and evil to indi- 



264 The Ethics of Opinion. 

viduals during life, were entirely pertinent in discussing the 
value of a secular basis for morality, it should materially 
help rather than militate against my argument. For we 
should feel all the less scruple at removing a mischievous or 
dangerous person by death, if any injustice he may suffer 
here, can be compensated hereafter. Whereas, the ordinary 
arguments used by the opponents of capital punishment 
would lead us to suppose that it is better to be unjustly 
cruel to innocent society, and as unjustly merciful to the 
unworthy criminal, than to send him where society would 
be simply rid of him, and where it is imagined that he will 
certainly meet with absolute and infallible justice. 

But the passage which I have principally questioned con- 
tains also such a simple error of logic, that it would be 
amazing how so competent a writer could have fallen into it, 
if it were not that it furnished such a ready way of its 
kind of attaching blame, (in conformity with ordinary secta- 
rian habits and prejudices) to persons whom I have shown 
nevertheless to be blameless, according to " A.K.H.B.'s " own 
principles. Let me explain where this error lies, though to 
many it must be obvious enough. He says, "To think 
wrong, is wrong ; " meaning, to think incorrectly, is culpa- 
ble; or, an error of judgment involves turpitude. He 
entirely confuses between the wholly distinct and different 
meanings of the word "wrong," viz., error with, and error 
without, evil intention. That I interpret his words correctly, 
is I think unquestionable ; for the second " wrong," he at 
once himself defines as equivalent to "deserved blame;" 
and the first is next made, by a slight inflection, to mean 
" a wrong opinion." 

Whether however my views be accurate or not, if those 
who read "A.K.H.B.'s" essay be led, by their own thoughts 
or by my suggestions upon this part of it, to adopt the same 
or a better method of treating its obvious inconsistencies, 
and to advance in moral science ; it is clear that the very 
defects of the treatise may prove its most valuable portion. 
For, whereas, as regards the major part of it, with which all 
must concur, our moral judgment must remain in statu quo; 
the section most open to the charge of inconsistency and 
error, is the very one best calculated, with attention, to pro- 
duce healthy thought and an improved moral perception 
and standard. In this conviction I take leave of" AH.K.B.'s" 
essay with feelings of unalloyed satisfaction. The general 
subject, the most important that can engross attention, is, I 



The Ethics of Opinion. 265 

hope, fairly revived for general consideration. The positions 
which I have endeavoured to establish are these : That men's 
opinions and actions are involuntary, and must therefore be 
blameless ; that we learn from experience that rewards and 
punishments, but for acts solely, are necessary, natural, bene- 
ficial, and just ; at the same time that praise and blame 
are essentially unnatural, unjust, and pernicious. That blame 
is not only factitious and fallacious in principle, but also 
entirely mischievous in its effect ; defeating the ostensible 
object of its invention by rendering punishment nugatory to 
a far greater extent than that to which it supplants it. That 
blame is merely antipathy and hate, under a surreptitious 
aspect and an evasive name. That were praise and blame 
abolished, reward and punishment would be immeasurably 
more efficacious, if only consistently administered. That 
man's moral responsibility, traced home, resolves itself into 
the fact that he is subject to the necessary consequences, 
good or bad, of his own acts. To such consequences, and to 
such consequences only, man is really and properly responsi- 
ble. He is naturally responsible to natural consequences for 
observing or violating the laws which experience prescribes as 
necessary to preserve his life, health, and general well-being; 
and morally responsible to social consequences for violating or 
conforming to those imposed by the society in which he 
lives. Ignorance does not exempt from natural penalties, 
and rightly too. For otherwise experience of them could 
never be acquired, and utter ignorance would remain the con- 
stant condition of human nature ; whereas by its invaria- 
bility only, does experience become reliable as a rule of 
conduct. Society is, undoubtedly, to a certain extent unable 
to exact its penalties with infallible regularity ; and unfortu- 
nately, but with a diffidence which seems not altogether inex- 
cusable, it wavers and falters in the infliction of many of 
those which it should execute. Thus it deviates, and with 
most pernicious results, much further from the perfect rule 
afforded by nature, than its comparatively imperfect consti- 
tution really renders unavoidable ; and I urge, that in fine, 
the main object of society should be to follow implicitly the 
example of nature, by making its rewards and punishments 
as certain and as consistent as hers. 

If these principles be, as I think, as novel, as I feel them to be 
both consistent and important, some fresh light may be consi- 
dered to have been thrown upon the subject, and possibly 
some service done to humanity. It has, so far as I am aware, 

T 



266 On the Species of Wombats. 

been hitherto invariably assumed by the advocates of the 
doctrine of liberty, as well as by those of that of necessity, 
that the justice of blame, whether asserted or denied, is in- 
volved in and inseparable from that of punishment. Even Mr. 
J. S. Mill is most unaccountably reticent on this point. He 
appears to evade entirely and constantly, any consideration 
whatever of praise and blame. But I believe I have shown 
that there is no necessary connection between the two ; that 
the. one is powerful for evil, and the other for good. The 
vital inconsistencies, and therefore invalidity of all other 
moral systems with which I am acquainted, can be distin- 
guished almost as readily and clearly as their utter futility 
as guides of human conduct. I have long ceased to wonder 
at their abortive results. The appalling numbers of our 
fellow-creatures which our traditional systems consign or 
leave to a fate of hopeless degradation, crime, and misery, 
must be apparent to the most obtuse ; and resignation to 
such results appears to me one of the worst and most lament- 
able of them all. Large numbers of men and women of all 
classes are notoriously immoral ; and current theories which 
pretend to be adequate or adapted to make them moral, are 
therefore glaring failures or impostures. Therefore the pre- 
sent state, and the principles of society indisputably demand 
a radical reform. 

But should my system be proved, which I take leave to 
doubt, to be as inconsistent and worthless as the rest, still 
it seems not impossible that its consideration may give a clue 
to a better. Let my proposition, then, be discussed, and may 
the speedy result be such as all good men will delight to 
witness — consistency, and therefore truth, in the theory ; and 
purity in the practice of morality. 



Art. XIX — On the Species of Wombats. (Abstract.) 
By Professor M'Coy. 

[Read 9th September, 1867.] 

Professor M'Coy laid on the table well-preserved skins 
and osteological preparations from the series he had caused 
to be prepared for the National Museum, of all the known 
species, both good and doubtful, of the genus Phascolomys, 
and explained their characters in detail. 



On the Species oj Wombats. 267 

Until comparatively recentty there was only one species 
generally known to zoologists, the Phascolomys wombat. 
This is now known to be confined to Tasmania and other 
islands south of the Australian continent, and as I have 
demonstrated from the specimens on the table, it is speci- 
fically distinguishable with ease and certainty by the 
characters of the skull and skin pointed out by Dr. Murie 
and others, from the Wombats of the main land, which were 
at one time supposed to be referable to it. Of the continental 
species two had been defined and named by Professor Owen in 
his Catalogue of the Osteological Collections in the Museum of 
the College of Surgeons, from the skulls only, the P. lati- 
frons and the P. platyrhinus ; but no zoologist had satisfac- 
torily connected these with the skins until 1861, when Mr. 
Angas and myself independently, and at the same time, drew 
up descriptions of a soft furred Wombat from South Aus- 
tralia, two individuals of which were received by our 
Acclimatization Society ; the skin and skeleton of the one 
described by me being now on the table. Mr. Angas sug- 
gested that this might be the P. latifrons of Owen, but as 
he only saw the skin, and that species was founded on a skull, 
this specific reference was only a surmise, which was generally 
rejected, as it could not then be supported by any argument. 
The specimen at my disposal, however, having afforded me 
an opportunity of examining its bones, I definitely deter- 
mined for the first time the relation of the skin and skull of 
the P. latifrons, by showing the identity of the skull before 
you with that firstdescribed under that name by Owen in the 
" Zoological Proceedings" for 1845. This determination I 
forwarded with figures and descriptions to Mr. Gould, since 
published in the last number of his work " On the Mammals 
of Australia," but by an unfortunate mistake he submitted 
the skull of a different species to Mr. Flower for comparison 
with Professor Owen's type skull of P. latifrons, and as they 
did not agree, he supposed my determination wrong, and 
using an external character which I was the first to point 
out (it having escaped Mr. Angas), namely, the hairy in- 
stead of naked muffle, as specific, he proposed for the animal 
the name of P. lasiorhinus ; Dr. Gray shortly after, 
showing that the difference between a hairy and naked 
muffle in the Halmaturus, and Macropus, and in Bos, and 
Ovibos was generic in value, formed of it a separate genus, 
naming the creature Lasiorhinus M'Ooyi. Dr. Murie, in 
his paper in the " Proceedings of the Zoological Society" for 

t 2 



268 On the Species of Wombats. 

December 1865, shows that my original determination was 
perfectly correct, and that the supposed correction of Mr. 
Flower, accepted by Gould, was erroneous. 

Dr.Murie, in his paper above cited, gives some osteological 
characters for the hairy-nosed wombat, differing from those 
in the skeleton before you ; he counts, for instance, thirteen 
dorsal vertebrae, and thirteen pairs of ribs, while there are 
really fourteen, the fourteenth or last rib being only about 
half an inch long was probably overlooked ; and this may 
have led to his counting six lumbar vertebrae, when 
there are really only five. The caudal vertebrae are not 
alluded to, but they are extraordinarily numerous, being six- 
teen in number, while the Tasmanian Wombat has only 
eleven, and the common Victorian Wombat twelve. 

The Sacrum is another remarkable portion of the skeleton 
not referred to in Dr. Murie's paper, but which I find singu- 
larly interesting ; from the unexpected differences it presents 
in the different species. In the Lasiorhinus, two sacral ver- 
tebrae anchylose with the illium, but three are anchylosed 
together by their transverse processes in the male, and the 
fourth nearly so in the female. The sacrum in P.platyrhinus 
is formed of four vertebrae united by their transverse 
processes, the two anterior being anchylosed to the illium. 
In the Tasmanian P. wombat there is an extraordinary differ- 
ence in the sacrum, which is composed of seven vertebrae, of 
which the first and second are anchylosed to the illium ; the 
first five anchylosed by their transverse processes into one 
group, and the sixth and seventh anchylosed by their trans- 
verse processes into a second group which is attached to the 
ischium. The sacrum of the common Victorian fossil species, 
the Phascolomys pliocenus (M'Coy), is composed of seven 
vertebrae, all anchylosed by their bodies, the first to the 
fourth anchylosed by their transverse processes into one 
group, the three anterior of which are anchylosed to the 
illium, and the sixth and seventh anchylosed by the 
transverse processes into a second group, closely approaching 
the ischium. 

The most common Victorian wombat, the large brown con- 
tinental species, has now been proved by Dr. Murie to be, 
as I originally suggested, identical with the Phascolomys 
platyrhinus of Owen, one of the species founded by him on 
the skull only in 1853, but overlooked ever since by zoolo- 
gists, and the original skull of which has recently been com- 
pared at the College of Surgeons with the skulls taken from 



On the Species of Wombats. 



269 



•such skins as are now before yon. The P. Angus (gray), is 
a synonym of this. The black wombat, Phascolomys niger 
of Gould is, as you see by the fine adult, male and female, 
and the young specimens before you, which I have lately 
had trapped at the Goulbourn river for the National Museum 
collection, of an intense black colour, not only in the adult 
of both sexes, but in the young, and on getting the skeletons 
of those stuffed specimens mounted, I nearly fell into the 
mistake of supposing that a character might be found in the 
nasal bones, distinguishing the species from the brown P. 
platyrhinus more satisfactorily than the sole external 
character of colour on which Mr. Gould relied. The first 




Nasal Bones of the four species of Wombats, reduced to half the natural 

length. 

A. Lasiorhirms. B. Tasmanian Wombat. 

C. P. platyrhinus. D. P. setosus. 

adult skull and that of the young agreed in having a small 
abruptly rounded lobe, at slightly more than one-third the 
length of the outer side of each nasal bone, but fortunately I 
had the skeleton of the third specimen prepared, and found to 
my astonishment that it quite agreed with the ordinary 



270 On the Species of Wombats. 

brown examples of P. platyrhinus in having the sides of the 
nasal bones converging simply and regularly towards the 
front. And to settle the matter I found the skull of the 
largest of the brown specimens on the table to have pre- 
sented the small outward lobes (indicated by dotted lines on 
the wood-cut) as in the first mentioned black examples. There 
can be no doubt then, from the skins and skeletons before 
you, that the P. niger (Gould), is only a variety of the P. 
platyrhinus (Owen). The skeletons of both agreeing in 
having fifteen ribs, the last being four inches long in the 
males, but only from one to three inches long in the females 
examined ; the sacrum of four anchylosed vertebrae, two 
anchylosed to the illium, and twelve caudal vertebras. 

The fourth good living species of wombat that I am glad 
to be able to demonstrate the distinctness of to the Society, 
is the Phascolomys setosus of Gray. The stuffed specimen 
before you from near Adelaide, shows the characters on 
which Dr. Gray relied, in establishing the species, of which 
the light ashy yellowish brown colour, and the harsh fur, 
with numerous coarse blackish bristles scattered through it, 
are the principal ones, obviously distinguishing it from the 
other species. The originally described specimen which is 
the only one made known until this evening, had unfortu- 
nately no skull, and in the absence of osteological or more 
important external characters, Dr. Murie in his paper above 
quoted, sets P. setosus down as a synonym of the P. platyr- 
hinus. I have the great pleasure of showing you now that 
the species is really a good one by the characters of the 
skull, the nasal bone, of which much more nearly resembles 
those of the broad-fronted wombat than of the common 
brown P. platyrhinus in the great width and flatness of 
their posterior sutures. It differs from that species, however, 
in having the posterior suture, joining the nasals to the 
frontal gently convex, instead of nearly straight, and in 
having at rather more than half the length of each side from 
the anterior end a rounded angulation, giving a peculiar 
width to the middle of the nasals, as seen in the cut marked D. 



Condition of Blood after Death from Snake-bite. 271 

Art. XX. — Further Observations on the Condition of the 
Blood after Death from Snake-Bite. By George B. 
Halford, M.D., Professor of Anatomy, Physiology, and 
Pathology in the University of Melbourne. 
[Read 14th October, 1867.] 

Mr. President and Gentlemen, 

Since I had last the honour to bring this subject under the 
notice of this Society, I have made numerous experiments 
on dogs and cats, and in all, so far as regards the presence of 
the foreign cell, with similar results. A multitude of con- 
jectures crowd round the origin of this cell and the interpre- 
tation to be put upon its presence ; but I shall this evening 
confine myself to what I have been hitherto able to make 
out of its life, and of the passage of the poison from the 
mother to the embryo. 

Nothing, perhaps, is more difficult and tedious than to 
trace the growth of a microscopic particle, but I will endea- 
vour in a few words, and by the help of diagrams and 
microscopic preparations, to explain all I have been enabled 
to learn of this important subject. Blood . soon drawn from 
an animal bitten by a snake contains a larger amount of 
nebulous or finely granular matter than is usually seen. 
After the lapse of one hour this nebulous matter is much 
increased in quantity, lying in the intervals of the red cor- 
puscles, and presently breaking up into small masses, out of 
which the cell is gradually evolved. In two hours after the 
bite the cells may be seen in great numbers, but very 
indistinct. From this time every further microscopic obser- 
vation shows them in great abundance, and from the sixth to 
the twelfth hour they may be seen in perfection, macula and 
nucleus included. Whilst this is taking place the nebulous 
matter disappears. The nebulous matter may, therefore, be 
regarded as the germinal matter out of which the cells are 
formed. At this time the cell- wall is extremely delicate, the 
macula very plain as a bright particle, and the nucleus either 
single, reniform, double, triple, or multiple. It would appear 
the cells are then increasing in number by division of their 
nuclei, and minute particles having the vibratory movement 
of molecules in fluid, may be seen between the nucleus and 
cell- wall. On one occasion I watched for upwards of half an 
hour a constant revolution within the cell of a particle corres- 



272 Condition of Blood after Death from Snake-bite. 

ponding in all particulars to a macula. This particle passed 
regularly round the nucleus at a uniform rate, revolving both 
in the direction of and against the current of the fluid in 
which the cell was floating, reminding one of the movements 
seen in Yalesneria, &c. Twenty-four hours after the bite, 
the cells attain their greatest size, and, supposing the animal 
then dead, have probably ceased multiplying, and are simply 
living, or perhaps growing, the nucleus being usually single, 
the macula extremely distinct, and the cell very large. It is 
not uncommon at this time and later to see a cup-shaped 
hiatus in the cell-wall from which the macula has escaped. 
The cells may be seen in the blood for many days, their 
presence seeming to be a preservative against putrefaction. 
Where they have most room, as in the vense cavse, cranial 
sinuses, and cavities of the heart, they attain the greatest 
size and most circular form. In every instance the cell- 
wall is very elastic, and accommodates itself to surround- 
ing pressure. To ascertain how soon after inoculation 
these cells appear is a matter of some difficulty. It is not 
necessary to suppose that at first they are very numerous, 
and in order to detect them so early it might require fifty or 
a hundred microscopes and observers at work at the same 
instant ; still, from their having been seen two hours after 
the bite, and from all we know of the rapidity with which 
new formations occcur, both in health and disease, it is 
doubtless extremely soon. Of one thing we are sure — viz., 
that the nebulous germinal matter from which they spring is 
within a few minutes diffused all over the body ; for, sup- 
posing an animal to die in five minutes, and hence all cir- 
culation stopped, the cells are as readily seen in its blood a 
few hours after death as if it had lived as many hours as we 
say minutes. The macula is, doubtless, a particle of germinal 
matter, but whether it is to be regarded as that from which 
the whole cell has sprung, or whether it has been detached 
from the nucleus, and is destined for independent existence, 
it is hard to say. The fact that it is almost invariably large 
when the cell is small, and small when the cell is large, 
favours the first view. Perhaps the most important point 
must be left still undecided. Has the blood built up these 
cells directly or indirectly from the germinal matter of the 
serpent ? The answer to this question I will endeavour to 
give at a future meeting. I have many observations on this 
subject, but they are not yet completed. In either case 
the result is the same — Storing up of force in the new 



Glacial Epoch of Australia. 273 

growth, at the expense of the nutritive properties of the blood, 
and by perversion of those chemical changes necessary to the 
maintenance of the life of the infected animal. That 
the germinal matter exists in a state of extreme minuteness, 
the following experiment shows : — A cat being with young 
was inoculated with the poison, and dying in three hours, 
her four kittens were removed from the womb. They were 
all dead, and their blood contained the foreign cells, as did 
that of the mother. To pass from the cat to the kittens, the 
germinal matter must have penetrated the delicate mem- 
brane covering the tufts of the foetal vessels. If the poison 
of serpents can thus readily be traced through the body, and 
from parent to offspring, why should not the path of all infec- 
tions be tracked ? Some months ago, it was stated that it was 
conjectured that a child had been bitten by a snake. No 
doubt need ever exist for the future ; a drop of blood will 
always furnish the necessary evidence. I trust the subject 
will call forth other investigators in Victoria, for it will 
assuredly be taken up at home. It has been to me a matter 
of surprise that while this colony very properly appoints men 
to survey her coasts, explore her skies, and the ground 
beneath her feet, no one systematically explores her diseases, 
a subject in which the rich and poor, the living and those 
about to live, are equally and deeply concerned, and in com- 
parison with which many other subjects that excite her 
people are trifles. I cannot conclude without thanking Dr. 
Gummow, of Swan-hill, for having sent me such a fine 
supply of snakes, nor without expressing my acknowledg- 
ments to Messrs. Lawrence and Asbworth for their ready 
assistance in my many experiments. 



Art. XXL— Notes on the Rev. J. E. Tenison Woods' 
paper " On the Glacial Epoch of Australia." By Julius 
Haast, Ph. D., F.R.S. 

[Read 14th October, 1867.] 

In the " Transactions of the Royal Society of Victoria," 
part 1, vol. viii., which I received a few weeks ago, I find an 
interesting and suggestive paper written by the Rev. J. E. 
Tenison Woods, " On the Glacial Period of Australia," and 
read March 4th, 1867, on which I beg to offer a few observa- 
tions ; the more so, as the author, when alluding to New 
Zealand, does me the honour to refer to my labours. 



274 Glacial Epoch of Australia. 

Mr. Woods states that I have found extensive evidence of 
glacial action in New Zealand, but that my observations are 
rather too limited to allow conclusions to be based directly 
therefrom. 

As I have traced glacial action, during the last seven 
years, over the whole length and breadth of the south island 
of New Zealand, with the exception of its most southerly 
portion, which I have not yet visited, I do not consider 
my observations too limited for generalisations on that im- 
portant subject. 

Before entering into the consideration of the main argu- 
ment of Mr. Woods' paper, I wish to point out that the ex- 
pressions glacial action or glacial deposits, are rather vague, 
as they do not convey a definite explanation of the pheno- 
mena to be described, and I therefore propose to call these 
deposits which are of glacier origin, glacier accumulations, 
and the time in which they are formed, the glacier epoch ; 
whilst I wish to restrict the expression glacial action to those 
forces produced by the moving of icebergs through aerial or 
marine currents, and the expression glacial deposits to the 
beds originally formed on the bottom of the sea, and de- 
rived from the stranding or melting of icebergs. Thus, for 
instance, it will at once appear important to express clearly 
if certain strise or rocks are made by glaciers on land or by 
icebergs on the sea bottom, by designating the first, glacier, 
the second, glacial, strise. 

Consequently, glacier accumulations are of subaerial, 
glacial of submarine origin. 

Having thus stated what I consider to be of great im- 
portance, when considering the nature of accumulations de- 
posited during the post-pliocene age, I may add that all 
the iceborne deposits in New Zealand are of glacier or sub- 
aerial origin. 

As no glacier accumulations are found close to the sea 
along the east coast of this island, any geologist when travel- 
ling through that district, and examining the nearest tertiary 
marine beds, will come necessarily to the conclusion (if he 
judges only from negative evidence), that no glacial or glacier 
epoch has ever occurred there, the more so as the newest 
tertiary marine beds seem to indicate that the tertiary plio- 
cene sea, even towards the close of its era, had a somewhat 
higher temperature, than the sea water of our day possesses 
near that coast. 

On following the sequence of these our youngest pliocene 



Glacial Epoch of Australia. 275 

beds, it becomes at once evident that a rising of the land 
took place, although probably of only small vertical extent, 
immediately after their deposition, and that the glacier epoch 
then began, succeeded at once by that era in which the 
quaternary beds proper were formed, if we call so all beds 
of the recent era, or at least those deposited since our great 
glaciers retreated to their present position. 

Thus although great and important changes in the physical 
condition of New Zealand ljave taken place while these 
beds were being deposited, for which a long lapse of time 
was necessary, nevertheless when compared with the geologi- 
cal record in general these three last changes occupied but a 
moment in the earth's history, and gave but little time for 
the extinction and reproduction of new species, if we except 
the extinction of our gigantic wingless birds, due principally 
I think, to human agency. 

However, I believe that during the glacier epoch of New 
Zealand, the most of the New Zealand marine species tra- 
velled northwards, and only partly returned when the great 
glaciers retreated, and the present physical conditions entered 
into existence, of which there is ample evidence to be found 
in our youngest tertiary beds. 

But what won Id the geologist, who had travelled along 
the east coast observe, were he to advance some thirty miles 
inland towards the Southern Alps ? He would find all the 
lower mountains which form the outrunning species of that 
gigantic chain, iceworn, innumerable roches-moutonnees 
standing along or even in the courses of the former immense 
glaciers, the lower end of which, during their greatest ex- 
tension, had reached very often fifty miles below their pre- 
sent terminal face ; huge terminal and lateral moraines 
generally encircling and forming our picturesque Alpine 
lakes ; miles and miles of ground covered by morainic ac- 
cumulations, broad and straight river beds, the former 
glacier channels sometimes three miles wide, filled with 
shingle-beds, in which the muddy glacier torrents flow in 
numerous channels, and by which, without encountering any 
serious obstacle, we reach the existing glaciers. 

And, considering the size of the Alpine chain, even the 
present New Zealand glaciers are of enormous dimensions 
when compared with the European Alps, so that to find an 
explanation to this phenomenon, we have to examine 
the climatological conditions of New Zealand, its insular 
position, and the direction of its Alps, principally in refer 



276 Glacial Epoch of Australia. 

ence to the equatorial currents, before we can find a vera 
causa. 

But it is evident that the geologist who on examining the 
youngest marine III. beds along the east coast, had pro- 
nounced that no such epoch ever existed in New Zealand, would 
come to a different conclusion after making a journey inland; 
the more so if he should happen to travel along the western 
coast of this province, where, for more than one hundred 
miles, morainic accumulations . from either continuous walls 
or bold headlands, against which the sea has for ages con- 
tinued its work of destruction and rearrangement. 

Doubtless the observations of the Rev. J. E. Woods are 
exceedingly valuable and interesting, but they are, in my 
opinion, of a purely negative character only, and do not show 
that when the lower portions of the New Zealand glaciers 
during their greatest extension reached the sea, and were 
washed off and carried away in the form of huge icebergs, 
into the Pacific Ocean, the climate of the southern portion 
of Australia, and of the neighbouring seas, was not similarly 
affected as that of New Zealand. 

That peculiar climatological conditions exist even at the 
present time, by which glaciers in temperate regions can 
reach the sea, has been conclusively proved by Darwin, who 
traced glaciers producing icebergs, in deep fiords and bays 
on the west coast of South America, in latitudes correspond- 
ing to Stewart Island, and which descend from mountain 
ranges much less elevated than our New Zealand Alps. 

It is in those bays and along the coast of that interesting 
region, where very valuable data are offered to us, showing 
how far the refrigerating influence of huge icebergs detached 
from the terminal face, affects animal and vegetable life when 
compared principally with bays and coasts of the same 
country, where no glacial action is going on. 

The dredge will doubtless prove satisfactorily that a more 
antarctic or stunted fauna exists in the bays or in the open 
seas of South America, which are under glacial influence, 
than in those portions of the east Pacific Ocean near the 
same coast, but which is not traversed by icebergs, although 
both are situated in the cold antarctic or Humboldt current. 
Let us hope that future explorers of these regions will devote 
some time to the investigation of such a highly important 
subject, which will no doubt offer us some curious facts for 
comparison. 

I have elsewhere (" Report on the Formation of the Can- 



Glacial Epoch of Australia. 277 

terbury Plains," Press office, Christen urch, 1864. " On the 
causes which have led to the excavation of deep lake basins 
in hard rocks, in the Southern Alps of New Zealand," vol. 
xxi. " Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of Lon- 
don,") treated on some of the causes by which that remark- 
able glaciation of New Zealand originated, and will therefore 
not repeat here the same arguments on which my theory has 
been based. But I wish to point out that during the glacier 
epoch in New Zealand, it is possible that Australia was also 
rising, and that thus no evidence of the fauna of that epoch 
is accessible to us for examination ; its exuviae, and the beds 
of littoral origin formed during its duration, having been 
buried still deeper, or submerged, when the country sunk 
again towards the close of the glacier epoch. 

Therefore if we want to find evidence of a glacier epoch 
in Victoria, we must look for it in the Australian Alps, 
where morainic accumulations may have been preserved 
round the lakes, and along the valleys ; and where striae, 
rocks, moutonnees, and other physical features peculiar to 
glacialised countries may be found. Although from the 
altitude of the Australian Alps, the position and extent of 
these glacial indications can be expected to be of small 
dimensions only, even if they exist at all. 

I wish once more to point out that the principal reason 
why I take the liberty to lay these few notes before the 
Royal Society of Victoria, was simply to show that all the 
observations made by me point towards the conclusion that 
no glacial epoch, during which the lowlands were buried be- 
low the sea, and rose again afterwards above it, has existed 
in post-tertiary times in New Zealand ; and that con- 
sequently no beds derived from icebergs, or deposited in a 
refrigerated sea, could be open to our inspection, because this 
island during that epoch was either stationary, or was raised 
above the present sea-level. 

Of course we have no evidence of the amount of emergence 
during, and subsidence after, the glacier epoch, which may, 
however, have been of various degrees in different localities. 
As far as I am aware the physical features of Australia are 
in that respect similar to those of this island. 

And may we not safely assume that by such rising of the 
land in the southern seas, however slight it may have been 
in the temperate zone, an antarctic continent made its appear- 
ance, of larger dimensions than that of which the outlines 
are partly known to us ; and that large islands between it 



278 Mineral Waters of Victoria. 

and Australia and New Zealand were formed from the smaller 
islands now existing in those regions, such as Auckland, 
Campbell, and Macquarrie Islands ? The volcanic region, 
mostly submarine, which stretches from the antarctic vol- 
canoes Erebus and Terror to New Zealand, may in some 
respects, be connected with such changes in the level of the 
land during post-tertiary times. 

It is obvious that larger tracts of land than at present 
exist near the South Pole, must have had a remarkably re- 
frigerating effect upon the climate of Australia, especially if 
by such rising the warm equatorial currents which now sur- 
round us on all sides, and even extend their favourable in- 
fluence as far south as Macquarrie Island in 50° latitude, 
were driven back by polar currents. If these cold currents 
reached the southern shores of Australia, surrounding, per- 
haps, New Zealand, as the South Australian current does at 
the present day, and which, without doubt, is the cause of 
the fine climate of the latter ; it is easy to account for any 
physical changes in both countries. 

I have been led to forward to you these few, and I fear 
somewhat desultory observations, in order to draw the 
attention of Australian geologists to the study of the physi- 
cal^ and surface geology of the Alps, which would, I have no 
doubt, reveal important facts, and assist us in connecting the 
glacial epoch with New Zealand, and in unravelling some of 
the causes by which such a remarkable extension of its 
glaciers has been effected. 



Art. XXII. — Part I. — The Mineral Waters of Victoria. 
By J. Cosmo Newbery, B. Sc, Analyst to the Geological 
Survey of Victoria. 

The analysis of mineral waters is a subject of so much 
interest to those engaged in scientific and economic pursuits, 
that I propose to bring before you, from time to time, the 
results of my investigations in the mineral waters of Vic- 
toria. Before speaking of the subject of the present paper, 
the analysis of waters from a spring at Ballan, and from 
some of the mines of the Maldon district, it may be as 
well to make a few general remarks upon the chemical action 
of water on the crust of the earth. A certain proportion of 



Mineral Waters of Victoria. 279 

all the water that falls on the surface of the earth passes 
into the soil and from thence through joints and fissures, or 
by percolation through porous rocks, downwards and becomes 
subterranean. This water is always more or less charged 
with carbonic acid, and in passing through rocks which are 
composed of silicates, it decomposes them, forming carbonates 
of the alkalies, and alkaline earths. If the carbonic acid is 
in excess, the whole of these will be carried away as bi-car- 
bonates or simply held in solution by it, for Fresenius has 
shown that the carbonates of lime and magnesia are soluble 
in water containing much less carbonic acid than would be 
required to convert them into bicarbonates. But if there is 
not sufficient carbonic acid to carry off these substances they 
would remain in the rock as carbonates, thus increasing its 
volume and, as Bischof states, in some cases it must give 
rise to a mechanical force of expansion capable of uplifting 
the incumbent crust of the earth, or acting laterally, com- 
press, dislocate, and tilt the strata on each side of the mass 
in which the new chemical changes are developed. 

Instances of the first kind spoken of, in which carbonated 
waters have decomposed granite and carried away everything 
except quartz and silicate of alumina (kaolin), may be seen 
in many places in Victoria, as at Bulla Bulla, Dunolly, and 
Kyneton. The street-cutting at Flagstaff-hill shows a good 
section of more or less pure silicate of alumina ; the original 
rock undoubtedly belonged to the older basaltic formation, 
and was at some period, for the most part, hard, dense 
basalt. 

An instance of the second kind may be seen in the green- 
stone of Mount Camel, a few miles north of Heathcote, 
which contains carbonate of lime as calcite : this mineral has 
probably been derived from the rock itself, a specimen 
of the rock procured by Mr. Norman Taylor, of the Geologi- 
cal Survey, contains calcite in veins and firmly imbedded be- 
tween the crystals of pyroxine and feldspar, of which the 
rock is composed. Mr. Taylor states that the rock in place 
has all the appearance of a stratified rock, but upon examin- 
ing the specimens, I find these lines which resemble strati- 
fication to be lines of decomposition, leading to masses of 
calcite. 

The country near Mount Camel has not been subjected to 
a detailed geological survey, which would be required to de- 
tect the result of the expansive force which must have fol- 
lowed the chemical change in the rock. 



280 Mineral Waters of Victoria. 

Subterranean waters often contain other chemical substances 
instead of carbonic acid, which would act energetically upon 
rocks consisting of silicates and carbonates, such as chlorine, 
fluorine, sulphuric and hydrochloric acids, salts, which, 
acting upon compounds, produce double decompositions. 
Even water alone, when at a high temperature, as in the 
thermal springs, has the power of holding many substances 
usually considered insoluble in solution. The thermal springs 
of New Zealand, Iceland, North America, and many other 
places, hold large quantities of one of the most insoluble sub- 
stances, silica, in solution. Hot water has also no doubt 
caused great alterations in the crust of the earth, aiding in the 
formation of mineral veins, crystalline and metamorphic rocks. 

The palaeozoic and other rocks of Victoria contain a great 
number of mineral springs, very few of which have attracted 
much attention, most of them being known only as brackish 
water. We may divide them into the six classes, proposed 
by Dr. Sterry Hunt, for the Canadian waters. The first class 
to contain alkaline chlorides, with chlorides of the alkaline 
earths, carbonates being present only in very small quantities, 
or wholly absent. In this class we may place the waters 
from some of the salt lakes, the mines at Maldon, and 
probably that from the salt springs on the Saltwater River, 
a few miles north of Braybrook. 

The second class differs from the first by containing large 
quantities of earthy carbonates and sulphates, as the waters 
found in marshy parts of the miocene tertiary in Spring 
Creek, near Barwon Heads, and those from the quartz mines 
from Moyston. 

The third class contains those waters which, in addition to 
the above, contain carbonate of soda. In this class we may 
place some of the Hepburn springs, and perhaps those of 
Daylesford. 

The fourth class consists of those which contain carbonate 
of soda in excess, as those of Ballan and Glenlyon. 

The fifth class are those which contain strong acids, especi- 
ally sulphuric. I know of no member of this class in the 
colony. 

To the sixth class belong those which contain sulphates in 
excess. Many waters belonging to this class are found in 
the Murray basin, and in many of the tertiary strata con- 
nected with deposits of selenite. At Mount Tarrengower 
there are some waters, the solid matter of which consists 
almost wholly of sulphate of magnesia. 





In 10 part3. 


68-8 


- 0-983 


19-2 


0-274 


22-4 


- 0-320 


1-6 


0-023 


5-4 - 


- 0-077 


traces 




117-4 


1-677 



Mineral Waters of Victoria. 281 

No thermal spring has yet been discovered. 

The Ballan spring is one of considerable interest, it 
belongs, as I have stated, to the fourth class, and contains 
117-4 grains of solid matter per gallon, or 1*677 parts in 
1 000. It is clear, sparkling, inodorous, with a pungent, and 
slightly alkaline taste. 

An analysis shows the 117*4 grains of solid matter to 
consist of : — 

Carbonate of Soda 

Carbonate of Lime 

Carbonate of Magnesia 

Carbonate of Iron 

Chloride of Sodium -J- trace KC1 

Sulphuric Acid") 

Bromine 5 



It also contains a large volume of carbonic acid in solu- 
tion, but from the imperfect manner of collection, no two of 
the bottles which I received contained the same amount. An 
average determination gave 1 87 cubic inches of carbonic acid 
in 100 cubic inches of water, or 519 cubic inches to the gallon, 
deducting 103 cubic inches, which is the amount that 
would be required to convert the carbonates into bicarbon- 
ates, we have 416 cubic inches per gallon remaining that 
may be considered free. It is probable that the water may 
be collected containing much more gas than this, as it was 
effervescing rapidly when bottled. 

The spring rises in a basin-shaped cavity at the foot of a 
low silurian range, near the township of Ballan, the rocks of 
this range are slates and sandstones, containing but to a very 
limited extent any of the ingredients of the water. It at- 
tracted the attention of those living in the district many 
year ago by its effervescence and agreeable taste, and was 
reported on by Mr. Daintree, late of the Geological Survey, 
but no attempt was made to bring it into general notice 
until the present year, when an enterprising Melbourne firm 
leased from the Government the land in which it occurs. 
They intend to bottle it and offer it for sale as a seltzer or 
rather a seidlitz water. What peculiar medicinal properties 
it may possess I do not know beyond its being a very mild 
aperient. 

The medicinal properties of mineral waters have been 



282 Mineral Waters of Victoria. 

ascribed to various causes. It has been stated that they are 
due not so much to the common ingredients, like carbonate 
of soda, as to traces of salts of rare metals, or to a peculiar 
arrangement of their particles. It was stated by Scouteten, 
in a paper read before the Academy of Sciences at Paris in 
July, 1865, that the medicinal value of mineral waters is due 
mainly to their electrical condition. But this is a question 
we must leave in the hands of the medical men, and they 
must decide whether the Ballan water has properties other 
than those given to it by the substances detected in analysis. 
At all events it is a most pleasant beverage in warm weather. 
There are one or two other springs in the neighbourhood of 
this one, but though, the composition of the inorganic matter 
they contain seems to be the same as that from the spring 
just described, the amount per gallon is much less. One of 
them rises through a mass of limestone which has probably 
been formed by the deposition of the carbonates of the 
alkaline earths from the water, as the carbonic acid which 
holds them in solution is given off when the water comes in 
contact with the air. Indeed, it is probable that to springs 
of this kind we owe most of the non-fossiliferous beds of 
limestone, such as are found at Geelong, the Duck Ponds 
and at Limestone Creek. 

The other analyses I wish to call your attention to, are 
those of the water from some of the quartz gold mines at 
Maldon. The waters were collected and forwarded to me by 
Mr. Henry Y. L. Brown, of the Geological Survey. They are 
very interesting, as the inorganic matter they contain is 
richer in chloride of potassium than any I can find on record. 
The following analyses show the composition of waters from 
the Eaglehawk, Beehive, and Bell's Reef mines. 



EAGLEHAWK. 






In a gallon. 


In 1000 parts. 


Chloride of Potassium 


83-428 


1-1918 


Chloride of Sodium 


- 37-485 


- 0-5355 


Chloride of Magnesium 


3-657 - 


0-0523 


Carbonate of Magnesia 


- 9-600 


0-1371 


Carbonate of Iron + AI2 


O3 and PO5 4-572 - 


00653 


Carbonate of Lime ) 
Sulphuric Acid / 


traces 










138-742 


1-9820 



Mineral Waters 


of Victoria. 


2J 


BEE-HIVE. 






Contents of 


Composition per 




one gallon. 


1000 parts. 


Chloride of Potassium 


93-502 - 


- 1-3357 


Chloride of Sodium 


11-634 


0-1662 


Sulphate of Soda - - - 


19-617 - 


- 0-2802 


Carbonate of Magnesia 


11-125 


0-1589 


Carbonate of Iron + Al 2 O3 and PO5 1*275 - 


- 0-0182 


Carbonate of Lime 


trace 


... 


Silica - - 


2-208 - 


- 0-0316 




139-361 


1-9908 


BELL'S BEEFS. 






Contents of 


Composition per 




one gallon. 


1000 parts. 


Chloride of Potassium 


15-409 - 


- 0-2202 


Chloride of Sodium 


9-893 


0-1413 


Sulphate of Soda - 


10-593 - 


- 0-1513 


Chloride of Magnesium 


1-926 


0-0275 


Sulphate of Magnesia 


3-677 - 


- 0-0525 


Phosphates, etc. 


0-876 


0-0125 


Silica - 


3-766 - 


- 0-0537 




46-140 - 


- 0-6590 



All these waters contained carbonic acid in solution. Cor- 
responding results were obtained in qualitative analyses of 
waters from the Derby and Nuggety mines of the same 
district. The rocks bounding the quartz reefs are lower 
silurian, and they to a great extent are surrounded by 
granite. An immense quantity of this has been, and is being 
decomposed by the action of water, leaving deposits of 
irregular quartz grains and kaolin. Analyses are about to be 
made of the feldspars of the granite, as they are the pro- 
bable source of the potash salt. I was much surprised at 
not finding a large quantity of sulphate of magnesia in the 
water, as it occurs as epsomite filling the fissures in the rocks 
of many of the mines of that district. 



u 2 



284 Danger of Collision in Vessels 

Art. XXIII. — On a Discovery for Determining Danger oj 
Collision in Vessels Crossing one another's Track. 

Paper contributed by Capt. C. J. Perry. 

[Read by Professor Halford, Nov. 11th, 1867.] 

Mr. President, 

Sir, — Seven years have elapsed since the writer of this 
paper had the honour of presenting an illustrated treatise 
" On Collisions at Sea/' to this Society, and on page ] 8 of 
that work may be seen the author's justification for publish- 
ing a discovery of very high importance to every maritime 
state in the world, in so limited a manner, as by proffering a 
newly invented instrument for preventing collisions. But, 
of course, the instrument gave effect to the newly discovered 
principle, and the inventor naturally supposed that that prin- 
ciple would be at once seen, and either approved or con- 
demned immediately the instrument should be exhibited in 
public ; but such has not been the case. And although the 
inventor further announced the discovery in the treatise 
(p. 18), by saying : " The process of science is invariably of 
" a two-fold character, she first of all discovers a law or 
" governing principle by which the operation may be con- 
" trolled, and then constructs an instrument which shall give 
" effect to that discovery." Yet, strange to say, no one has 
perceived it, probably because the thing seemed altogether 
incredible. For since during the whole history of navigation 
no nautical writer ha,s ever ventured to propose a means 
within the reach of seamen of knowing when the danger of 
collision is involved in the courses of two approaching ships, 
it no doubt seemed too much to believe that a mere consi- 
deration of the collision of the " Lady Bird" and " Cham- 
pion " off Cape Otway, should lead to a discovery of such 
means by a humble individual in the colony of Victoria. 

Again, a person has only to consider the almost unlimited 
diversity in the angle and speed at which ships cross one 
another's track, and above all, the uncertainty which always 
prevails on these points in the mind of the seaman in order 
to understand the apparent improbability of there being any 
mathematical principle in existence, which, in spite of such 
seemingly insuperable difficulties, should be uniformly and 
reliably applicable to every possible case. No wonder then 
that the discovery of such a principle was so far beyond the 



Crossing one another's Track. 285 

expectations of scientific men, as well as the nautical com- 
munity generally, as to cause the announcement of it to be 
looked upon as a mere chimera. No wonder if the dis- 
covery remains in abeyance for seven years without a single 
individual to come forward to say whether it be a reality or 
not. Still, the discovery is not any the less true, nor any 
the less important because it has been so long disregarded, 
and now we proceed to explain it. 

In looking into the official statistical records in England, 
the writer was astonished to find that the number of colli- 
sions on the coasts of Great Britain, always increases in 
proportion to the means taken to prevent them ; that they 
are always far more numerous when the weather is clear and 
the legally prescribed precautionary system of lights most 
fully developed. He observed that the same remarkable fact 
applied to the cases of collision on the coasts of Australia. 
This unwelcome truth presented itself to the Board of Trade 
in the most convincing manner, but they naturally did not 
like to dwell upon it ; for, in the first place, it seemed to 
reflect upon the system they were strictly enforcing, and in 
the next place, no other resource whatever was within their 
reach. In the " Wreck Return," published by the Board in 
the Nautical Magazine of Nov. 1857, the true state of things 
was shown in the two following items, extracted from the 
table of casualties : 

Collisions. In the day time. In the night time. 

In thick and foggy weather 5 ... 19 

In clear weather ... 36 ... 81 

This comparative statement is very significant, for it 
proves that those cases which no human foresight could pro- 
vide against are by far the fewest, and that the most nume- 
rous are those which occur when the weather admits of the 
fullest development of our supposed safeguards, the signal 
lights. The writer therefore concluded that the common 
procedure followed by seamen with respect to collisions, 
operated deceptively, and that a latent error of a very 
insidious and dangerous character pervaded it ; he conse- 
quently searched for that error and found it. He found that 
it was of so delusive a character that the ships of all nations 
had for ages actually reversed the true indications of safety 
and danger, and that no writer on navigation, whose works are 
extant, had ever detected and exposed the error ; he further 
perceived that through the universal adoption of the error, 



286 Danger of Collision in Vessels 

the causes assigned for collisions by boards of inquiry are 
very seldom the true ones. 

Now, perhaps the best mode of disclosing the error in 
question and showing how generally it prevails, will be by 
pointing it out in the case of the late collision between the 
steam-ships " City of Launceston" and " Penola" as it was 
presented and adjudicated in the Supreme Court. The 
testimony given by the captain of the "City of Launceston " 
and all his officers was concise and clear ; it went to show 
that they sighted the "Penola" two and a-half points on the 
starboard bow, at a distance of about five miles, and that after 
pursuing their course until the distance was diminished to 
about two and a-half miles, the captain made a second 
observation of the " Penola," and found that she was on the 
same "bearing," viz., two and a-half points on the bow, as 
when first sighted, and in consequence of observing this con- 
tinuance of the angle, he, influenced by the common belief 
in such cases, concluded that the vessels would pass a long 
way off from one another, he therefore confidently held on 
his course at full speed, and now positively declares that no 
collision could possibly have happened unless the other vessel 
had improperly altered her course after the second observa- 
tion had been made, which, as he alleges, showed the ships 
to be pursuing perfectly safe courses. Now we shall show 
that this captain acted precisely wrong, yet his conduct was 
fuHy approved by the Court, the experts, and the jury, and 
a verdict was given him accordingly, and there can be 
no disrespect in saying (because it is a simple fact), that both 
the nautical and legal professions are very much in the dark 
with respect to the true indications of safety and danger in 
a case of impending collision. The mathematical principle 
discovered by the writer to be available as a preventive of 
collisions if brought to bear on the case we have been notic- 
ing, would at once show that the common practice of 
" keeping " an approaching ship upon whatever angle she 
may happen to be on, as a means of safety and the com- 
monly received theory that such a practice is a right one, are 
altogether delusive, and that the continuance of an 
approaching vessel upon any angle whatever, how T ever 
"broad" on the bow it may be, is so far from being a 
criterion of safety, that it is emphatically the very index of 
danger. It proves therefore that in some respects our pre- 
sent practice with regard to collisions systematically reverses 
the true indications^ safety, anddanger blindly chooses a pro- 



Crossing one another's Track. 287 

cedure which creates disasters, and then triumphantly ascribes 
them to a wrong cause. No wonder, then, if the number of 
disasters is diminished by three-fourths, when the weather 
is so thick and foggy as to prevent the natural courses of the 
ships being meddled with. And now we come to speak of 
the discovery itself, and to illustrate it with a diagram 
which we conceive will satisfactorily establish all that has 
been written on the subject, both in the treatise and in this 
paper. 

The writer discovered that a grand yet sublimely simple 
mathematical principle, easily distinguishable, always 
dev elopes itself in every casein which the danger of collision 
is involved in the courses of two approaching ships, and 
that the principle never can be developed unless that danger 
exists, so that being once known, it can never mislead, and 
the principle itself may be thus stated : 

" Whenever the danger of collision pervades the courses of 
" two approaching ships, each vessel maintains unalterably 
" one line of direction, or ' bearing,' from the other through- 
" out the progress of the ships towards the point of contact," 
so that if the light of an approaching ship in the night 
time is seen, after a moderate interval of time, to continue- 
on the same " bearing" as was first observed, as in the case 
of the "Penola" and " City of Launceston," it is a certain 
indication that the danger of collision is involved in the 
courses of the ships ; but if the second observation shows the 
approaching ship to be upon a smaller angle with the course 
than that which was at first observed, it indicates that she 
will pass " ahead ; but if upon a larger augle, that she 
will pass "astern;" any alteration therefore in the angle or 
"bearing" is a sign of safety ; but a continuance of the same 
angle, whether it be two, three, four or five points on the 
bow, is an infallible token of danger, as the accompanying 
illustrative diagram clearly proves : — 

Illustrative Diagram by C. J. Perry. 

To prove that whenever the danger of Collision pervades 
the courses oj two approaching ships, each vessel maintains 
unalterably one line of direction, or bearing from the other 
throughout every stage of their progress towards the point 
of contact. 

Let A represent a ship when she sights the lights of three other vessels in 
various directions, and at different distances, as at the positions C, D, P, the 
thin lines shewing their bearings from A. And let it be assumed that all the 



288 



Danger of Collision in Vessels. 



vessels are steering along the lines connecting them with the point B, at which 
they will all arrive at the same moment, and therefore come into collision 
with A. It follows then, that as the different distances from B are run by the 
ships in the same space of time, when the ship A has run any portion of 
her distance, say a fifth, a third, a half, and so on, all the other vessels will 
have attained a precisely similar proportion of theirs. Now, if lines he 
drawn from any point on A's track where the ship may happen to be, say at 2a, 
to the corresponding points on the tracks of the other vessels, which are at 
2, 2, 2b, they will be found to be parallel with the lines of the first "bearings,'* 
and therefore upon the same angles with the course of A as the vessels 
were observed to be on when first sighted at the positions C, D, P. The 
problem to the right, illustrates the case of the " City of Launceston" and 
" Penola." 




A. First position, ' 

P. First position, ' 

2a. Second position, 

2&. Second position. 



« City of Launceston." 
Penola." 

" City of Launceston." 
"Penola." 



Purification of Water. 289 

Art. XXIV.— On Purification of Water. By Mr. J. G. 
W. Dahlke, M.S.A.L., &c. 

[Read by Dr. J. E. Neild, 11th November, 1867.) 

It is well known that pure river and spring water contains 
an inexhaustible amount of nutriment from which plants 
derive their principal food, and indeed this fact accounts for 
many mysterious phenomena in regard to the physiology 
and culture of plants and animal life. But little attention is 
paid as yet to the subject by the public at large, with whom 
brightness and palatableness of the water pass .invariably 
for guarantee of good quality. However this is but a poor 
criterion to go by, because it is quite possible that water, 
being coloured and having an unpleasant taste, may be whole- 
some, whereas bright and good tasting water can be, and not 
seldom is, poisonous to a high degree. 

I remember a case which occurred in London some years 
ago. There was a public pump in the parish of St. James', 
which for generations had the reputation of yielding the 
most healthy water in that neighbourhood, and people were 
in the habit of sending for it from considerable distances. 
Now, it happened at the time of the cholera that this district 
suffered far more than might have been expected, it being 
well ventilated and generally considered healthy. The 
medical men therefore suspected an influence, the origin of 
which had escaped their notice and caused a stringent 
investigation ; but in vain, until it occurred to the district 
Medical Officer of Health (I believe Dr. Lankester) to 
examine the water. Of course this pump came also under 
his notice, and sure enough the analysis proved that the so 
highly esteemed water was to a high degree injurious, hold- 
ing an excess of organic matter kept in solution by an abun- 
dance of acids. When known, it was easily accounted for 
because the so-called London valley has a gritty and loose 
soil which rests upon a thick layer of rich clay, therefore 
the wells sunk in it must get contaminated from the filth 
which will necessarily accumulate in such a vast city. A 
few years afterwards, the medical faculty of London became 
alarmed from the fact that lead poisoning cases had been 
noticed, and Dr. Letheby, with whom I happened to be in 
personal correspondence about the purification of the water 
of the London drinking fountains, told me that he had 
good reason to suspect the leaden supply pipes, etc., of 



290 Purification of Water. 

getting attacked, and particularly so if the water was 
strongly impregnated with organic matter. I had paid a 
good deal of attention to the subject at the time, and, 
from my practical experience, I knew well that the Doctor 
was right in his surmise. To more than half of about two 
hundred water tanks, which I inspected, none or hardly any 
attention had been paid to the cleansing and vegetation, and 
animalcules were flourishing in abundance. 

The lead which lined the inside had in many instances 
the appearance of corrosion, and when the test was applied, 
it proved the presence of lead in the water. 

There has been a great controversy as to how ordinary 
water may attack lead. The theory in which I believe is 
this, that in the first instance it emanates from the dissolving 
action of soft water, which rapidly accelerates when in 
motion, and the pressure of organic matter when in a state 
of repose. Lankester and others assert that experiments 
have proved it beyond doubt that distilled water will dissolve 
lead to a limited extent. 

To be wholesome, the water used for drinking and ordinary 
purposes must be free from injurious matter. I don't mean 
that it should be pure in the literal sense of the word, in- 
deed there are bodies, such as iron, carbonic acid gas, etc., 
the limited presence of which might be considered rather co- 
inducive to health than otherwise, and I have not un- 
frequently employed such media as will cause an impurity in 
this direction, when I had soft and flat water to deal with. 

Contrivances to purify water for domestic purposes have 
been known since time immemoriable. The old inhabitants 
of Egypt, the Greeks, and the Romans had them. Sponges 
were used to free the water of the Niger from its accidental 
contaminations. The Japanese use a porous stone, hollowed 
in the form of an egg, and set in a frame over a vessel into 
which the water drops as it percolates through the stone. 
The Egyptians have the same for the filtration of the water 
of the Nile. 

A favourite medium in France is a porous limestone, found, 
I believe, in Brittany, and a similar one used to be imported 
into England from TenerifTe, but is not so now, because 
equally good filterstones are found in Derby and Northamp- 
tonshire, besides, other media have supplanted them in 
modern times. 

In the latter part of the last century the Alteration of 
water seems to have attracted public attention in England, 



Purification of Water. 291 

and we find that in 1790 and 1791 patents were taken out, 
one by a Chelsea potter, for a new filtering medium, which 
he made of pipeclay and coarse sand ; the other for a some- 
what complicated apparatus, the patentee using sand, char- 
coal and other loose materials. 

Various contrivances have been introduced since then, 
more or less similar to each other, some acting by ascension, 
some by descension, and in fact the numbers of patents taken 
out to protect what has been known for centuries is in- 
numerable, and persons have been always ready who, though 
perfectly unacquainted with the real requirements of filtra- 
tion, would insist upon introducing their wares as capable 
of doing impossible things, just as quacks will recommend 
their patent compounds as a certain remedy for diseases of 
which they know nothing themselves. 

Of course, since the water becomes contaminated from 
various influences, the filter ought to be made accordingly ; 
a medium which is recommend able for hard water will not do 
for soft water, and again, flatness may have to be contended 
with, which in itself requires a particular treatment. 

Thus the public could not fail, in course of time, to perceive 
that they were imposed upon, and the notion that filter 
'makers were more or less mere pretenders, has become 
general. 

Competent men however have taken the matter in hand, 
amongst whom is Dr. Clarke, who introduced the system of 
purifying water by adding quick-lime to it. 

Pure water will absorb two grains of carbonate of lime per 
gallon, and if the water takes up carbonic acid, this quantity 
maybe increased to about twenty grains. The caustic lime when 
added, will seize upon the carbonic acid present and render 
the carbonate of lime in solution insoluble, which, falling to 
the bottom, carries some of the organic impurities along with 
it. It is a bea/utiful manipulation, and answers well on a 
large scale (if the water be hardened from a superfluity of 
lime). Dr. Clarke having also introduced a test by which 
the degree of hardness of the water may be ascertained, to 
determine what quantity of lime should be added. Excess 
is easily tested with nitrate of silver. But unfortunately 
this process does not answer for domestic purposes, requiring 
as it does removal for each supply, besides it would not affect 
soft water and lead. 

A similar method is that of adding alum, which will de- 
compose in the water, and fall to the bottom in insoluble 



292 Purification of Water. 

precipitates, taking with them alumina and other impurities 
which discolour the water. But this process has the draw- 
back that but a slight excess of alum will form sulphates of 
lime, which, remaining in solution, causes hardness. 

The mechanical difficulties of constructing an effective 
and lasting filter for domestic use are many and have caused 
many failures. The maker must not only be thoroughly 
acquainted with the nature of the water he has to deal 
with, but he must also well consider the local influences. 
He may have excess of pressure in the supply or want of 
it. Moreover, he has to study the convenience of his 
customers, if he wishes for complete success. 

A water which is sufficiently pure in itself, and only 
subject to accidental and occasional contamination offers no 
difficulty. The case however is different if, for instance, 
it holds lead and excess of organic matter in solution. 
Here he has not only to remove this impurity, but he runs 
the risk of getting flat water, on account of its being invari- 
ably of a soft nature in this case. With due regard to the 
porosity of the filtering medium, in accordance with the 
pressure of the supply, the filter maker will principally choose 
animal charcoal corrugated with steel. The lead coming in 
contact with animal charcoal precipitates instantaneously, 
and the joint action of the media employed will reduce the 
organic matter to a minimum, causing at the same time the 
water to be bright and sparkling. 

To describe the mechanical arrangements of apparatuses 
for various purposes would be out of place. I may merely 
mention that the small filter which I have brought here has 
only been constructed for conveniently testing the filtering 
medium for given purposes. 

Much as I prefer animal charcoal to other materials in 
many cases, it would be folly to overrate its qualities by 
adopting it as a cure for every impurity which may be found 
in water. 

In 1860, in a letter which I wrote to The Times, public 
attention was called to the fact that animal charcoal, 
when judiciously employed, will remove solution of lead 
from water. It was amusing to see how nearly all the 
London filter makers at once adopted the cry for their adver- 
tisements : — " No more lead in water," and commenced using 
nothing but animal charcoal for their filters, thinking that 
this was all that could be desired. Of course their ignorance 
led them astray again, because the effect of animal charcoal 



Purification of Water. 293 

upon water which is hardened from the presence of 
acids and salts is but limited, and other substances, such as 
pure silica. &c. (having a great affinity for them) are far 
more effective. 

About ten years ago I found quite accidentally a most 
valuable filtering medium in the refuse of boghead coal. It 
appears that this coal yields more gas than any other kind 
known ; but, instead of coke, it leaves a pure silica of a 
very spongy nature — closely amalgamated with about ten 
to fifteen per cent, of carbon. 

By means of a simple process of my own I convert this 
substance into solid cakes of such size and porosity as may 
suit the different purposes, and thus I get not only a very 
effective filtering agent in quality ; but, in this form it 
assists me greatly to overcome mechanical difficulties. 

I have patented this material under the name of silicated 
carbon, by which it is well known in England. Various 
Government establishments, amongst which the General 
Post-office, the hospitals, and the public drinking fountains 
have adopted it ; in fact the latter introduced it to the public 
at large. 

A lawsuit relating to the Boghead coal called my atten- 
tion to it. The lessee of the mine denied it to be a coal, 
because it would not yield coke when distilled. A great 
sum of money being at stake, there were a great number of 
scientific men called upon to give evidence, and the battle 
became very fierce. Becoming interested in the feud 
between the various and differing members of the learned 
faculty, I profited greatly by finding a new and valuable 
filtering medium in the form of such a spongy silica as I 
had not met with before. 

This silicated carbon has been highly valued by the pro- 
fession, and Drs. Letheby, Waller, Lewis, Odling, Buchanan, 
Lankester, Noad and others used to support me strongly 
whenever I needed their aid. 

But a very few days ago I read an abstract of an article 
which the well-known water analyst, Dr. Rivers (to whom 
I am personally unknown), wrote for the " Popular Science 
Review," in which he discriminates the merits of the various 
filters now used in England. It was very pleasing for me 
to find that amongst the three systems which he has proved 
to be reliable for what they profess to do, he mentioned 
my own silicated carbon. Of the rest he seems to have 
formed but a very poor opinion. 



294 New Self- Registering Electrometer. 

This gentleman mentions that he has not extended his 
researches sufficiently to form a definite opinion as to the 
action of the three systems to which he refers, when the 
water is highly charged with carbonate of lime. Had he 
done so he would have found that in this particular case, 
silicated carbon would have had the advantage of Spencer's 
magnetic carbide and pure animal charcoal, on account of the 
presence of the pure silica. However, to reduce hardness 
of water, I would not entirely rely upon my favourite 
material, but get the assistance of other agents. Indeed, as 
I have stated before, an universal filtering medium does not 
in my opinion exist. 

A competent person will not have much difficulty in 
devising means for an efficient purification of water, and a 
judicial arrangement will even overcome brackishness to a 
considerable extent. I have never had much trouble in 
reducing Thames water impurities to about half a grain of 
organic matter per gallon with a low degree of hardness. 

Messrs. Danks and Co., of Bourke-street will, in a few 
days, have a model apparatus which has been purposely 
constructed to suit the Melbourne water supply. It will 
entirely remove lead and reduce the organic matter to a 
minimum, without causing flatness. It can easily be attached 
to the supply-pipes without interfering with the existing 
arrangements, having also a simple and effective arrangement 
for the cleansing. 

Another apparatus of a portable form will be particularly 
suitable for country use, at stations, farms, &c. 



Art. XXV. — On a New Self-Registering Electrometer ; or, 
Electrograph. By B. L. J. Ellery, Esq., President. 

[Read 9th December, 1867.] 

I have lately erected an instrument at the Observatory for 
obtaining a continuous record of the amount and variations 
of atmospheric electricity, the construction of which I 
believe is in some respects new ; I have therefore thought it 
worth while to lay a description of it before the Society. 

I must premise however that the main principles of this 
electrometer are not new, but were devised and applied by 
Sir W. Thomson, of Glasgow, some years ago, and he 



New Self-Registering Electrometer. 295 

described several forms of electrometer involving these prin- 
ciples in the proceedings of the Koyal Society of London, 
"Mcol's Encyclopaedia" (1860), and in several other 
works. 

Sir William Thomson has shown in several communica- 
tions to the Koyal Society of London, that if the sensitive or 
movable portions of any of the ordinary electrometers be kept 
charged with either positive or negative electricity, it not only 
becomes highly sensitive to the slightest electric force, but at 
the same time becomes an electroscopic electrometer, indi- 
cating at once whether the impressions made on it are from 
positive or negative electricity ; and his instruments were so 
constructed that the sensitive movable part or indicator was 
in connection with the inner coating of a Ley den jar, charged 
with either positive or negative electricity, the charge being 
maintained in the jar over long periods without any great 
change by protecting the jar from external influences 
by a surrounding metal case, and further by artificially 
drying the air within the case. The sensitive parts were 
acted on by insulated pieces of metal, which he styled elec- 
trodes, placed in a proper position near to the sensitive parts. 
The electrode or electrodes were generally arranged so that 
they could either be placed alternately in connection with 
the earth or with the body to be tested, or one constantly in 
connection with the body to be tested, and the other with 
the earth. 

Now, supposing the inner coating of the jar to be charged 
positively, the sensitive parts are also similarly charged, and 
would be repelled by any other body similarly and attracted 
by a body differently electrified. The surface of the earth is 
as a rule negative, and if the electrode were connected with 
the earth, the sensitive part would be attracted ; but if the 
electrode were attached to a positively electrified body, an 
atmospheric collector for instance, it would be repelled, and 
this attraction and repulsion would be a joint measure of 
the amount of electric force on the earth's surface or in the 
atmospheric collector and the inside coating of the jar ; the 
latter being measurable, the amount of the other forces 
becomes also measurable. 

The mode of conveying to the electrode the electric poten- 
tial of the atmosphere devised by Sir William Thomson, is 
very simple and effective ; it consists of an insulated vessel 
of water from which a pipe terminating in a fine nozzle pro- 
jects into the air ; from this nozzle the water issues in a very 



296 New Self-Registering Electrometer. 

fine stream soon breaking into drops ; the water and vessel 
rapidly becomes charged with the same potential of elec- 
tricity as the air at the point where the water breaks into 
drops. If the vessel be kept indoors, the insulation which it 
is necessary should be kept perfect, can be more easily main- 
tained. The pipe and nozzle may project through a window 
or any other opening into the open air. A conducting- 
wire attached to this vessel gives a means of con- 
veying to the electrode of the electrometer, either periodi- 
cally or continuously, the electric motive force as possessed 
by the stratum of air where the water drops from the 
nozzle. 

In the apparatus I have devised, the Ley den jar, metal 
protecting case and dried air are adopted in the electrometer 
and the water dropper for the collector, and it is only in the 
sensititive or movable part that it differs from those hitherto 
constructed. The sensitive part has always been suspended 
or held in position by a glass or silk fibre, or metal wire, and 
the force to be overcome by the electric force to be measured 
has either been torsion, as in Sir W. Thomson's instrument, 
or the directive magnetic force of a small magnet, as in 
Peltar's electrometer ; in this instrument, however, the 
movable part is a delicately poised metronome pendulum; 
substituting for torsion or magnetism the more measurable 
and reliable force of gravity. I have styled it "The Pendu- 
lum Electrometer," and it may be thus described: 

On a heavy base of slate, two upright strong brass stems, 
about 18 inches long and 10 inches apart, are fixed connected 
at the top by a stout cross piece of brass ; at the centre of this 
cross piece and at right angles to it, a block of vulcanite is 
fixed, and to the under part of this again, and also at right 
angles to the cross piece two segments of a heavy ring of 
brass of about 4| inches radius are attached, so that they 
form together a true circular arch, but with the two seg- 
ments separated by about one-sixteenth of an inch at the 
vertex. (Plate ) These two segments insulated from all 
other parts and from one another constitute the electrodes of 
the apparatus. Between the two pillars a large Ley den jar 
is fixed to the base, with the mouth upwards. To the 
inside, bottom and inner coating of this jar a strong 
brass stem is connected, carrying at its top a brass frame 
with two arms, reaching above the mouth of the jar, 
which form the support of the pendulum. The pendulum 
consists of a light circular ring of brass (to carry 



New Self-Registering Electrometer. 297 

a mirror), with two horizontally projecting arms, into 
which are screwed the two delicate steel cones on 
which the pendulum is poised ; these points are in a line 
with the centre of the mirror-ring; ninety degrees from 
these points the top and bottom stems of the pendulum are 
fixed into the edge of the ring ; the upper stem is of light 
aluminum wire, carrying at its top, about 4 \ inches from the 
centre of the ring, a piece of sheet aluminum about half-inch 
broad and three inches long, bent to the curve of a circle of 4 J 
inches radius ; this is fixed at right angles to the plane of the 
mirror frame ; the lower stem is a piece of light brass wire 
screwed over its whole length, on which a small weight to act 
as a counterpoise can be screwed up and down. On one of 
the arms of the mirror-frame a stud is fixed, through which 
is inserted a piece of screwed brass wire to act as a balancing 
arm. The mirror, which is a circle of silvered parallel glass, 
is fixed into the ring with cement. The steel suspension- 
points of the pendulum rest upon flat polished steel surfaces 
let into the arms of the frame attached to the inner coating 
of the Leyden jar, and when these surfaces are level, the pen- 
dulum properly balanced is counterpoised so as to vibrate 
once in two seconds ; it is then extremely sensitive to the 
slightest influence. A cradle to lift the pendulum off its 
bearings and drop it gently and accurately in its place again 
is adapted to the jar-frame, and is worked by a lifting screw 
at the back. 

The jar and frame is so fixed to the base, that when the 
pendulum is in its place the small segment of sheet alumi- 
num on its top swings freely and symmetrically under and 
about one-eighth of an inch distant from the electrode arch. 
Two leaden trays, holding lumps of pumice stone soaked in 
sulphuric acid, rest on the slate base, and partially surround 
the bottom of the jar. Over all this is a cylinder of copper, 
closed at the top, and fitting on to the base with a ground 
flange. Through the top of this cylinder there are two 
tubular apertures, fitted with plugs of vulcanite, through 
which two stout brass wires are inserted with a sliding 
air-tight fitting, and pass into holes in the upper surface of 
the electrodes ; one wire ends outside the cylinder in a kind of 
hook, the other carries a sliding piece, so that it can be 
brought in metallic communication with the covering 
cylinder. In front of the cylinder is a window of parallel glass, 
fitting air-tight. At the back, and on a level with the centre of 



298 New Self-Registering Electrometer. 

the mirror is an aperture lined with vulcanite, leaving an 
opening of about half-an-inch, over which is screwed a close 
fitting cover ; this opening is for admitting the charging 
rod for charging or discharging the jar. The rod consists of 
a brass wire terminating at one end in a ball, at the other 
in a square filed on the wire, the intermediate stem being 
covered with gutta percha. When the rod is inserted, the 
square end readily finds its way into a trumpet mouth, 
formed in the head of the lifting screw, and forms an insu- 
lated connection with the inner coating, and at the same 
time serves as a key for turning the lifting screw for raising 
or lowering the pendulum. To charge the jar the rod is 
inserted, and a few good sparks from an electrophorus 
passed on to the ball end ; the rod is then carefully with- 
drawn and the opening closed ; the air within being dried 
hj the sulphuric acid, and the jar and sensitive pendulum 
protected from all external electrical influence by the cover- 
ing cylinder ; the charge of the jar remains sufficiently 
constant over a considerable period. 

The pendulum need never be lifted off its bearings except 
to adjust it, or in case it has got out of position, when the 
lifting and lowering it puts it into its place again. — 
The pendulum being adjusted, and the jar charged, the 
former is highly sensitive to electrical influences presented 
to it through the electrodes ; and if we now connect one 
electrode with the earth by slipping down the sliding piece 
(S) till it touches the cover, the pendulum is immediately 
moved towards the earth electrode if the jar is charged 
positively, and vice versa if negatively. The mirror moving 
with the pendulum gives a means of ascertaining the 
amount of its deviation from the vertical or zero position ; 
to this end a scale is set up in front of the window and 
mirror, so that its reflected image can be seen — this image 
is viewed by the aid of a telescope, as the mirror moves 
the scale appears to move, and a different position is seen in 
the telescope. 

Suppose before the jar is charged the scale reading corre- 
sponding to the zero position of the pendulum is m — this 
is the zero reading;, after charging and connecting earth 
electrode m -J- n, this is called the earth reading. The 
difference between the two readings, or n, is a measure of 
the charge of the jar, and varies with it ; and as the stronger 
the charge the more sensitive the pendulum, a correction to 



New Self-Registering Electrometer. 299 

the indications due to a change in charge is always neces- 
sary and afforded by n. 

If now a wire from the water dropper is connected to the 
hook wire or air electrode, the pendulum will be acted on 
by the electric force of the air where the water drops, and 
if the jar is positive, will be attracted towards this elec- 
trode when the air is negative, and repelled when it is 
positive, in proportion to the electric potential. And as the 
pendulum is so made that the deflections are seldom large, 
its angular deviation may be taken as proportional to the 
force. 

I have arranged this Electrometer so as to be continu- 
ously self-registering by photography, on the same principle 
as is adopted at Kew for the magneto graphs, a full descrip- 
tion of which arrangement is given in the British Associa- 
tion reports for 1859. 

This apparatus may be therefore styled " The Pendulum 
Magnetograph." The method of procedure adopted is 
this : The electrometer being adjusted and charged, and the 
water cistern (which is made to contain twenty-four hours 
supply) filled and dropping, the revolving cylinder covered 
with sensitive paper, and the clock going ; at about 9 a.m., 
the earth electrode is connected, but the other disconnected, 
it is left thus for five or six minutes, and the scale reading 
obtained and entered as the earth reading ; at the end of 
this time the water dropper is connected to the earth elec- 
trode, it is left so till 9 a.m. next day, when the cistern is 
disconnected and filled, the light shifted so as to get the 
second day's curve and the earth reading, and left on five or 
six minutes, then the cistern is connected. At 9 a.m. next 
day the same process is gone through, with the addition of 
removing the sensitive sheet from the cylinder and putting 
on a fresh one. 

The sheets when photographicively finished by developing 
and fixing, shows curves corresponding to the variation of 
electric potential, and both the time and extent of these can 
at once be obtained from them. The beginning and end of 
each day's curve is marked by a short mark, distinct and 
somewhat removed from the general curve ; this is the 
earth reading at the beginning and end of each day and is 
the photographic registration of the pendulum's position 
when the earth electrode only was connected ; a line drawn 
from one to the other may be assumed as the line of earth 

x 2 



300 Experiments on Mr. Dahlke's Filter. 

readings for the twenty-four hours, and forms the datum 
line from which the ordi nates to the curves are measured. 
If we wish to tabulate the numerical values of the ordinates 
from these curves a correction has to be applied to each 
ordinate, depending on the distance of this datum from the 
zero line, or line that would be made by the reflected dot 
when the pendulum was vertical. I submit a few of the 
curves for your inspection, and hope, at some future time, 
to bring before you some results obtained by this apparatus, 
and describe the manner in which the indications obtained 
are converted to absolute measure in adopted units of 
force. 



Art. XXVI. — Experiments on Mr. Julius Dahlke's Filter. 
By Mr. J. Cosmo Newbery. 

[Read 9th December, 1867.] 

At the last meeting of this Society a paper was read by 
Dr. Neild for Mr. Julius Dahlke, describing a new filter, 
which was stated to be peculiarly adapted for filtering 
water containing organic matter, and water which, having 
passed through lead pipes or vessels, contained salts of lead. 
And the statement that it would remove acetate of lead, and 
some other salts from solution without chemical action was 
so remarkable, and of so much importance, that I gladly 
undertook to try some experiments with the filter and 
report the results to you. I am very much pleased to be 
able to corroborate all Mr. Dahlke's statements, and indeed 
go further. Upon receiving the filter I poured into it solu- 
tions of sulphate of magnesia and common salt, and to my 
astonishment found only traces of these salts in the filtrate, 
so small that they could only be detected chemically. These 
salts were followed by strong acetic and hydrochloric acids, 
with like results, the water from each being absolutely taste- 
less. I finally added strong yellow sulphide of ammonium, 
which passed through as pure water. Upon inverting the 
filter and pouring in hot water, the sulphide of ammonium 
was discharged undecomposed, showing that though it fol- 



Experiments on Mr. Dahlkes Filter. 301 

lowed strong hydrochloric acid it never came in contact with 
it. After washing for some time the hydrochloric acid made 
its appearance. 

Similar experiments were repeated several times with like 
results, and it was not till I added a fluid containing no 
water and which would not mix with water that I overcame 
the power of the filter to separate soluble salts from solution. 

It is almost impossible to over-estimate the value of this 
discovery, especially as Mr. Dahlke is prepared to fit up 
filters capable of purifying from 10 to 20,000 gallons, which 
without doubt will be of great service in many parts of the 
country where nearly all the water is so highly charged 
with salt as to be unfit for either human beings or cattle. 
To prove what its value may be at sea, I may add that I 
filtered some water collected from the end of St. Kilda pier 
and that the filtrate contained very little more salt than 
Yan Yean. 

It has been known for some years that most porous sub- 
stances have the peculiar power of retaining a portion 
of the soluble salts contained in water, when used as filtering 
media. In 1856 it was shown by the late Mr. H. M. Witt, 
that when water containing soluble salts was passed through 
sand-beds from five to fifteen percent, of the salts were removed. 
It has also been proved that ordinary agricultural soil has the 
power of purifying sewage water from all its soluble salts and 
organic matter, if it is allowed to flow over a larg earea. 
Various other substances, such as ordinary charcoal, animal 
charcoal, magnetic oxide of iron, and the new silico-carbon 
filter have been described as possessing this peculiar physico- 
mechanical power, but none to the same degree as the sub- 
stance contained in Mr. Dahlke's filter. 



PROCEEDINGS 



PROCEEDINGS 



ROYAL SOCIETY OF VICTORIA. 

MINUTES OF PROCEEDINGS. 

9th July, 1866. 

Ordinary Meeting. 

The President, R. L. J. Ellery, Esq., in the chair. 

The following contributions were announced : — Vol. 1, new 
series, "Royal Horticultural Society of London." Second Report 
upon the " River Warimakarira," Canterbury, New Zealand. Vols. 
1 and 2, " Jahresbericht des Vereins fur Erdkunde,zer Dresden." 

Mr. Cosmo Newbery, proposed at the last meeting, was balloted 
for, and declared duly elected. 

Mr. H. Zumstein was nominated as an ordinary member. The 
ballot to be taken at next meeting. 

The President briefly referred to the Conversazione held on the 
2nd inst., and which was in every way successful. 

Mr. Thomas Harrison read a paper, " Notes of a Geological Trip 
over the Coal Basin of New South Wales." 

Professor M'Coy combatted the opinions of the Rev. W. B. Clarke, 
of Sydney, to which Mr. Harrison's paper gave countenance, and 
referring to the former discussion on the same subject, under the 
Presidency of Sir Henry Barkly, maintained the correctness of the 
statements previously made. In Professor M'Coy's opinion, Mr. 
Selwyn had far better opportunities of observation than Mr. Clarke, 
and Mr. Selwyn bore out the soundness of the Professor's remarks. 
Disposing of the arguments put forth in support of the New South 
Wales theory, the Professor maintained the Coal Fields of Victoria 
were of a mesozoic and not palaeozoic character, and that the Hobart 
Town beds bore out this view. 

Mr. Bonwick mentioned that he had visited the place referred to, 
Stony Creek, but had not time to investigate the matter thoroughly. 
He would like to see the spot visited by Professor M'Coy and Mr. 
Selwyn, and thus settle the question. 

Mr. Harrison defended his paper, and Messrs. Ellery and Bonwick 
joined in the discussion. 

Professor M'Coy went over many of the arguments he had brought 
before the Society at different times, showing the errors into which 
Mr. Clarke had fallen. 



306 Proceedings, &c, 1866. 

Some discussion then arose with reference to the Shale, and Bog 
Head Cannel Coal, specimens of which Mr. Harrison had placed on 
the table, and in which Messrs. A. K. Smith, Ellery, Bonwick, 
Harrison, and Professor M'Coy, took part. 

(Signed) Bobt. L. J. Ellery. 

13th August, 1866. 



13th August, 1866. 
Ordinary Meeting. 

At 8 o'clock, from the non-attendance of Members, the meeting 
adjourned. 

Thos. H. Bawlings, 

Hon. Secretary. 



10^A September, 1866. 

Ordinary Meeting. 

The President, B. L. J. Ellery, Esq., in the chair. 

The following gentlemen, who were to have been proposed as 
Ordinary Members at the August Meeting, were then nominated : — 



Mr. Charles Wilkinson. 
,, William W^alker. 
„ H. A. Thompson. 



Mr. Thomas Napier. 
,, James Napier. 
„ William Clarke. 



Mr. Benjamin Barnes. 

Moved by Mr. J. B. Were, seconded by Mr. Aplin, and resolved, 
" That so much of Law XXII, requiring the names of Candidates 
" for Membership to be read at one meeting, and balloted for at 
" a subsequent one, be, in consequence of last meeting lapsing, 
"suspended, and that a ballot be at once proceeded with. 

Messrs. Aplin and Bonwick were appointed Scrutineers. 

The above-named seven gentlemen, together with Mr. Zumstein, 
duly proposed and seconded on 9th July, were balloted for and 
declared duly elected. 

A vacancy being declared in the Council, by the resignation of 
Mr. Bobert Adams, Mr. H. K. Busden was proposed by Mr. 
Bawlings, seconded by Mr. B. L. J. Ellery, and no other candidate 
being nominated, was declared duly elected. 

The Council forwarded a message, recommending that the names 
of four gentlemen be removed from the list of members, for non- 
payment of subscription. 

Upon the motion of Mr. H. K. Busden, seconded by Mr. George 
Ulrich, the recommendation was agreed to. 

The following contributions were announced : — " Transactions 
of the Philosophical Society of Glasgow," 20 parts, 1841 to 1865. 
"Journal, Statistical Society of London," March 1866, two parts 



Proceedings, &c, 1866. 307 

(Nos. 25 to 48). "Transactions of the Geological Society, 
Darmstadt." Three maps from the Geological Survey Department — 
presented by A. R. Selwyn, Esq. " Bibliotheca Photographia," " Dr. 
Ludwig Leichardt." " Antiquariats Katalog," " Additamenta ad 
Geoges," " August Pitzelu Thesauram." " Literaturae Botanicae" — 
presented by the author, E. A. Zuchold, Esq., Leipzig. " Neber die 
Fossile Kreideflora unde ehre Leitpflangen," " Beitiage zur Keuntniss 
fossiler Cycadeen," — presented by Herr Goeppert, Breslau. " Erster 
Jahres-bericht des Naturwissenschaftlichen Veriene zur Bremen," 
November 1864 to March 1866. 

Mr. Charles Wilkinson read a paper, " Notes on some experiments, 
referring to the theory of the formation of gold nuggets in drift." 

Mr. J. Bonwick rather questioned the novelty of the theory 
having heard Mr. Evan Hopkins, in 1852, put forth the same idea. 
Mr.. Ulrich approved of the paper. Professor M'Coy went minutely 
into the question, considering the analysis of the mine waters as avery 
important matter, and gave credit to Mr. Wilkinson for the paper 
just read. Mr. Aplin differed from the theory, seeing a physical 
difficulty in the way. Mr. Wilkinson, after some discussion, replied 
generally to the objections. 

Mr. H. A. Thompson read a paper, " Notes on the Extraction of 
Gold." 

Professor M'Coy, Messrs. A. K. Smith, and other members took 
part in a long conversation that ensued, and ultimately it was moved 
by Mr. A. K. Smith, seconded by Mr. Crooke, and carried, " That 
" the further discussion of Mr. Thompson's paper be adjourned until 
" the next night of meeting." 

(Signed) Robt. L. J. Ellery. 

8th October, 1866. 



Sth October, 1866. 

Ordinary Meeting. 

The President, R. L. J. Ellery, Esq., in the chair. 

The Hon. Secretary reported that a deputation from the Council, 
consisting of the Hon. Treasurer (Mr. Were), Mr. Gillbee, and himself, 
had waited on his Excellency, who had consented to become patron 
of the Royal Society. 

The following contributions were announced : — Vol. VI. of the 
" Proceedings and Transactions of the Meteorlogical Society, 
Mauritius." " Der Uzeit der Erde Gedicht,"— by Franz V. Kobell. 
" Vortrage aberdie Florenreime oder Impericse Florae," — by Dr. Von 
Martins. "Memoriae Sobre la influencia del Cultivo del arriz 
Exposicion de les Medicias, Conducenta a Evitar todo dano o 
rebogar losque sean inevitable"— by Dr. Don Juan B. Ullensperger, 
President R. A. Medicine, Madrid. 



308 Proceedings, &c. t 1866. 

In consequence of the inclemenc} r of the evening, on the motion 
of Mr. J. B. Were, seconded by Mr Aplin, thn adjourned discussion 
on Mr. Thompson's paper was further postponed. 

Mr. Charles Wilkinson read a paper " On a Patent Ear Trumpet 
and Stethoscope," invented by David Wilkinson, Esq 

The trumpet was shown to the members present. 

Mr. Ellery approved highly of the trumpet, and had been present 
when it was used by a member of the Society, who was unfortunately 
exceedingly deaf, and with very great benefit. The novelty of the 
stethoscope was a piece of steel wire, stretched through and kept in 
the middle of the tube. 

Dr. Wilkie regretted the absence of the stethoscope, but could not 
comprehend how the steel wire could increase or steady the sound. 
As to the trumpet, there was a report in the proceedings of the 
Eoyal Society on the subject. Had there been any improvement 
since 1 

The report appeared to have been unfavorable, as regarded any 
novelty or value, as it was then presented to the Society. 

A general discussion arose on the paper, in which Mr. Sizar 
Elliott, Dr. Wilkie, andjother members offered variouss suggestions, 
and Mr. Wilkinson, in replying to the opinion of the various 
gentlemen, promised further information on the subject. 

(Signed) E-obt. L. J. Elleey. 

12th November, 1866. 



12th November, 1866. 
Okdinaky Meeting. 
The President, R. L. J. Ellery, Esq., in the chair. 

The following contributions were announced : — Vols. 2, 3, and 
4, "Transactions Philosophical Society of Manchester." "La 
Sarcine de L'Estomac," " De Sarcine (Sarcina Ventricula, Goodsir) 
— by Dr. W. F. B. Suringer, of Leyden. 

The Hon. Secretary also placed on the table Vol. VII. of the 
" Transactions of the Pboyal Society of Victoria," stating that by 
the last mail, copies had been transmitted to the agents.in London, 
to be forwarded to 85 learned societies, and to honorary members in 
various parts of Europe and America. Copies suitably bound had 
been forwarded to His Excellency, for transmission to Her Majesty 
the Queen and the Emperor of France. A copy, also, had been pre- 
sented to Sir J. H. Manners-Sutton, as patron of the Society. The 
Transactions had also been sent to the honorary members in Sydney, 
New Zealand, Mauritius, and also to the Public Library and 
Mechanics Institute, Melbourne. 

In accordance with Law IX. the Hon. Secretary announced that 
the President, Vice-President, Treasurer, Secretary, Custos of Col- 



Proceedings, &c, 1866. 309 

lection, and Librarian, together with Drs. Barker and Wilkie, 
Professor M'Coy, and Messrs. Bonwick, Gillbee, and Lang, members 
of Council, retired from office at the close of the year. Messrs. 
Aplin, Kusden, Bawlinson, Von Guerrard, Professor Halford, and 
Rev. Dr. Bleasdale, were the members of Council remaining in 
office. 

Dr. Mueller read a paper on " New Coleoptera" by the Count De 
Castelnau, prefacing it, by calling attention to the Count's reputa- 
tion as an Entomologist, and of the zeal he bad displayed while 
leader of a party sent by the French Government to the tropical 
parts of South America. 

Several rare specimens of Coleoptera were exhibited by Dr. 
Mueller on the part of the Count. 

The adjourned discussion on Mr. Thompson's paper was resumed, 
and the model of a percussion table on an improved plan, exhibited 
and explained. Mr. Thompson stated that the Port Phillip Company, 
finding the loss amounted to £35,000 per annum, had commenced 
using the table, after undertaking a series of experiments to test its 
value, and with marked success. From experiments made by him- 
self the following results had been obtained : — 183 tons yielded 
513oz. 17dwts. ; the cost was £560, and the profit £1,420. 

The model exhibited was constructed on a scale of f inch ' t to the 
foot. 

In the long discussion that ensued, Mr. Gideon S. Lang con- 
sidered the machine as likely to effect a revolution in the crushing 
of quartz. And as to its great importance, Messrs. Cosmo Newbery, 
Ellery, A. K. Smith, and other members bore testimony. Mr. Smith 
offering his establishment to Mr. Thompson for the purpose of 
carrying out any further experiments he might think necessary. 

(Signed) Robt. L. J. Ellery. 

10th December, 1866. 



10th December, 1866. 
Ordinary Meeting. 
The President, R. L. J. Ellery, Esq., in the chair. 
The following contributions were announced : — " Catalogue of the 
Mammalian Fossils discovered in Ireland," Three pamphlets on 
the " Granitic Rocks of Donegal" — by R. H. Scott, Esq. " On an 
Undescribed species of Petrel, from the Blue Mountains of Jamaica/' 
and " Notes on the Genus Chiasmodon" — by Dr. Alex. Carte. Vols. 
3,4, 5, 6, and 10, "Transactions Geological Society of Ireland," 
and Vol. 1, part 1, "Royal Geological Society of Ireland" — pre- 
sented by the Society. No. 38 " Fragmenta Phytographias Australise" 
— presented by Dr. Mueller. 

Dr. F. Mueller read a paper entitled "Characteristics of an 
Undescribed Senecio, from South Africa," which the author had 



310 Proceedings, &c, 1866. 

been requested to report on, by the principal of Shaw's College, 
Graham's Town. Dr. Miieller referred to Drs. Harney and 
Sounder, eminent Phytographers. 

Professor M'Coy agreeing with the paper of Dr. Mueller, also bore 
testimony to the merit of Dr. Harney, who had himself drawn and 
lithographed the whole of the magnificient illustrations for his work 
on Natural History. 

In reply to some inquiries, Dr. Mueller said that he considered 
all unscientific names as ambiguous, and liable to misconstruction. 
The Senecio was known under the name of the Duke of Bedford, a 
name given to it from the great interest His Grace had taken in 
horticultural pursuits. It was easily distinguished by its leaves, 
long and broad, quite white, and woolly underneath. 

The President then read a paper by Mr. Shiress of Sandhurst, 
on the " Decomposition of Pyrites." Mr. Shiress proposed to 
decompose the pyrites by wood heated in direct contact with the 
pyrites. 

This paper gave rise to a long and animated discussion. 

Professor M'Coy could not conceive what Mr. Shiress meant by 
asserting that by heating pyrites, sulphite of carbon would be pro- 
duced. Sulphuric acid might be obtained, and in time of war 
pyrites had often been mixed with charcoal to supply the place of 
sulphur. He had grave doubts as to the results stated, and thought 
the cost of fuel ought also to be considered. 

Mr. Shiress (who was present as a visitor) defended the results 
stated in the paper arrived at, but generally abandoned all the 
questions on which he had been pressed by Professor M'Coy. Mr. 
Shiress exhibited several specimens of tailings from which, by his 
process, 3 ounces to the ton had been obtained, but which, under the 
old plan, had yielded but 4 dwts. 

In answer to other enquiries, Mr. Shiress said that by using 
quicksilver and water, from some of the tailings produced, 1 2 ounces 
to the ton had been obtained. 

Professor M'Coy, and Mr. Cosmo Newbery, still doubted the 
correctness of the theory, but Mr. Shiress resolutely maintained that 
under his mode of operation, the yield had been as stated. In 
reply to Mr. Crooke he said the quantity of wood used was about 
twice the bulk of the stone. The stone should be broken to 
the size of road metal, any stone by his plan would yield 5 to 1 on 
its present return. 

Mr. Aplin and the previous speakers dissenting, Mr. J B. Were 
trusted, as the matter was really of very great importance, that 
the members present would give their opinions freely. 

The President said the main issue was whether the results obtained 
were as Mr. Shiress stated. He agreed with Professor M'Coy and 
the other speakers as to the non-production of sulphide of carbon. 

Mr. Crooke said the burning of pyrites was no new plan, and, 



Proceedings, kc, 1866. 311 

commending Mr. Shiress for coming from Sandhurst with his paper, 
trusted that the Royal Society would superintend an experiment of 
the sort referred to. A discussion ensued, Mr. Aplin disagreeing 
from Mr. Shiress, and Mr. Rawlings supporting Mr. Crooke's view. 
Mr. Shiress said any description of pyrites would yield a corresponding 
return. Mr. Lang suggested obtaining pyrites from Mr. Thompson. 
Mr. Gillbee, Mr. Newbery, and Professor M'Coy, argued against the 
plan ; Professor Halford and Dr. Mueller in favor of an investiga- 
tion. Ultimately it was proposed by Mr. Rawlings, seconded by Mr. 
Crooke, and carried, " That the paper on the decomposition of 
" pyrites by Mr. Shiress, be referred to the Council of the Royal 
" Society, with a view to test the plan set forth, and report to a 
" meeting thereon." 

Mr. Shiress exhibited various specimens from the " Whip Reef," 
" Tipperary Gully," and other places in the Bendigo District. 

On the proposition of Mr. R. L. J. Ellery, seconded by Professor 
M'Coy, and carried, Mr. Samuel W. McGowan was elected a member 
of Council to supply the vacancy caused by the non-attendance of 
the Rev. Dr. Bleasdale. 

It was proposed by Mr. Rawlings, seconded by Mr. Aplin, and 
carried, " That Mr. Henry Zumstein and Mr. James Blackburn be 
appointed auditors." 



1867. 

Annual Meeting. 

ROYAL SOCIETY OF VICTORIA. 

lith January, 1867. 

The President, R. L. J. Ellery, Esq., in the chair. 

The following contributions were announced : — " Report of R. 
Rawlinson, Esq., C.E., On Supplying Water to Liverpool from Bala 
Lake, North Wales"- -presented by T. E. Rawlinson, Esq. "Result of 
25 years' Meteorological Observations for Hobart Town" — by Fras. 
Abbot, Esq., F.R.A.6. 

The Honorary Secretary then read the following Report for 
1866 :— 

ROYAL SOCIETY OF VICTORIA. 

The Council has the honour to submit to the members of the 
Royal Society the following report for 1866 : — 

" It will be in the recollection of the Members that on a revision 
" of the Laws of the Society, an alteration was made in the time at 
" which the Council was elected, and that on the 15th January, 
" 1866, the present Executive came into office. 



312 Proceedings, &c, 1867. 

" During the year nine Ordinary Meetings were held, and the 
" following papers read before the Members : — 

1866. 

" 12th Feb. — On Ozone and its Influences, by The President. 

" 12th March.— On the Grass Tree, by C. W. Ligar, Esq. 

" ,, „ On the Volcanic Eocks of Eome and Victoria 

" contrasted, by J. Bonwick, Esq. 

" „ „ On the Green Sapphire, or Oriental Ruby, by the 

" Rev. Dr. Bleasdale. 

" 9th April. — On the Absorption of Colouring Matter in the 
" Living Body, by Professor Halford. 

" 11th June. — On Differential Equations and Co-resolvents, by 
" Chief-Justice Cockle. 

" „ „ On Rainfall in Victoria, by The President. 

" 9th July. — Notes of a Geological Trip to New South Wales, by 
" Thomas Harrison, Esq. 

" 11th Sept. — On the Theory of the formation of Gold Nuggets 
" in Drift, by Charles Wilkinson, Esq. 

" „ „ Notes on the Extraction of Gold, by H. A. 
" Thompson, Esq. 

" 8th Oct. — On a patent Ear Trumpet, by Charles Wilkinson, 

" Esq. 

" 12th Nov. — On New Coleoptera, by Count de Castelnau, read 
" by Dr. Mueller. 

" 10th Dec. — On an Undescribed Senecio from South Africa, by 
" Dr. Mueller. 

" „ „ On a new method of Decomposing Pyrites, by Mr. 
" Shiress, read by The President. 

" The discussion on Mr. Thompson's paper was adjourned, at the 
" desire of several members, from September to November. Mr. 
" Thompson submitting at the adjourned meeting a model of his 
" improved Percussion Table. 

" The Council has endeavored to bring into notice papers tending 
" to develop the resources of the gold-fields, and to economize the 
" working in extracting the precious metal. 

" The address of the President was delivered on the 2nd July, at 
" a conversazione held in the hall of the Society. The success of 
" this conversazione renders it, in the opinion of the Council, desir- 
" able that the customary address should be, in future, read at similar 
" assemblages. 

" The Council has the pleasure of announcing that His Excellency 



Proceedings, &c., 1866. 313 

" Sir J. H. T. Manners-Sutton, the present Governor of Victoria, 
" has accepted the office of Patron of the Society, thus continuing 
" the connection recognised by his predecessors. 

" The correspondence with learned societies is on the increase, 
" and attention is directed to the Library of the Society, which, in 
" foreign scientific works, has been largelv augmented during the 
" year ; 168 volumes having been presented during the season of 
" 1866. 

" The Society has also received three maps of the Geological 
" Survey of Victoria, issued from the Geological Department during 
" the same period. 

" The VII. volume of the Transactions has been placed in the 
" hands of members ; copies, according to the established custom, 
" have been presented to Her Majesty the Queen, the Emperor of 
" the French ; the Public Library • honorary members, and ninety- 
'• three Societies with which the Royal Society is in correspondence. 

" During the year ten new members have been elected, but the 
" Council regret having had to remove seventeen names from the roll 
" for non-payment of arrears, and almost the first act of the new 
" Council will be to recommend a further revision of the Roll of 
" Membership. 

" The Treasurer's audited Balance Sheet, appended to this report, 
" shows a balance of £39 in favour of this Society. The liabilities 
" are also appended. 

" The extreme economy with which the Society has been worked 
" during the past year, even taking into consideration the expense of 
" the conversazione, has enabled the Council to sweep off many debts 
" bequeathed by its predecessors ; and it is to be hoped, by the early 
"payments of subscriptions for 1867, the future Executive maybe 
" better enabled to carry out the purposes for which the Royal Society 
" was framed, — The advancement of Science, Literature, and Art, 
" with especial reference to the development of the resources of the 
" colony." 

'* The Council hope the Transactions of the Society may in future 
" be issued at quarterly intervals, trusting the members, by their 
" contributions, will render the publication worthy of the name the 
" Royal Society has obtained, and earnestly invite the co-operation 
" of all in the formation of sections, a branch of the Society which 
" has not yet received the attention it deserves. 

" The President, Vice-President, Treasurer, Secretary, Custos of 
" Collection and Librarian, together with Messrs. Bonwick, Gillbee, 
" Lang, Professor M'Coy, and Drs. Barker and Wilkie, members of 
" Council, retire from office. The names of gentlemen duly nomi- 
" nated to fill up the vacancies have been submitted to members, and 
" it will be the business of the meeting this evening to elect the 
" various officers. 

" In accordance with notice duly published, Dr. Mueller will 



314 Proceedings, &a, 1866. 

" also submit for the approval of members an alteration in Law 
" XXIV. 

" The Council, considering that the Royal Society of Victoria is 
" a link connecting Australia with the older countries in all matters 
" pertaining to Science, Literature, and Art, confidently trust that 
" the year 1867 will prove a successful one, both in the number and 
" value of papers read, and in the activity displayed in enlisting the 
" sympathies of those calculated to advance the Society and place it 
" in a position to foster Science, and develop the resources of the 
u Colony of Victoria." 



Balance Sheet 



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316 Proceedings, &c, 1867. 

Proposed by Mr. C. D'O. Aplin, seconded by Mr. G. S. Lang, and 
carried, " That the report and balance sheet of the Council now read, 
be received and adopted.'' 

In accordance with notice, Dr. Mueller brought forward his 
proposed alteration in Law XXIV. Seconded by Dr. Barker, in the 
absence of Mr. Bonwick. 

After some discussion, in which Professor M'Coy, Mr. Lang, Mr. 
Gillbee, the President, and hon. Secretary took part, Dr. Mueller, 
by permission of the meeting, withdrew the motion, 

The President vacated the chair, which was taken by Mr. C. D'O. 
Aplin. Messrs. H. K. Kusden, and James Osborne, junr were 
duly appointed scrutineers. 

The Chairman announced that as there was but a single nomina- 
tion for each office, the following gentlemen were duly elected for 
the year 1867 : — 

President : 

K L. J. Ellery, Esq. 

Vice-Presidents : 
A. K. Smith, Esq. C. W. Ligar, Esq. 

Treasurer : 
Robert Willan, Esq. 

Secretary : 
T. H. Rawlings, Esq. 

Librarian : 
Dr. Neild. 

Curator : 
Thomas Harrison, Esq. 

And upon a ballot being taken for six members of Council, the 
following were declared duly elected : — 

Professor M'Coy. H. A. Thompson, Esq. 

Wm. Gillbee, Esq. G. S. Lang, Esq. 

J. B. Were, Esq. Dr. Barker. 

The following gentlemen were proposed as ordinary members, 
ballot to take place next evening : — Wm. Johnston, Esq., St. Kilda ; 
Alex. C. Allan, Esq., Observatory. 

(Signed) Bobt. L. J. Ellery. 

11th Feb. 1867. 



Proceedings, &c, 1867. 317 

Monday 11th February, 1867. 
The President, Robt. L. J. Ellery, Esq., in the chair. 

The following contributions were announced : — Two maps issued 
by the Geological Survey Department — presented by A. R. Selwyn, 
Esq. 

The gentlemen proposed as members at last meeting were balloted 
for and declared duly elected. 

Professor M'Coy then exhibited and described three new species 
of Victorian birds. 1st. Herodias Grezetta, obtained from Gipps 
Land. 2nd. Sphenura Broadbenti, from Portland, and 3rd. Parda- 
lotus Xanthopyge, from the Mallee Scrub. 

The Professor also read his notes on the discovery of Enaliosauria 
and other cretaceous fossils, proving the conclusions he had pre- 
viously arrived at, and at various times laid before the Society. 

Mr. Bon wick, Mr. Aplin, Sir Redmond Barry, and the President 
took part in a conversation that ensued upon the value of the 
discovery, and congratulated the Professor upon the gratification he 
must feel at having his predictions so signally confirmed. 

Mr. G. W. Groves read a paper, " A Contribution to Meteorology." 

A very animated discussion arose upon this contribution, which 
was based upon " The Science of Terrestrial Magnetism." Messrs. 
Ellery, Aplin, Professor M'Coy, Messrs. Rawlinson and Lang taking 
part. The general impression of members was unfavorable to tho 
theory put forth by Mr. Groves, who ultimately promised to follow 
up his researches, and communicate the results to the Society. 

Signed, Robert L. J. Ellery. 

11th March, 1867. 



Ordinary Meeting. 

Monday, llth March, 1867. 

The President, R. L. J. Ellery, Esq., in the chair. 

The following contributions were announced. — " Proceedings of 
the Royal Society of London," Nos 70, 72, 73, 74. " Journal of the 
Linnean Society,' 1 Nos. 35 to 38 inclusive. " List of the Linnean 
Society," 1865. " Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society," 
No. 6, Vol. 10. "Die Entwicklung der Ideen in der Naterwissen- 
chaft," Von Liebig. " Die Bedentung moderne Graclmessungen," 
Von Dr. Bauenfriend. "jSitzungsberichle der konigl bayer Akademie 
der Wissenchaften, Zur Munchen," 1865, II Heft III and IV. 1866 
I Heft, 1, 2, 3, 4. 1866, II Heft, 1. 

The following gentlemen were duly proposed and seconded as 
ordinary members, ballot to take place at next meeting : — Wm. 
Williams, Esq., Thomas Moubray, Esq., Samuel Amess, Esq., 
Thomas McPherson, Esq., Orlando Fenwick, Esq., Abraham 
Linacre, Esq., Henry Sanders, Esq , John Walker, Esq. 



318 Proceedings, &c, 1867. 

A paper was announced to be read by Mr. Cosmo Newbery, but 
in the absence of that gentleman (without notice), no other paper 
had been prepared. 

Signed, Robert L. J. Ellery. 

8th April, 1867. 



Ordinary Meeting. 
Monday, 8th April, 1867. 
The President, R. L. J. Ellery, Esq., in the chair. 

The following contributions were announced : — No. 35 " Transac- 
tions Royal Society, Dublin." Laffarges " History of Languages." 
Vol. 1, parts 4 and No. 6 of " Royal Horticultural Society, London." 

On a ballot taking place for the gentlemen duly nominated at last 
meeting (Messrs Marshall and Von Guerard acting as scrutineers), 
they were declared duly elected. 

A message from the Council recommended that five names be 
removed from the roll of membership, for non-payment of arrears 
of subscription, and on the motion of Mr. Aplin, seconded by Mr. 
A. K. Smith, the names of the gentlemen indicated in the message 
were erased accordingly. 

Mr. Richard Danson was duly proposed and seconded as an 
ordinary member, ballot to be taken at next meeting. 

The President called the attention of members to Law XXXVIII. , 
and suggested the desirability of having it carried out. 

Mr. J. Cosmo Newbery read a paper, " On the manufacture of 
paper from native plants." 

In the discussion that ensued, Mr. Crooke drew attention to the 
native grasses of Tasmania, which he considered well adapted, from 
the strength of fibre and the ease with which they could be obtained, 
for the purpose of paper making. 

Dr. Mueller went at some length into the question, giving it as 
his opinion that stringy bark would prove the best material to 
operate upon. The Dr. also handed in for inspection a large number 
of specimens of paper, which may be thus catalogued : — 

No. 1. — Tissue paper, containing 50 per cent, pine-wood, made in Germany. 
2. — Bill paper ,, 40 ,, wood, 12J China clay, made in 

Germany. 
3. — Paper. All of wood. Made in Switzerland. 
4. — Paper. Containing 20 per cent, aspen wood, made in Germany. 
5. — Paper. Of fern leaves, made in Germany. 
6. — Paper. Containing 75 per cent, sparta, 25 per cent, rags, made 

in France. 
7. — Paper. From maize or Turkish corn, made in Prussia. 
8. — Paper. Made from New Zealand flax. 

Dr. Mueller briefly noticed the various materials applicable to the 
manufacture of paper, and which could be found in India, China, 
and the Australian colonies. 



Proceedings, &a, 1867. 319 

Mr. A. K. Smith spoke more particularly as to the advantages to 
be derived from the erection of a paper mill, and the best site where 
such a mill could be erected. — Preston, about 6 miles from Melbourne, 
he deemed the best for the purpose, as an abundance of water from 
the Preston reservoir of the Yan Yean would be always available. 
From the experience he had gathered in Devonshire and elsewhere, 
in this manufacture, he had no hesitation in saying that, consider- 
ing the quantity of rags sent home, our own grasses, and the state 
of the climate — a material point in paper making — Victoria pos- 
sessed everything that could be required for embarking in the manu- 
facture of paper. 

The President, Secretary, Mr. Newbery, and others joined in the 
discussion. 

Dr. Mueller spoke of some enormously large stringy bark trees. 
Mr. Von Guerrard mentioned that he had seen one 100 feet high, 
and 45 paces round, two miles from Dobson's Gully, on the southern 
slope of the Dandenong Ranges. 

Mr. Crooke stated that the Huon district of Tasmania grew large 
trees, but nothing compared to those mentioned by Dr. Mueller, and 
Mr. Von Guerrard. The largest he had seen was 21 feet through. 

The President said at Mount Disappointment there was one 27 
feet through. 

(Signed) Robt. L. J. Ellery. 

13th May, 1867. 



Ordinary Meeting. 

Monday, 13th May, 1867. 

The President, R. L. J. Ellery, Esq., in the chair. 

The following contributions were announced : — " Proceedings of 
the Royal Society of London," Nos. 78 to 86. " Journal of the Royal 
Geological Society of Ireland," (Vol. 1), part 2. "Journal of the 
Royal Horticultural Society of London," Vol. 1, part 4. " The 
Royal Horticultural Society's Proceedings," Vol. 1, Nos. 6 and 7. 
" Journal of the Statistical Society of London," for June and 
September 1866. " Bulletin de la Societie Imperiale des Naturalis- 
tes de Moscow, Nos. 3 and 4 for 1865 ; Nos. 1 and 2, 1866. " On 
Gems and Precious Stones in Victoria," by the Rev. J. J. Bleasdale, 
D.D. " The Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London," 
for February, 1867. " Jahrbuch des Kaiserlich, Koniglichen Geolo- 
gischen Reichsanstalt." " Laws of the Institution of Civil 
Engineers, London." " Proceedings of the Royal Geographical 
Society," for February, 1867. " Sitzmgsberichle der Kaisserlichen 
Akademie der Wissenchaften Von Wien (Vienna)," for January, Feb- 
ruary, March, and April, 1866. In duplicate, May and June, 1866. 

The gentleman proposed at the last meeting was balloted for, and 
declared duly elected. 



320 Proceedings, &c, 1867. 

Mr. Alfred Hill was duly proposed and seconded as an ordinary 
member, ballot to be taken at next meeting. 

The Rev. Dr. Bleasdale read a paper. " On Colonial Wines." In 
answer to several questions, Dr. Bleasdale stated that he was unable 
to assign a cause for the acidity to which white wine was liable. It 
was very difficult to decide on a cause of ropiness, but perhaps a great 
deal was owing to the absence of good wine makers. There were 
Swiss, German, and a few French vignerons in the colony, but not from 
first-class wine districts. There existed also a prejudice against using 
strong spirits, however small in quantity, to the must. The effect of 
the spirit was to coagulate the albumen and preserve the nitrogeneous 
matter. In countries where grapes ripen late, it might not be 
necessary to use spirits, but in hot countries fermentation went on so 
rapidly that some amount of spirits was necessary. If there was an 
excess of sugar over albumen, a sweet wine was made. If the 
albumen is in excess, a dry wine is produced. Hence arose the 
practice of putting in ^ or 1 per cent, of strong spirits. In Germany 
no spirit was used. The German practice was observed here, and 
probably the bad wine about, might be ascribed to that cause. 

Mr. Aplin called attention to Dr. Bleasdale's statement, that the 
red wines of Camden were good, while the Cawarra was not so 
palatable ; could this arise from any variation of soil ? 

Mr. Crooke advocated the mixing of colonial wine with an equal 
quantity of water, by which the hardness often felt was removed. 

Dr. Bleasdale entered into some description of how wine was 
tortured, and stated that he found the Reisling grape of a most 
adaptable character. On the Murray and about Sandhurst a good 
B-eisling was grown, from which old Portuguese wine-drinkers would 
admit a good Bucellas could be made. 

Dr. Mueller then read a paper " On New Coleoptera," by Count 
de Castelnau, and called the attention of the Society to the way in 
which the researches of the Count could be assisted, eulogizing 
Dr. Howitt for his exertions in the science of entomology. 

(Signed) Kobt. L. J. Ellery. 

11th June, 1867. 



Ordinary Meeting. 

Monday, 1 0th June, 1867. 

The President, Pv. L. J. Ellery, Esq., in the chair. 

The gentleman duly nominated at last meeting was balloted for, 
and declared duly elected. 

Proposed by Mr. H. A. Thompson, and seconded by Mr. T. H. 
Pvawlings, and carried, " That Mr. J. Cosmo Newbery be elected a 
member of Council, in place of Mr. T. E. Bawlinson, resigned." 

The President announced a message from the Council, recommend- 



Proceedings, &c, 1867. 321 

ing the following gentlemen, for the approval of His Excellency, 
as Trustees of the Society : — 

Sir William Stawell. Rev. J. J. Bleasdale. 

0. W. Ligar, Esq. R. L. J. Ellery, Esq. 

Professor Halford read a paper, " On the appearance of Blood 
after death from Snake-bite and Cholera." 

Mr. Ellery spoke as to the many causes assigned for the appearance 
of cholera, amongst others blue mist, and Mr. Glaisher had ascended 
in a balloon to make observations thereon. 

Dr. Ralph entered rather lengthily into the subject of the paper, 
dissenting generally from the results arrived at by Professor Halford. 

On the motion of the Rev. Dr. Bleasdale, the discussion was 
adjourned until the next meeting. 

James Corrigan, Esq., L.L.D., was duly proposed and seconded 
as an ordinary member, ballot to take place at next meeting. 

(Signed) Robt. L. J. Ellery. 

8th July, 1867. 



Ordinary Meeting. 

Monday, 8th July, 1867. 

The President, Robt. L J. Ellery, Esq., in the chair. 

The following contributions were announced : — " Transactions 
Philosophical Society, New South Wales," 1862-5. "Notes on the 
Reduction of Gold Ores," and " Notes on the Management of Mining 
Companies," by H. A. Thompson, Esq. " Results of Twenty-five 
Years' Meteorological Observations at Hobart Town," by Francis 
Abbott, Esq., F.R.A.S. Sixty-seven various Books and Pamphlets, 
from Dr. Buchenau of Bremen. 

The gentleman proposed at last meeting was balloted for, and 
declared duly elected. 

The Honorary Secretary read a communication, by Mr. Wintle, of 
Hobart Town, " On the Bone Cave of Glenorchy, Tasmania," illus- 
trative of some fossils also sent by that gentleman. (This paper 
having been published in a Victorian Magazine, cannot, byjthe Laws 
of the Society, be included among the papers read before members 
and now issued. — Ed.) 

The Rev. Dr. Bleasdale read his " Notes on a New Victorian Gem, 
— the Rubellite." A specimen of this stone was . exhibited for the 
inspection of Members. 

The adjourned discussion on Professor Halford's paper was 
resumed by Dr. D. J. Thomas, who contended that the affinity 
between death by cholera and snake-bite would not be proved 
without the examination of a great number of cases, which had not 
yet taken place. In cases of snake poisoning he did not believe 
the inhaling of oxygen was of any service. His plan was to 



322 Proceedings, &c., 1867. 

give chloroform, keeping the patient on the verge of the shadow of 
death, also he would administer brandy, and send hydrogen and 
carbon into the blood. Had inspected the blood of the patient that 
died from snake-bite. The blood possessed colourless corpuscles, 
from the water used in the magenta solution. Did not see animal- 
culae at all. In fact, differed from Professor Halford as to any simi- 
larity between blood poisoning and cholera, and thought the Royal 
Society of Victoria was not the place where the question should be 
discussed. 

The President dissented from the last remark, and Mr. Ford 
thought the Eoyal Society was the most fitting place for such a 
discussion to tajie place. 

Mr. Andrews, Mr. Hickie and the President, joined in the dis- 
cussion. 

Mr. G. S. Lang, gave two instances from his own experience 
where animal poison had been absorbed into the skin, one by the 
licking of a lizard, the other by the sting of a hornet. 

Dr. Day (of Geelong) thought that, like the rust in wheat, there 
was a vegetable germ, common in India, which absorbed itself into 
the system, and so produced the disease. 

Mr. Ashworth spoke in favor of Professor Halford's observations. 
Dr. Thomas contended the proper way to examine blood was with 
serum, and not under water. Physiologists differed about the 
number of white to red corpuscles, and so far as the experiments 
had gone, he was not at all satisfied with the conclusions arrived at. 

Professor Halford, in reply, said he had spent two days in his 
experiments, and was not likely to have mistaken cells for white 
corpuscles. He would mention that the heat of the body increased 
after death from cholera and yellow fever, a man weighing 1501bs, 
would rise in temperature 8° or 9° after death. He trusted that the 
discussion would lead to a more perfect examination of the blood, 
and thus good would spring from the paper having been read before 
the Society. 

(Signed) C. D'Oyley H. Aplin. 

12th August, 1867. - 



Ordinary Meeting. 
Monday, \2th August, 1867. 
Mr. C. D'Oyley H. Aplin in the chair. - 

Professor Halford briefly drew the attention of members to the 
remarks made at the last meeting on the subject of the Royal 
Society not being the place fitted for discussing the paper he had the 
honour to read. 

The following contributions were announced : — " Proceedings of 
the Ptoyal Geographical Society," No. 11, Vol. XI. " Journal of the 
Linnean Society," for April. " Journal of the Statistical and Social 



Proceedings, &c, 3 867. 323 

Enquiry Society of Ireland," Part III, Vol. IV. " Schriften der 
Naturfr rschenden Gesellschaft in Danzig." "Results of Astrono- 
mical Observations made at the Melbourne Observatory." " Sur 
la Structure de la Houille Commentarie des Phytographies et des, 
Exemplaires que fait figurer a l'Exposition Universelle de Paris," — 
by Dr. Goeppert. 

Mr. H. A. Thompson read a paper, " On the Formation of Mineral 
Veins, and the Deposit of Metallic Ores in them " 

Professor M'Coy took exception to the view put forward by Mr. 
Thompson, quoting the authority of the late Mr. Hopkins, of Cam- 
bridge, on the origin of fissures. The Professor contended that the 
fissures remained open until they were filled by igneous or aqueous 
means. 

Mr. Newbery and Mr. Aplin took part in the discussion, the latter 
gentleman quoting largely from the work of Mr. Sterry Hunt, of the 
Quebec Geological Survey, which bore out the views taken by Mr. 
Thompson. 

In reply, Mr. Thompson thought Professor M'Coy had mistaken 
the sections for vertical in place of horizontal ones. From personal 
experience Mr. Thompson was aware of the difficulty of keeping the 
fissures open. The Old Man Vein opened out to 120 feet wide, and 
how could a large cavity like this in soft rocks remain open 1 Many 
of these veins only a few feet wide could not be kept open for six 
weeks. The subject was of great importance, and his theory had 
not been weakened bv the discussion on his paper. 

(Signed) Robt. Willan. 

9th September, 1867. 



Ordinary Meeting. 

Monday, 9th September, 1867. 

The Hon. Treasurer, Robert Willan, Esq., in the chair. 

The following contributions were announced : — " Flora Austra- 
liensis," Vol. Ill ; and "Flora Braziliensis," Parts 1 to 4, — presented 
by Dr. Mueller. 

Mr. H. K. Rusden read a paper, " On the Ethics of Opinion." 
Professor Halford, by permission, called the attention of the 
Society to his paper read at a former meeting, " On the condition of 
Blood after death from Snake-bite and Cholera ;" and stated that, the 
question being of great importance, he had been desirous of getting 
Australian snakes to ascertain if the blood of what might die from 
the effect of their bites was the same in appearance with his pre- 
viously ascertained results. Last week a number of tiger snakes had 
been received from Dr. Gummow, of 8 wan Hill, to whom he was 
greatly indebted for this act of kindness, and with these, operations 
had been performed. The dog bitten had died in three hours. 



324 Proceedings, dec., 1867. 

The blood was perfectly fluid. The number of cells marvellous. 
He had shown his experiments to Professor M'Coy and other gentle- 
men, and he hoped at the next meeting of the Society to read a 
paper thoroughly bearing out the opinions he had long held. Of the 
result now, he had no shadow of doubt, and it only showed the 
correctness of the aphorism, " Truth was stranger than fiction." 

Professor M'Coy corroborated the statements of Professor 
Halford. 

Dr. Thomas had been examining the blood of persons dying from 
diphtheria, and other diseases, more particularly since reading Profes- 
sor Halford's paper ; and amongst other things saw in the blood of a 
dog that died of distemper, globules exactly similiar to those figured 
by Professor M'Coy. He believed also that the blood of the man 
that died from the bite of a cobra, and the blood of the dog dying of 
distemper bore an exact resemblance. He differed from Professor 
M'Coy's conclusions. 

Professor Halford trusted Dr. Thomas would bring down to the 
Society drawings of the globules he had seen, so that there could be 
a general inspection. He offered Dr. Thomas half-a-dozen snakes 
for the purpose of testing the matter himself. 

Dr. Thomas promised some preparations for a microscopic exami- 
nation at an early date. 

Professor M'Coy defended his observations, and Dr. Barker agreed 
entirely with Professor Halford. He considered the investigations 
of the Professor opened up a new study in pathology, and honour 
was due to Professor Halford for so steadfastly following up his 
researches until the opinion he had first formed had been generally 
admitted. 

Professor M'Coy read a paper, " On the Character and Species of 
Wombats," exhibiting specimens showing the existence of four 
distinct species, in place of one, as was originally supposed. 

(Signed) Robt. L. J. Ellery. 

14th October, 1867. 



Ordinary Meeting. 

Monday, Uth October, 1867. 

The President, R. L. J. Ellery, Esq., in the chair. 

The following contributions were announced :-— " Report on the 
Head -waters of the River Rakaia, with maps and illustrations,"— 
presented by the author, Julius Haast, Esq., of Canterbury, New 
Zealand. 

The Hon. Secretary brought up the following messages from the 
Council : — u With a view to a more perfect report of the papers read 
before the Society appearing in the public journals, the Council 
recommend that members will prepare a digest of their papers, to 



Proceedings, &c, 1867. 325 

be handed to the representatives of the Press for publication." 
" The Council having decided upon presenting an address from the 
Royal Society of Victoria, to His Royal Highness the Duke of 
Edinburgh, requests those members who are desirous of assisting 
on the presentation to communicate with the Honorary Secretary 
as early as possible."' 

Mr. Gillbee called the attention of the Society to the death of 
Dr. Eades, who had been among the foremost in promoting the 
establishment of the Royal Society, and had filled various important 
offices in connection with it, and moved " That the Council convey 
to Mrs. Eades an expression of its deepest sympathy with her in 
her recent bereavement." 

Professor Halford seconded the motion, and it was accepted by 
the meeting without comment. 

Professor Halford read his paper, " Further Observations on Death 
by Snake-bite, with Microscopical Demonstrations." At the con- 
clusion of the paper, Professor Halford afforded to those present an 
opportunity of witnessing the appearance of the blood as described 
by him. The blood of a dog bitten by a snake within thirty-six 
hours was closely examined under powerful microscopes by the 
members. 

The President said that with each edition of Dr. Halford's paper, 
the interest increased. Another point had been arrived at this 
evening. There was a question however, that occurred to him, 
whether these cells were to be considered as crystalloids, as distin- 
guished from koloid. The fact that cells are seen on the other sides 
of the membrane in foetal blood was rather in favour of crystalloids. 

Dr. Ralph could not agree that these cells were an original growth 
caused by the poison, but was inclined to think they were blood 
corpuscles, but under altered conditions. He had examined the 
specimens with pleasure, and admitted that the macula was seen on 
the periphery of the cells. There was no question of the impor- 
tance of the subject, and would suggest that experiments should be 
made upon animals kept fasting forty-eight hours before death, and 
upon animals made to feed, and then poisoned ; the blood of both 
afterwards to be closely examined. 

Professor Halford regretted that the main point had not been 
referred to, viz. : — The presence of the cells. Reviewing the various 
objections raised, Professor Halford said, If the Medical Profession 
of Victoria did not look thoroughly into the matter now, when it 
was brought before them, the Profession some where else would. 

Mr. Thomas Harrison read a paper by Mr. Julius Haast, "Notes 
on the Rev. J. E. Wood's Paper on the Glacial Epoch of Australia." 

Mr. J. Cosmo Newbery read a paper " On the Mineral Waters of 
Victoria " 

The President inquired if any of the felspar from Maldon had 
been examined. 



326 Proceedings, &c, 1867. 

Mr. Newbery said it had not, but there was every probability -of it 
being found rich in potash. 

The President said the subject was of some importance ; the dis- 
covery of a good supply of potash was invaluable. When the 
Defence Committee was sitting, the scarcity of potash was one of 
the subjects brought prominently under its notice. 

Mr. Newbery promised another paper on the subject after further 
experiments had been made. 

(Signed) Robt. L. J. Ellery. 

11th November, 1867. 



Ordinary Meeting. 

Monday ', llth November, 1867. 

The President, Robt. L. J. Ellery, Esq., in the chair. 

The Hon. Secretary stated that in accordance with the resolution 
passed at the last meeting, the following letter had been forwarded 
to Mrs. Eades : — 

(Copy.) 

" Royal Society of Victoria, 

" Melbourne, 4th November, 1867. 

" Madam,— On the part of the Royal Society of Victoria, I have 
to offer you its deep-felt sympathies at the severe loss you have 
sustained in the death of your late husband, many years intimately 
connected with this Society. The knowledge that the late Dr. 
Eades was universally respected, and his memory cherished and 
regarded with the esteem his services merited, may possibly prove 
the best help in mitigating the grief of those closely allied to him, 
and it is in the earnest hope that some such consolation may be 
afforded that the Royal Society of Victoria venture in this hour 
of sorrow to intrude upon you with this expression of condolence, 
and to assure you, the death of your late husband has been regarded 
with the deepest sorrow, while his exertions as one of the members 
of the Society will be long remembered. 

" 1 remain, Madam, with the deepest respect, 

" Your obedient servant, 

(Signed), . " Robt. L. J. Ellery, 

" Mrs. Eades, " President Royal Society Victoria." 

" High Street, Prahran." 

On the motion of Mr. G. S. Lang, seconded by Professor 
Halford it was resolved, " That the letter just read be entered on 
the minutes of the Proceedings of the Society." 

The Hon. Secretary announced that by Law IX., it was necessary 



Proceedings, &c., 1867. 327 

at this meeting to announce that the following office-bearers retired 
at the close of the year : — The President, Vice-President, Secretary, 
Treasurer, Librarian and Gustos of Collection, with Messrs. Aplin, 
Gillbee, Von Guerard, McGowan, Eusden, and Professor Halford. 
By Law X., All nominations to supply these vacancies must be 
given before the close of the Ordinary Meeting, to be held on 9th 
December, and the election would take place in January next. 

Professor Halford read a paper by Captain Perry, " On a Dis- 
covery for determining danger of collision in vessels crossing one 
another's track." 

Captain Perry explained his diagram. 

The President considered Captain Perry had described in a very 
simple and correct manner a proposition of very great import- 
ance. He concurred in the value of the discovery, and thought the 
suggestions were worthy of the greatest support. 

Captain Perry stated that his attention had been drawn to the 
subject through the collision that occurred between the Penola and 
City of Launceston. It was a fact that what had been hitherto 
considered the proper way of steering, he had demonstrated was 
the reverse. 

Professor Halford considered the matter of very great importance, 
and it was a question how far the Society should take up the 
matter. 

Mr. Aplin inquired if the President, as the Government Astro- 
nomer, could not bring the subject before the proper authorities. 

The President said he would be happy to do what he could in 
the matter. Perhaps the Council might recommend some course of 
action. 

Dr. Neild then read a paper " On the Purification of Water," 
by Mr. Dahlke, who afterwards exhibited specimens of various 
samples of water from the Yan Yean and the Yarra ; some of which 
he had treated with permanganite of potash, and others passed 
through a patent filter. Professor Halford, Mr. Lang, and other 
members took part in a long discussion ; Mr. Dahlke stating 
that a filter on an improved plan was in course of construction at 
an expense perhaps of two guineas or a little more, quite capable 
of preventing the ova of the Hydatids from passing through the 
percolator. 

Professor Halford called the attention of the Society to the subject 
of an antidote to snake-bite ; stating that he had been in commu- 
nication with the man Shires, who proclaimed the value of his 
antidote, and that it tallied somewhat with an analysis previously 
made by himself. It was Tincture of Iodine mixed with a solution 
of Ammonia, strong enough to render it colourless, and thought the 
matter sufficient to warrant it being brought under the notice of 
Government with a view to obtaining aid in prosecuting the neces- 
sary experiments. 



328 Proceedings, &c, 1867. 

Dr. Barker suggested a deputation waiting on the Chief Secre- 
tary. 

After some discussion, it was agreed that a special meeting of 
Council should be convened at an early date to consider what steps 
had best be taken in the matter. 

(Signed) Robt. L. J. Ellery. 

9th December, 1857. 



Ordinary Meeting. 

Monday, 9th December, 1867. 

The President, R. L. J. Ellery, Esq., in the chair. 

The President stated that in accordance with a desire expressed 
at the last meeting, he had written to Captain Wilkinson, of the 
Admiralty Survey, with respect to Captain Perry's invention, 
especially as to whether it was considered a condition of safety, 
when two vessels were approaching each other, to keep a broad 
bearing on the bow, and whether these conditions of safety were 
generally known. He had not yet received an answer, but he had 
consulted several naval men of eminence, who looked upon the 
suggestion as a novel one. There was no doubt, however, that 
Captain Perry's invention was of great value. 

The following contributions were announced: — Vols. VI. and 
VII. "Transactions of the Royal Society of London." Parts 1 and 
2, Vol. XX., "Journal Statistical Society, London." Nos. 18 and 
19 of the " Anthropological Review," " Catalogue of the Library 
of the Anthropological Society," and "List of Fellows of the 
Society ; " Nos. 3 and 4 of the " Bulletin de la Societie* Im- 
periale des Naturalistes de Moscow." No. 49, Vol. III., " Transac- 
tions of the Geological Society, Darmstadt." 

Mr. O'Neil, of the late firm of Batcheldor and O'Neil, photo- 
graphers, exhibited some very fine specimens of photographic art, 
representing scenery in San Francisco, the Wellingtonia Gigantea, 
and Mountainous Scenery. 

Messrs. Blackburn and Zumstein were elected auditors to examine 
the accounts for 1867. 

The President read a paper " On a New Self-Registering Elec- 
trometer," illustrated with Diagrams. 

The President stated favourable opinions of the instrument had 
been received from Major-General Sabine, and the Director of the 
Kew Observatory. 

Mr. Newbery read his " Report of Experiments with Mr. 
Dahlke's Filter." 

Professor M'Coy corroborated the statement of Mr. Newbery, as 
he had witnessed many of the experiments. He inquired whether 
the filter possessed the property of dialysis, viz., of separating 
crystalline bodies from all others. 



Proceedings, &c, 1867. 329 

Mr. Newbery said, if the filter did not possess that quality, it 
came very close to it. He intended to make further experiments 
and report hereafter. 

Professor Halford drew attention to the importance of the subject 
from another point of view. Disease and death had been produced 
by the introduction of microscopical animal organism ; and it was 
of vast importance if this filter could separate such matter, render- 
ing the water wholesome. 

Mr. Dahlke (replying to the President, Mr. A. K. Smith, and 
others) said, that to render the filter available for household pur- 
poses, he proposed to attach it to the supply-pipe divided into two 
compartments, the first for arresting all the grosser impurities, while 
the second would form the real filter. The filtering material would 
ultimately wear out ; but he had made apparatus for the General 
Post Office, London, at a cost of five guineas, which lasted five 
years. Mr. Dahlke further stated that a tank to filter 10,000 
gallons per day could be erected on stations, say at a cost of £50 
for filtering material ; brickwork and his own travelling expenses of 
course to be added. 

Mr. Newbery made several experiments with a small filter, using 
salt, and subsequently Sulphide of Ammonium. The filter in use 
was but just completed, and Mr. Dahlke stated that at least four 
and twenty hours should elapse from its being finished before being 
subject to any test. The mixture of salt and water left a slight 
brackish taste, and the Sulphide of Ammonia came out perfectly 
clean and free from smell. 

The President briefly called the attention of the members to the 
importance of the subject. 

Nominations for office-bearers for 1868, and to fill vacancies in 
Council, were then made. 



330 Address to the Duke of Edinburgh. 

Copy of the Address presented to H.R.H. the Duke of Edinburgh 

(together with part 1, Vol. VIII. of the Transactions), by the 

officers signing the Address. 

"To His Royal Highness Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh, 
K.G., &c. 

"May it please your Royal Highness, — 

" The Royal Society of Victoria humbly begs to offer its most 
respectful and dutiful assurances of the gratification afforded it by 
the presence of your Royal Highness in this colony. 

" The Royal Society, honoured by the special approbation of Her 
Most Gracious Majesty, seeks, in the paths of science, literature, and 
art, to foster those studies of which your lamented Royal father 
was so energetic a supporter and beneficent a patron. 

" The profession adopted by your Royal Highness is so intimately 
interwoven with a particular and important branch of study, as to 
give earnest hope that beneath your fostering hand, science may 
rapidly expand, and the knowledge and enterprise possessed by 
Great Britain be disseminated throughout the world. 

"The Royal Society refers with great satisfaction to the circum- 
stance of its labours having been largely characterised by an attention 
to those branches of science which have lately had a principal place 
in the studies of naval officers, and it is proud to regard this as a 
prominent reason for requesting the especial consideration of your 
Royal Highness. 

"Recognising the presence of your Royal Highness in this young 
colony as a further proof of the sympathy Her Most Gracious 
Majesty evinces towards her loyal subjects in this portion of her 
dominions, the Royal Society of Victoria humbly trusts that the 
visit of your Royal Highness to Australia may be a means of draw- 
ing still closer those bonds which unite us to the old country, and 
that the union it is so desirable to promote among the cultivators of 
science, literature, and art in different parts of the world, may be 
thereby strengthened and permanently established. 

"On behalf the Royal Society of Victoria, 

(Signed) Robt. L. J. Elleey, F.R.A.S., President. 

Thos. H. Rawlings, Hon. Secretary. 
R. Willan, Hon. Treasurer. 
J. E. Neild, M.D., Hon. Librarian. 



CATALOGUE OF THE BOOKS. 



Atlas de l'Archeologie du Nord. 

Actinien Echinodermen und Wiirmer. A. E. Grube. 

Astronomical Observatory. Half-yearly Keport. 

American Lakes, Topographical Eeport on the. J. D. Graham. 

Atherosperma Moschatum, chemische untersuchung der Rinde. N. 

J. Zeyer. 
Acclimatisation of Harmless, Useful, Interesting, and Ornamental 

Animals and Plants. G. D. Francis. 
Acclimatisation of Animals, On the. F. Bnckland. (4 copies.) 
Acclimatisation Society of Victoria, Second Annual Report of. 

(1863.) 
Agricultural and Horticultural Society of Madras, Report of. 

(1860.) 
Additamenta ad Georgii Augusti Pritzelii Thesaurum, E. A. 

Zuchold . 
American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Proceedings of the. 

Vols. 1 to 6. 
Antiquarisk Tidsskrift (Copenhagen), 1854 to 1860. (5 Nos.) 
Atlantis, or Register of Literature and Science. No. 5. 
Anthropological Review. P. 2, 3, 5. 
Australian Medical Journal. P. 2 to 12. 
Academy of Science of St. Louis, Transactions of. 1857 to 1860. 

(4 parts.) 
Academy of Natural Science of Philadelphia, Proceedings of. 

1856-7. (Incomplete.) 
Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wein, Sitzungsberichte der Kaiser- 
lichen, 1866. (9 Nos.) 
Abhandlungen Aus dem Gebiete der Naturwissenschaften, 

Hamburg, 1860-2. 
Australian Magazine. Nos. 1, 2. 
Aanteekeningen van het verhandelde in die Sectie verganderingen : 

Te Utrecht. 1857 to 1860. (6 Nos.) 
Australian Essays. James Norton. 
Alms-houses of New York, Reports of. (6th, 7th, 9th). 
Astronomical Observations made at Sydney Observatory, 1859-60. 

2 Vols. W. Scott. 
Aborigines of Victoria, Report on the. 1858-9. 
Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Miinchen, Sitzungsberichte der 

Konigl. Bayer. 1860 to 64. (51 Nos.) 
Anatomie von Argas Persicus. C. Heller. 

z 2 



332 Catalogue oj the Books. 

Anschaffung Naturwissenschaftlicher Apparate und Sammlungen 

fiir die Volkschule. M. Schlichting. 
Antiquaires du Nord, Memoires de la Soci6te des. 1855 to 1857. 

1 Vol. (incomplete.) 

Do. 1845 to 1849. 1850 to 1860. 

Australia, General Map of the Board of Land and Works of. 

2 copies. 

Australasiatic Reminiscences. D. Bunce. 

Almanach der Koniglich. Bayerischen. 

Akademie der Wissenschaften. 1855 and 1859. 

Annaler for Nordsk. Oldkyndighed. 1858,1859, 2 Vols. 

Algarum, Species, Genera et Ordines. 1848, 1851 (2), 1852, 

1863. J. G. Agardh. 
American Academy, Memoirs of the. Vols. 5 (2), 7, 8. 
Abhandlungen der M. P. (Jlasse der Koniglich. Bayer. Akad der 

Wissenschaften. 1833 to 1860. 17 parts (incomplete.) 
Araignees, Sur l'Evolution des. E. Claparede. 
Abhandlungen der Schlesischen, Gesellschaft fur Vaterlandische 

Cultur. 1861 to 1863. 12 Nos. (incomplete). 
Astronomical Observations made at Melbourne Observatory, 

Results of. R. L. J. Ellery. 
Botanische Mittheilungen. Dr. Goppert. 

Bedeutung Moderner Gradmessungen die. C. M. Bauernfeind. 
Beskrivelse over Lophogaster Typicus. M. Sars. (2 copies.) 
Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Anatomy, Massachusetts. 
Barometer Manual. Rear- Admiral Fitzroy. 
Bemerkungen iiber die Phyllopoden. A. E. Grube. 
British North America, An Address on the Present Condition, 

Resources, and Prospects of. The Hon. Mr. Justice Haliburton. 
Botridium Granulatum, On the Structure and Development of. G. 

Lawson. (2 copies.) 
Boston Museum of Comparative Zoology, * Annual Report of the 

Trustees of. 
Bibliotheca Photographica. 

Botanical Report on the North Australian Expedition. F. Mueller. 
Botanical Society of Canada, Annals of the. Vol. 1. P. 1. 

(2 copies.) , 

Botanical Society of Edinburgh, Transactions of, 1860 to 1866. 

(Year incomplete.) 
Boston Journal of Natural History, 1861 to 1863. (3 Nos.) 
Bulletin de la Societe Imperiale de Moscou, 1865 and 1860. 

(4 Nos.) 
Birds of Australia, Introduction to. By J. Gould. 
Boston Society of Natural History, Constitution and Bye-Laws of 

the. 
Boston Society of Natural History, Proceedings of, 1854 to 1862. 

(Incomplete.) 



Catalogue of the Books. 333 

Beobachtungen iiber niedere Seethiere. • C. Mettenheimer. 
Botanischen Produkte der Londoner-internationalen Industrie- 

Ausstellung. F. Buchenau. 
Biographische Skizzen verstorbener Bremischer Aerzte und Natur- 

forscher. 
Brackwasse-Studien au der Elbemiindung. J. R. Lorenz. 
Chatham Islands, Vegetation of the. F. Mueller. 
Contributions to Conservative Surgery. J. G. Beaney. 
Contributions to Practical Surgery. J. G. Beaney. 
Commerce and Navigation, Report of the Secretary of the Treasury 

upon, 1851-1854. 2 Vols. 
Claims Between the United States and Great Britain, Report of the 

Commission of, 1856. 
Central American Affairs and the Enlistment Question. 1856. 
Cellula Vegetabili Fibrilis de. J. G. Agardh. 
Coal in Tasmania. Brown and Larnack. 
Coal-fields in Tasmania. C. Gould. 
Cirklers Beroring. C. M. Guldberg. 
Central Railway Terminus for Melbourne. " Logic." 
Clinical Reports. D. B. Reid. 

Constitutional Representation in Victoria. " Amor Patriae." 
Comparative Petrology, Essay on. M. J. Darcher. 
Carl Christian Rafn, Notice on the Life and Writings of. 

L. E. Bowing. 
Catalogues of Scientific and other works, (12 pamphlets) 
Cinchonaceous Glands in Galliaciae. G. Lawson. 
Chemistry in its Application to Agriculture, Letters upon. 

J. Macadam. 
Chiasmodon, On the Genus. A. Carte. 

Contributiones ad Acaciarum Australise cognitionem. F. Mueller. 
Cotton-fibre, Microscopical Structure of. (6 copies.) G. Lawson. 
Californian Academy, Proceedings of the. Vol. 2. 
Charter, Bye-Laws, etc , of the Institution of Civil Engineers. 
Copepoden, zur Anatomie und Entwickelungsgeschichte. C. Claus. 
Chemie, Handbuch.der Theoretischen. Abth. 4. L. Gmelin. 
Catalogue de FExposition des Produits de la Colonie de Victoria, 

1861. (2 copies.) 
Colonie Victoria in Australia. (3 copies.) 
Calendar of the Melbourne University, 1863-4, 1865-6. 
Catalogue of the Victorian Exhibition of 1861. (2 copies.) 
Collisions at Sea and Shipwrecks. C. J. C. Perry. 
Cambridge Philosophical Society, Transactions of the. 1851 (2), 

1853, 1856, 1858. 
Coast Survey (U S.), Report of the Superintendent of the. 1857. 
Catalogue of the Casts, Busts, etc., in the Museum of Art at the 

Public Library. 
Catalogue of the Manchester Free Library. 



334 Catalogue of the Boohs. 

Catalogue of the Melbourne Public Library. 

Catalogue, Supplemental. 

Denkrede auf Johann Nepomuk von Fuchs. 

Denkrede auf T. Siber und G, S. Ohm. 

Denkrede anf J. A. Wagner. (2). 

Denkrede auf G. H. von Schubert. 

Dyeing Properties of Lichens. W. L. Lindsay. 

Double- Jointed Pessary, On a. D. E. Wilkie. (4 copies). 

Dissertatio Anatomico-Physiologica Inauguralis. F. A. G. Miguel. 

Dannenirke og Omegn. C. C Lorenzen. 

Diabetes Mellitus, On the Phenomena of. S. Haughton. 

Dennisona Barklya et Laboucheria. F. Mueller. 

Dovres Flora, Supplementer til. F. Hoch. 

Deutsche Monatschrift fur Australien. Heft 1. 

Denkschriften der K. Bayer. Botanischen Gessellschaft zu Reyens- 

burg. 1859. 
Deutsche Naturforscher und Aerzte in Bremen. Smidt und Focke. 

Abth. 2. 
Darwin's Lehre und die Specification. E. Hallier. 
Dudley Observatory, Beply to the Statement of the Trustees of the. 

B. A. Gould. 

Denkschrift zur feier ihres 50 Jahrigen Bestehens. 2 copies. 

Davidson's Precedents and Forms. Vol. 2. p. 1. 

Erdbeben das, in der Provinz Preussisch Schlesien. 

Erinerung an Mitglieder, der M. P. Classe. C. F. P. von Martius. 

Exploration Expedition to the Gulf of Carpentaria. Commander 

Norman. 
Entwicklung die, der ideen in der Naturwissenschaft. J. von Liebig. 
Entstehung und BegritT der Naturhistorisehen Art. C. Nageli. 
Entomologisk Reise. H. Siebke. 

Erlaiiterung der Steinkohlen Formation. H. R. Goeppert. 
Entwickelungsgeschichte der Ampullaria Polita Deshayes. 

C. Semper. 

Flora Braziliensis. 3 parts. 

Francis Bacon von Verulam. J. F. von Liebig. 

Familien die, der Anneliden. A. E. Grube. 

Family Immigration for Victoria. J. Jamieson. (2.) 

Fragmenta Phytographise Australise. P. 1 to 38. 

Fossile Fauna der Silurischen Diluvial Geschiebe von Sadewitz bei 

OeK F. Roemer. 
Fossile Mollusken. M. Homes. (2 parts.) 
Flora Australiensis. Bentham and Mueller. Vols. 1, 2, 3. 
Fiji and the Fijians. T. Williams. 2 Vols. 
Fine Arts Courts in the Crystal Palace. 2 Vols. 
Finances of the U. S., Report on the State of. 1854 to 1857. 

3 Vols. 
Flora Bremensis. 



Catalogue of the Books. 335 

Freie Hansestadt Bremen und ihr Gebiet. F. Buchenau. 

Feinere Bau und das Wachsthum des Hafhorns der. J. Ravitsch. 

Geological Survey of India, Memoirs of. 2 parts. 

Gedachtniszrede. F. Tiedmann. 

Grenzen und Grenzgibiete. G. Harlesz. 

Geological Reports on the Wairapu Coast. J. C. Crawford. 

Geological Exploration of the West Coast of New Zealand. J. 

Haast. 
Geological Formation in Timaru District. J. Haast. 
Geological Survey of India, Annual Report of. 1858-9, 1859-60, 

1862-3, 1863-4. 
Geological Society of Ireland, Journal of the. 1864-5, 1865-6. 4 

Nos. (2 copies.) 
Geological Society of London, Quarterly Journal of the. 1856 to 

1867, with Addresses. 26 parts. 
Geological Society of Dublin. 1844 to 1863. (Imperfect.) 
Geology for Beginners. G. F. Richardson. 
Geologiske Undersogelser. T. H. M. Irgens. 
Geometrische Representation liber die. C. A. Bjerknes. 
Grundzuge der Schlesischen Klimatologie. J. G. Galle. 
Gunpowder Patent. P. Nisser. 

Geognostische, Skizze de^ Grossherzogthums. F. Becker. 
Geognostische Uebersichtskarte von dem Grossherzogthum Hessen. 

F. Becker. 
Gould, Dr., Defence of. (Albany, U. S.) 
Granitic Rocks of Donegal, On the. R. H. Scott. 
Granitic Rocks, South- West of Donegal. R. H. Scott. 
Granites of Donegal, On the Chemical and Mineralogical Con- 
stitution of the. R. H. Scott. 
Gems and Precious Stones in Victoria. J. J. Bleasdale. 
Gold Ores, Notes on the Reduction of. H. A. Thomson. 
Geologiske og Zoologiske Jag Hagelser. M. Sars. 
Geographical Society (Royal), Proceedings of the. 1861 to 1867. 

(30 Nos. incomplete.) 
Germanische Todtenlager bei Selzen. 1848. 
Glasgow Philosophical Society, Proceedings of. 1841 to 1865. 

(21 Nos.) 
Ganmenfalten und Nebenzungen der Chiroptern. F. Kolenati. 
Gesch]echte der Pflanzen, die Lehre vom. L. C. Treviranus. 
Glauben als die Hochste Yernunft. R. Grau. 
Glossaria Linguarum Brasiliensium. 

Geological Survey of India, Memoirs of the. 5 parts, incomplete. 
Hugh Miller, Notice of Some Remarks by the late. 
Houille, Sur la Structure de la. Dr. Goeppert. 
Hobart Town Directory. 
Harbours of Lake Michigan, tfcc, Improvement of the. J. D. 

Graham. 



336 Catalogue of the Books. 

Horticultural (Royal) Society's Proceedings. 1865 to 1867. 8 Nos., 

incomplete. 
He Maramtaka ara lie Pukapuka. 1849. 
Hoheren Gewerbscliule in Cassel, Programm der. J. Hehl. 1845-6, 

1846-7, 1848-9, 1854. 
Hauptschule zu Bremen, Programm der. 
Icones Algarum Ineditse. C. A. Agardh. 
Increase, the Law of. F. P. Liharzik. 
Isthmus of Suez Canal Question. D. A. Lange. 
Induction und Deduction. J. von Liebig. 
Inscription Runique du Piree, Publie par la Societe des Antiquaires 

du Nord. 
India, Album of Photographic Views in. 
Jean Baptiste Biot. C. F. P. von Martius. 
Jahresbericht (Erster) des Vereins fur Erdkunde in Dresden. 
Jahresbericht des Pollichia (Neustadt.) 1855-6. 
Jahresbericht der Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereines zu Bremen. 
Jahresbericht (Erster) des Yereins fur Erdkunde zu Dresden. 
Jahresbericht (Zweiter) ut Supra. 
Jahrbuch der Kaiserlich, Koniglichen Geologischen Reich sanstalt. 

1865-6. 
Jahresbericht der Pollichia der Rheinfalz. 1859, 1861, 1863. 
Jahresbericht der Pollichia eines Naturwissenschaftenlichen Yereins 

der Bayerischen Pfalz. 1843. 
Japan, Naval Expedition to, Report of the Secretary of the U. S. 

Navy on 1854. 
Jahresbericht iiber die Real, die Provinzial, Gewerbe und die Hand- 

werker Fortbildungs Schule zu Minister. 
Jahresbericht der Schlesischen Gesellschaft fiir Yaterlandische Kultur, 

1855 (2), 1856 (2), 1857 (2), 1858, 1859, 1860. 

Jahrbuch der Kaiserlich Koniglichen Geologischen, Reichsanstalt. 

1856 to 1864. 29 Nos., incomplete. 
Klima von Miinchen. C. Kulm. 

Komet Bauernes Indbyrdes Beliggenhed. H. Mohn. 

Kreideflora iiber die fossile. H. R. Goeppert. 

Konig Maximilian II. und die Wissenschaft. J. von Dossinger. 

Kongelige Norske, Fredericks Universitets. 1861. 

Kongelige Fredericks Universitets Halvhundredaars fest. Sep., 1861. 

Kartoffeln die Krankheit der. 1845. G. W. Focke. 

La Influencia del Cultivo del Arroz in la Salud Publica. J. B. 

Ullersperger. 
Lychonophora Martius. C. H. S. Ripontinus. (2 copies.) 
Lunar Tidal Wave in the North American Lakes. J. D. Graham. 
Languages, Study of. H. Lafargue. 

Liverpool Institute, Proceedings and Reports of. 8 pamphlets. 
Literature, On the Profession of. G. Craig. 
Lepas Anatifera, Remarks on. G. Lawson. (2 copies.) 



Catalogue of the Boohs, 337 

Ludwig Leichardl\ E. A. Zuchold. 

Leitfaden zur Nordischen Alterthumskunde. (2 copies.) 

Linnsean Society, Journal of the Proceedings of the, 1856 to 1867. 

(46 Nos., incomplete.) 
Linnsean Society of London, Proceedings of the, 1848 to 1855. 
Literary and Philosophical Society of Manchester, Proceedings of 

the. Vols. 2, 3, 4. 
Lebenden Natur, Welche Auffassung der. K. E. v. Baer. 
Literary and Philosophical Society of Manchester, Memoirs of the. 

Vols. 1 and 2. 
Meteorological Observations in Hobart Town, Results of 25 Years' 

Observations. (2 copies). 
Meteorological Observations in Hobart Town, Results of 20 Years' 

Observations. (2 copies). 
Metamorphose die, des Caryoborus. A. E. Grube. 
Magnetic Observations, Results of. G. Neumayer. 
Meteorological Reports, Second. B. Smyth. 
Meteorological Observations Taken at Adelaide. 
Measurements for Distinguishing the Human Races. K. Scherzer. 
Meteorological Observations in Mauritius. 1864-5. 
Meteorological Observations in South Australia. 0. Todd. 
Meteorologische Beobachtungen auf Christiana's Observatorium. 
Meteorit von Brannan. C. H. Beinert. 

Meteorites on the Earth, Considerations on the Phenomena attend- 
ing the fall of. D. Haidinger. 
Meteorological Observations in Victoria, Instructions for the 

Guidance of. 
Meteorological Observations, A Uniform System of. R. Lachlan. 
Magnetic Orbit, Observations on the. H. M. Grover. 
Mineralogy and Geology, Notes on. S. Haughton. (17 pamphlets.) 
Mammalian Fossils in Ireland, Catalogue of. R. H. Scott. 
Musci and Desmidise, Report on. G. Lawson. 
Mining Companies, Notes on the Management of. H. A. Thomson. 
Madras Journal of Literature and Science. P. 1 to 12. (p. 9 

wanting). 
Month, The. No. 1. (2 copies.) 
Mining Surveyor's Reports. Nos. 1 to 18, (wanting 7, 14, 15, 

and 17). 
Meteorological Society of Mauritius, Proceedings of. 1861-2-4. 
Mosses, Australian. F. Mueller. 
Message from the President of the United States. 
Mikropische Probeobjecte, iiber. J. J. Pohl. 
Meteorologische Waarnemingen in Nederland. 1854 to 1860. 8 

parts. 
Mineralogie Die. F. v. Kobel. 
Marche Annuelle du Thermometre et du Barometre in Neerlande, 

Sur la. C. H. Buvs Ballot. 



338 Catalogue of the Books. 

Magnetic, Nautical, and Meteorological Observations at the Flag- 
staff Observatory, Melbourne, Results of. G. Neumayer. 
Meteorological Observations taken at Hobart Town. F. Abbot. 
Maandelijksche .Zeilaanwijzingen van het Kanaal naar Java. 1859 

to i860. 
Meteorological Observations taken at the Stations of the Royal 
; ^/Engineers, Abstracts from. 1853 to 1859. H. James, R.E. 
Monatsbericht der Koniglichen Preuss. Akademie der Wissenschaften 

zu Berlin. 1856 to 1865. 56 parts, incomplete. 
Mittheilungen der Kaiserlich-Koniglichen, Geographischen Gesell- 

schaft. 1862. 
Menschen und des Hlihunchens, die Entwickelung des. M. P. Erde. 
Northern Triangulation. G. W. Goyder. 
Norske Voegtlodder. C. A. Holmboe. 
Not Like Man. J. B. Halford. 
North- Western Expedition of 1864, Report on the. 
North Australia. J. E. T. Woods. 
Nachrichten von der Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften und der Georg- 

Augusts-Universit'at. 
Northern Society of Antiquaries of Copenhagen, Miscellaneous 

Papers of. 1848 to 1863. (Incomplete.) 
Notziblatt des Vereins fur Erdkunde. 1864-5. 
Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereine zu Bremen. 
Naturgeschichte der Insecten. E. Heeger. 
Natur und Geist. L. Biichner. 

Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Emden. M. A. F. Prestel. 
Nachrichten von der K. Gessellschaft der Wissenschaften, &c. 

1865. 
Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Danzig, Schriften der. 
Naval Architects, Transactions of the Institution of. Vols. 1, 2, 

3, 4, 5. 
Oratio de Regno Vegetabili. F. A. G. Miguel. (2 copies.) 
Observatory and Telegraphs, (S. A.) C. Todd. 
Ode in Honour of the Visit of H.R.H. the Prince of Wales to 

Canada. John May. (2 copies.) 
Offentlichen Priifung der Schuler des Kurfiirstlichen Gymnasiums 

zu Marburg. 1857, 1860. 
Ohio Agricultural Report. 1356. 
Oversigt over det Kongelige Danske Videnskubernes Selskubs, 

1860, 1862, 1863. 
Plants Collected on the Estuary of the Burdekin. F. Mueller. 
Political Economy, Lectures on the Common Truths of. J. T. 

Danson. 
Petrel, On an Undescribed Species of. A. Carte. 
Pharmaceutical Society of Victoria, Transactions of the, Nos. 

3 and 5. 
Presbyterianism in the Australian Colonies. (Pamphlets.) 



Catalogue af the Books. 339 

Porrasitischer Crustaceen, ueber den Bau und die Entwickelung. C. 

Claus. 
Proeschel's Map of Victoria. 
nEPI THE KATA2KEYE2. 2 copies. 
Patent Office Reports. 1855, 3 Vols. ; 1857, 4 Vols. ; 1858, 4 

Vols. • 1859, 4 Vols. 
Philosophical Society of New South Wales. 1862 to 1865. 1 Vol. 
Plains and Rivers of Canterbury (N. Z.), Eeport upon. W. J. 

Doyne. 
Plants Indigenous to the Colony of Victoria. 2 Vols. F. Mueller. 
Royal Society of London, Proceedings of 1860, to 1866. 27 parts 

(incomplete). Vols. 6, 7,8, 9, 10. 
Royal Society of Tasmania, Various Papers and Proceedings. 

6 pamphlets. 
Royal Society of Tasmania, Various Papers and Proceedings, 

1859-64. 
Royal Kalendar (Tasmania), 1859-60. 
Royal Society of Arts and Sciences of Mauritius, 1861 to 1865. 

4 Nos. (incomplete). 
Railway and Harbour Accommodation in Victoria. T. Oldham and 

T. E. Rawlinson. (3 copies.) 
Rainfall and Evaporation in St. Helena. J. Haughton. (3 copies ) 
Rainfall and Evaporation in Dublin. J. Haughton. 
Royal Dublin Society, Journal of, 1860 to 1866 (incomplete), 

8 Nos. 
Realschulezu Cassel, Programm der 1853, 1857. 
Reizen over Moskovie door Persie en Indie. C. De Bruin. 
Rakaia River, Report of the Head- waters of. J. Haast. 
Recensio Specierum Genesis Pleridis. J. G. Agardh. 
Richtung und Starke des Erdmagnetismus, Untersuchungen iiber 

die. J. Lamont. 
Strictures on the Yan Yean Waterworks. J. Millar. 
Siphonodentalium Vitreum om. M. Sars. 
Stuart's and McKinlay's Explorations. (6 copies.) 
Statuten der Pollichia. Neustadt. 
Sarcine la, de l'Estomac. W. F. R. Suringar. 
Satzungen des Vereines fur Erdkunde in Dresden. 
Statistical and Social Enquiry Society of Ireland. P. 33. 
Scottish Society of Arts, Transactions of, 1859 to 1864 (incom- 

complete). 7 parts. 
Standard, Free Presbyterian Magazine. No. 16. 
Sydney Magazine, 1857. 
Societe des Sciences Naturelles. Tome 16. 
Settled Districts of Melbourne, 1853. 
Southern Gold-fields, Researches in. W. B. Clarke. 
Smithsonian Institution, Annual Report of the, 1856-7-9-61-2. 

(6 vols.) 



340 Catalogue of the Books. 

Staat's Calender der Freien Hansestadt Bremen, 1842, 1856. 
Systema Vegetabilium. C. H. Persoon. 

Seelenstorungen in ihrem "Wesen und ihrer Behandlung. E. Kicker. 
Schleswig'sche Wattenmeer und die Friesischen Inseln. 

C P. Haufen. 
Secundare Mineralbildungen iiber. G. Tschermak. 
Standard, The, Free Presbyterian Magazine of Victoria, 1861. 
Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections. Vols. 1, 2, 3, 5. 
Statistiek van den Handel en de Scheepvaart op Java en Madura. 

Deel 1, 2, 
Suez Ship-Canal, Inquiry on the. F. de Lesseps. 
Statistical Register of South Australia. 1861. 
Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge. Vols. 11, 12. 
Statistical Notes of the Progress of Victoria, 1835 to 1860. 
Statistical Society, Journal of the, 1857 to 1&66. 47 Nos. 

(incomplete). 
Schriften der Koniglichen, Physikalisch, Okonomischen Gesellschaft 

zu Konigsberg, 1860 to 1864. 10 parts (incomplete). 
Telegraph, European and Australian. C. Todd. 
Topographical and Geological Exploration, Report of. J. Haast. 
Tafeln zur Bestimmung dei Mineralien. F. v. Kobell. 
Thatigkeit der Allgemeinen Naturwissenschaftenlichen Sekiton 

Gesellschaft. Goepert und Romer. 
Taxidermi fur Universitet og dets Samlinger. 
Thatigkeit des Vereins fur Naturkunde in Cassel, 1837 to 1847 

(in duplicate), 22 pamphlets. R M. Phillipi. 
Theoria Systematis Plantarum. J. G. Agardh. 
Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal-land-en Volkunde, 1857 to 1862. 

23 Nos. 
Tijdschrift voor Nijverheid in Nederlandsch Indie. 1854 to 1860. 

29 Nos. 
Tijdschrift voor Nijverheid en Landbousv in Nederlandsch Indie, 

1864 to 1865. 14 Nos. 
Travels in Great Britain. Dosabhoy Framjee. 
Urbau und Ertrag des Bodens. F. B. W. v. Hermann. 
University Reform (Kingston, 1861). 2 copies. 
Urzeit die, der Erde. F. v. Kobell. 
Uitkomsten van Wetenschap en Ervaring, 1858, 1859. 
Upsaliensis, Nova Acta Regise Societatis Scientiarum. Vols. 1, 2, 

3, 4 (2), 5. 
Victoria Trades-Hall and Literary Institute. J. Millar. 
Vocabulary of Tasmanian Aboriginals. J. Milligan. 
Vortrage iiber die Florenreiche. C. F. P. v. Martius. (2 copies.) 
Verslag van het Verhandelde, 1857 to 1861. (6 Nos.) 
Vegetable Products of Norway, Synopsis of. F. C. Schabeler. 
Verslag van P. Hasting, F. A. W. Miguel, en J. van der Hoeven, 

over heen in hunne handen gesteld. 



Mr. Harrison's Report, 341 

Verzeichniss der Schlesischen Gesellschaft Breslau. 1861. 
VeiledDmg til Dyrkning af glaciale alpinske og arctiske Planter. 

N. Moe. 
Vogel Neuhollands, Die netientdeckten. H. G. L. Reichenbach* 
Verhandelingen van net Bataviaasch Genootschap. 1860 (2), 1862. 
Verhandlungen der Kaiser. Lepold. Carolin. Deutschen Akad. 

der Naturforscher. 1864. 
Vergaderingen van het Bataviaasch. Genootschap van Kunsten 

en Wetenschappen. 1857. 3 Nos. 
Vital Statistics, Contributions to. F. G. P. Neison. 
Witterung im Nordlichen Deutchland, 1859-60. 
Woodcuts, drawn and engraved by Greenlanders. 
Waimakariri River, Second Keport upon. W. T. Doyne. 
Water Supply to Liverpool, Proposed. R. Rawlinson. 
Water, Collection and Storage of, in Victoria, Essay on. 

F. Acheson. 
Water Supply of Hobart Town. J. N. Gale. 
Wind, on the Direction and Force of, at Leopold Harbour. 

S. Haughton. 
Warme Entwickelung in den Pflanzen, iiber die. H. R. Goeppert. 
Wind and Current Charts. M. F. Maury. 
Yarra Flood Commission Analysed. R. Adams. (3 copies.) 
Zeitschrift fur die Gesammten Naturwissenschaften. Berlin. 1858. 

(9 Nos.) 



Melbourne, October 16th, 1867. 
The Hon. Secretary of the Royal Society of Victoria. 

Sie, — I beg herewith to hand you a report of the Museum of the 
Royal Society. 

The various objects illustrative of art, science, &c, at present 
possessed by the Society, are exhibited in four large show cases, 
kindly lent to the Society by the Trustees of the National 
Museum, and are as follows : — 

Native Weapons, &c. 

Products of Grass Tree — 

Presented by C. W. Ligar, Esq. 

Victorian Sponges- 
Presented by W. H. Archer, Esq. 

Conchological Collection — 
Marine Shells 

Land and Fresh-water do. ... 
Victorian and Australian do. — 

Presented by late Dr. L. Becker 500 



... 20 


specimens. 


... 12 


5? 


12 


)) 


.. 1000 
... 500 


5? 
5) 



342 Mr. Harrison's Report. 

Entomological Collection- 
Presented by late Dr. L< Becker ... 200 specimens. 
Collection of Sea-weeds, named by Pro- 
fessor Harvey — 
Presented by T. E. Rawlinson .... 140 „ 
Collection of Botanical Specimens, named — 

Presented by Dr. F. Mueller ... 250 „ 

Geological Collection — 

Minerals, &c, illustrative of Victorian 

and Australian Rocks, &c. ... 100 „ 
Fossils, &c. — 
Victorian — 

Silurian ... ... ... 50 „ 

Tertiary 100 „ 

New South "Wales — 

Carboniferous — Presented 

by R. L. J. Ellery ... 100 „ 
Tasmanian — 

Carboniferous ... ... 50 „ 

Tertiary ... ... ... 5 „ 

European — 

Green Sand ... ... 50 „ 

Gault 50 „ 

Chalk 100 

Tertiary 30 „ 

It will be apparent from the above list that the Museum must at 
present be considered solely as the nucleus of a more important 
collection to be formed in the future. I have, however, much pleasure 
in reporting that promises of assistance and donations of natural 
curiosities, fossils, &c, have, during the past year, been repeatedly 
received from scientific gentlemen residing in the various colonies of 
South Australia, New South Wales, and Tasmania. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Yours obediently, 

Thomas Haerison, Hon. Curator. 



MEMBERS 



OF 



%\t Jtfpi j&rrfctg a( Wxttaxm. 



Those ivhose names have * or t prefixed, are Life or Honorary Members 
respectively. 

Aplin, C. D'O. EL, Esq., Geological Survey Office. 

Allan, Alex. C, Esq., The Observatory. 

Amess, Samuel, Esq., William-street, Melbourne. 

Barker, Edw., Esq., M.D., Latrobe-street East, Melbourne. 

Barnes, Benjamin, Esq., Little Collins -street East, Melbourne, 

Beaney, J. G., Esq., F.R. O.S.Ed., Collins-street, Melbourne. 

Bear, J. P., Hon., M.L.C., Victoria-parade, Melbourne. 

Bland, K. H., Esq., Flinders-lane, Melbourne. 

Blackburne, J., Esq., Elizabeth-street, Melbourne. 

Bonwick, James, Esq., F.G.S., St. Kilda. 

Boden, Von, F. A. L. } Esq., Dartmoor. 
*Barkly, Sir Henry, K.C.B., His Excellency, Mauritius. 
*Barry, Sir Redmond, Chancellor of the University. 
*Blandowski, William, Esq, 

*Bleasdale, Rev. J. J., D.D., F.L.S., St. Patrick's College, Melbourne. 
*Bosisto, Joseph, Esq., Richmond. 
*Butters, J. S., Esq., Collins-street, Melbourne. 

Christy, F. C, Esq., Railway Department. 
Carfrae, John, Esq., Victoria-parade, Melbourne. 
Crouch, Thos. J., Esq., St. Kilda. 
Clarke, William, Esq., Elizabeth-street, Melbourne. 
Corrigan, James, Esq., LL.D., St. Kilda. 
Crooke, William, Esq., M.R.C.S., Brunswick-street, Fitzroy. 
tClarke, Colonel R. E., The Hon., London. 

Dixon, S. O, Esq., Commercial-road, Prahran. 

D wight, H. J., Esq., Bourke-street East, Melbourne. 

Delisser, Capt. E. 



344 List of Members. 

Danson, Richard, Esq., Cole's Wharf, Melbourne. 
*Denison, Sir William, K.C.B., His Excellency, Madras. 
*Detmold, William, Esq., Collins-street, Melbourne. 
*Dobree, Arthur, Esq. 
*Darling, Sir C. H., K.C.B. 

Ellery, R. L. J., Esq., F.R.A.S., The Observatory. 
*Eaton, H. F., Esq., The Treasury. 
*Elliott, Sizar, Esq., Brighton. 
*Elliott, T., Esq., Brighton. 

Ferres, John, Esq., Government Printing Office. 
Fitzgibbon, E, G., Esq., Town Hall, Melbourne. 
Fitzpatrick, Rev. J., D.D., St. Patrick's College, Melbourne. 
Fen wick, Orlando, Esq., King-street, Melbourne. 
*Flanagan, J., Esq., Collins-street, Melbourne. 

Goold, Right Rev. Bishop, Melbourne. 

Grosse, F., Esq., 62 Collins-street, Melbourne. 

Groves, G. W., Esq., Crown Lands Office, Melbourne. 

Guerard, Eugene Von, Esq., Gipps-street, Melbourne. 
*Gillbee, William, Esq., M.R.C.S.E., Collins-street, Melbourne. 
*Goeppert, H. R., M.D., Ph. D., &c, Breslau. 

Higinbotham, Thomas, Esq., C.E., Railway Department. 

Higinbotham, Hon. George, M. P., Attorney-General. 

Harrison, Thomas, Esq., Registrar-General's Office. 

Howitt, Godfrey, Esq., M.D., Collins-street, Melbourne. 

Halford, G. B., Esq., M.D.., Professor, The University, Melbourne. 

Haddon, F. W., Esq., The Argus Office, Melbourne. 
tHaast, Julius, Esq., Ph. D., F.G.S., Canterbury, New Zealand. 
tHaidinger, Von, Professor, K.M.T;, Vienna. 
*Holmes, George, Esq., New Zealand. 

*Iffla, Solomon, Esq., J.P., L.F.P.S.G., Emerald Hill. 
Ivey, Geo. Pearce, Esq. 

Johnson, William, Esq., St. Kilda. 
Jarrett, Rev. William. 

*Kay, Capt., R.N., Government House. 

Ligar, Chas. W., Esq., Surveyor-General of Victoria. 
Lewis, George, Esq., Collins-street, Melbourne. 
Levi, Nathaniel, Esq., M.L.A., Collins-street, Melbourne. 
Levey, G. C, Esq., M.L.A., Herald Office, Melbourne. 
Lang, G- S., Esq., J.P., Collins-street, Melbourne. 
Linacre, Abraham. Esq., Lygon-street, Melbourne. 



List oj Members. 345 

Manton, C. A., Esq., The Treasury, Melbourne. 

Marshall, James, Esq., M.A., Queensberry-street, Melbourne. 

Marsh, S. H., Esq., Collins-street, Melbourne. 

Moubray, Thomas, Esq., Fitzroy-street, St. Kilda. 

M'Coy, F., Professor, F.G S., H.M.C.P.S., Government Palaeonto- 
logist and Director of Museums. 

McGowan, S. W., Esq,, Sup. Electric Telegraph Department. 

MacGillivray, P. H., Esq., M.A., M.R.C.S., Hospital, Sandhurst. 

McPherson, Thomas, Esq., Bourke-street West, Melbourne. 
tMartius, Dr. Von, Munich. 

^Mueller, Ferdinand, Esq., M.D., Ph. D., F.R.S., Knt., &c, 
Government Botanist. 

Napier, Thomas, Esq., J.P., Essendon. 

Napier, James, Esq., Commercial Bank of Melbourne. 

Neild, J. E., Esq., M.D., 166 Collins-street East, Melbourne. 

Newberry, J. Cosmo, Esq., Geological Analyst. 

Nicholas, William, Esq., Mines Office. 
^Nicholson, Germain, Esq., J. P., Collins-street East, Melbourne. 
tNeumayer, Professor, George, &c, Bavaria. 

O'Shanassy, Hon. John, Colonial Bank, Melbourne. 
Officer, S. H., Esq., Swan Hill, Murray. 
*Osborne, James, Esq., junr., Merton Lodge, Elsternwick. 

Perry, Right Rev. Bishop, Melbourne. 
Pegus, William, Esq., Barkly-street, St. Kilda. 
Praagst, G. W., Esq., Latrobe-street, Melbourne. 
*Palmer, Sir James, President of the Legislative Council 

Rawlings, Thomas H., Esq., J. P., Epping. 

Rusden, H. K., Esq., Tivoli-place, South Yarra, 
*Rawlinson, Thomas E., Esq., C.E., Belfast. 
*Reed, Thomas, Esq., Collins-street, East, Melbourne. 
*Read, Joseph, Esq. 

Sutton, His Excellency, Sir John Henry T. Manners, K.C.B., 
Governor of Victoria, Patron. 

Stawell, Sir William, Chief Justice of Victoria. 

Sprent, J. S., Esq., Custom House, Melbourne. 
*Smith, A. K., Esq., Leicester-street, Carlton. 
tScott, Rev. W., M.A., F.C.P.S., Sydney, 
t Smith, John, Esq., M.D., University, Sydney. 
tSchultz, Dr. Von, Bavaria. 

Thompson, H. A., Esq., Temple-court, Melbourne. 
tTodd, Charles, &c., Adelaide. 

2 A. 



34)6 List of Members. 

Ulrich, George. Esq. 

Waugh, Kev. J. S., St. Kilda. 

Walsh, Frederick, Esq., Collins-street, Melbourne. 

• Willan, Robert, Esq., Queen-street, Melbourne. 
Winter, J. I., Esq. 

Wild, Edward, Esq., Collingwood. 

Woods, Rev. Julian E. T., F.L.S., F.G.S., Adelaide, South 
Australia. 

Wilkins, A. G., Esq., St. Kilda. 

Walker, William, Esq., St. Kilda. 

Wilkinson, Charles, Esq., Geological Survey. 

Williams, William, Esq., M.L.A., Albert-street, Melbourne. 

Walker, John, Esq., Bourke-street East, Melbourne. 
*Were, J. B., Esq., Collins-street West, Melbourne. 
*Wilkie, the Hon. David E., M.D., Collins-street East, Melbourne. 

* Wilson, W. P., Professor, the University, Melbourne. 

Zumstein, Henry, Esq., Collins -street, Melbourne. 



List of the Institutions. 



347 



List of 'the Institutions and Learned Societies exchanging 
communications ivith the Royal Society of Victoria. 



BEITISH. 


- 


Koyal Society ... 


London. 


Statistical Society 


London. 


Eoyal Society of Arts 


London. 


Institute Civil Engineers 


London. 


The British Museum 


London. 


Geological Society 


London. 


Eoyal Geographical Society 


London. 


Museum of Economic Geology ... 


London. 


Royal Asiatic Society ... 


London. 


Meteorological Society ... 


London. 


Anthropological Society 


London. 


Linnean Society 


London. 


Royal Astronomical Society 


London. 


The Athenaeum ... . . ...... 


London. 


Royal College of Physicians 


London. 


College of Surgeons 


London. 


Royal South Horticultural Society 


London. 


Zoological Society 


London. 


The Geological Magazine 


London. 


The Quarterly Journal of Science 


London . 


The Popular Scientific Record ... 


London. 


The Colonial Office Library 


London. 


Foreign Office Library ... 


London. 


The Institute of Naval Architects 


London. 


The Bodleian Library ... 


Oxford. 


University Library 


Cambridge. 


Philosophical Society 


Cambridge. 


Collegiate Institute 


Liverpool. 


Public Library ... ... ... . ... 


Liverpool. 


Mechanics' Institute 


Liverpool. 


Free Public Library 


Manchester. 


Literary and Philosophical Society 


Manchester. 


Royal Society ... 


Edinburgh. 


University Library 


Edinburgh. 


Royal Botanical Society 


Edinburgh. 


Philosophical Society 


Glasgow. 


University Library 


Glasgow. 


Irish Statistical Society 


Dublin. 


Royal Irish Academy ... 


Dublin. 


Trinity College Library ... 


Dublin. 


Royal Geological Society 


Dublin. 



2 a 2 



348 



List of the Institutions 



EUROPEAN. 

Acclimatization Society ... 

Institute of France 

Scientific Institute 

Royal Geographical Society 

Eoyal Society of Antiquaries 

Academy of Science 

Academy of Science 

Royal Society 

Imperial Academy 

Imperial Society 

Petermann's Geological Journal 

Society of Naturalists ... 

Royal Institution 

Royal Netherlands Meteorological Society 

Geological Society 

Linnean Society 

Geographical Society 

Geographical Society 

Royal Academy of Science 

Institute Vienna 

Royal Botanical Society 

Imperial Academy 

Society for Culture of Science... 

Society of Naturalists ... ... 

Geographical Society 

Royal Society ... 

Society of Naturalists ... 

Society for Natural History 

Physica-Graphico Society 

Royal Society 

Natural History Society 

Office of Public Instruction 

Royal Academy of Science 

Royal Academy of Science 

Royal Society of Netherlands-India 

Society for Culture of Science and Fine Arts 



Paris. 

Paris. 

Brussels. 

Copenhagen. 

Copenhagen. 

Stockholm. 

Upsal. 

Upsal. 

St. Petersburgh. 

Moscow. 

Hamburgh. 

Hamburgh. 

Utrecht. 

Utrecht. 

Darmstadt. 

Darmstadt. 

Darmstadt. 

Frankfort on Maine. 

Munich. 

Vienna. 

Ratisbon. 

Breslau. 

Breslau. 

Leipzig. 

Berlin. 

Berlin. 

Halle. 

Hannen, Germany. 

Lund. 

Goettingen. 

Geneva. 

Florence. 

Madrid. 

Lisbon. 

The Hague. 

Bremen. 



AMERICAN. 



Geographical Society 
Natural History Society 
Smithsonian Institute ... 
American Philosophical Society 
Academy of Science 



New York. 

Boston. 

Washington. 

Philadelphia. 

St. Louis, Missouri. 



List of the Institutions. 



349 



ASIATIC. 




Meteorological Society ... 




Mauritius. 


Royal Bengal Asiatic Society ... 


... 


Calcutta. 


COLONIAL. 




Public Library ... 


, . . 


Melbourne. 


Mechanics Institute' 


. . . 


Melbourne. 


Philosophical Society 




Adelaide, S. A. 


Royal Society ... 


... 


Hobart Town. 


Philosophical Society, N.S.W. ... 


... 


Sydney. 


List of Scientific gentlemen, not 


honorary 


or life members of the 


Society, to whom the Transactions are forwarded. 


General Sabine ... 


Pres 


Royal Society, London. 


Wm. Dollond, Esq 


... 


London. 


Lieut. Col. Dixon 


... 


United States. 


Rev. H. B. D wight 


... 


New York. 


The Colonial Secretary ... 


. . . 


Downing-st., London. 


Dr. W. F. Suringar ' 


... 


Leyden. 


Dr. Buchenau 


. . . 


Bremen. 


Dr. Hector ... 




New Zealand. 


Mr. Justice Cockle 


... 


Queensland. 



STILLWELL AND KNIGHT, PRINTERS, 78, COLLINS-STREET EAST. 






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